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Report No. 275

Legal Framework: BCCI Vis-à-Vis Right to Information Act, 2005

1 Available at: http://www.espncricinfo.com/india/content/story/261616.html (last visited on 01-12-2017).

2 Available at: https://www.britannica.com/sports/cricket-sport (last visited on 01-12-2017).

3 Ibid.

4 Mihir Bose, The Magic of Indian Cricket 149, 152 (Routledge - Taylor and Francis Group, New York, 2006).

5 Available at:http://www.cci.gov.in/sites/default/files/612010_0.pdf (last visited on 06-01-2018).

6 Ibid.

7 Ibid.

8 Ibid.

9 Available at: http://www.bcci.tv/about/2017/history (last visited on 05-12-2017); Findings of the Director General, reported in Sh. Surinder Singh Barmi v. Board for Control of Cricket in India (BCCI), Case No.61/2010, decided by the Competition Commission of India, on 08-02-2013, available at: supra note 6.

10 AIR 1973 SC 106.

11 AIR 1975 SC 865.

12 AIR 1982 SC 149.

13 AIR 1995 SC 1236.

14 (1997) 4 SCC 306.

15 Ibid.

16 AIR 2003 SC 2363.

17 AIR 2004 SC 1442.

18 Section 4.

19 Section 2(d) - "Right to Information means the Right to access to information and includes the inspection of works, documents, records, taking notes and extracts and obtaining certified copies of documents or records, or taking samples of material." Section 3 - "Right to Information- Subject to the provisions of this Act, every citizen shall have right to obtain information from a Competent Authority."

20 Available at:http://www.humanrightsinitiative.org/content/state-level-rti-madhya-pradesh (last visited on 21-12-2017)

21 "(i) Offices of the Central Governor [sic - Government] situated in Madhya Pradesh,

(ii) any establishment of the Armed forces or Central para Military forces in the state of Madhya Pradesh,

(iii) corporations owned by the Central Government,

(iv) religious organisations,

(v) the Madhya Pradesh Vidhan Sabha,

(vi) the High Court of Madhya Pradesh and other Courts of Law including Tribunals, and other Organisations which have the Status of Courts and whose proceedings are deemed to be judicial proceedings,

(vii) the Secretariat of the Governor of Madhya Pradesh,

(viii) the office of the Lokayukt."

22 Section 3(2).

23 Available at: http://www.humanrightsinitiative.org/content/state-level-rti-delhi (last visited on 06-01-2018).

24 Section 2(d).

25 Section 2(f).

26 "(i) the offices of the Central Government;

(ii) any establishment of the armed forces or central para-military forces;

(iii) any body or corporation owned or controlled by the Central Government;

(iv) the High Court of Assam and other [C]ourts of Law including the Tribunals and other organization which has the status of a Court whose proceedings are deemed to be the judicial proceedings;

(v) the Secretariat of the Government of Assam;

(vi) the Secretariat of the Assam Legislative Assembly and

(vii) any office, body or authority as may be notified by the State Government."

27 Sudhir Naib, The Right to Information Act, 2005 - A Handbook 24-26 (Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 2011).

28 Id. at 26.

29 The Report of NCRWC, referred in J.N. Barowalia, Commentary on the Right to Information Act, 2005 8(Universal Law Publishing Co., New Delhi, 3rdedn., 2012).

30 Sri Suresh Pachouri, Minister of State in the Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions and Minister of State in the Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs; Lok Sabha Debate on Right to Information Bill, 10th May 2005 at 351.

31 J.N. Barowalia, supra note 30 at 5.

32Vide the Report of NCRWC under the Chairmanship of Justice M.N. Venkatachaliah, 31-03-2002.

33 Under the chairmanship of Justice B.P. Jeevan Reddy, submitted on 14-12-2001.

34 Report of the Department-Related Parliamentary Standing Committee on Home Affairs, Seventy-Eighth Report on Freedom of Information Bill, 2000, presented before the Rajya Sabha on 25th July, 2001, laid on the table of the Lok Sabha on 25th July, 2001, available at:http://164.100.47.5/rs/book2/reports/home_aff/78threport.htm (last visited on 04-01-2018).

35 Report of the Supreme Court Committee on Reforms in Cricket (also known as the 'Lodha Committee Report'), available at:

http://www.gujaratcricketassociation.com/file-manager/lodha/Lodha_Committee_Report.pdf (last visited on 08-12-2017).

36 AIR 1967 SC 1857.

37 Praga Tools Corporation v. C.V. Imanual, AIR 1969 SC 1306.

38 AIR 1975 SC 1331.

39 AIR 1975 SC 1329.

40 AIR 1978 SC 548.

41 AIR 1979 SC 1628. See also, K. Ramanathan v. State of Tamil Nadu, AIR 1985 SC 660.

42 AIR 1981 SC 487.

43 (2002) 5 SCC 111. See also, General Manager, Kisan Sahkari Chini Mills Ltd., Sultanpur, Uttar Pradesh v. Satrughan Nishad, (2003) 8 SCC 639; Federal Bank Ltd. v. Sagar Thomas, AIR 2003 SC 4325; G. Bassi Reddy v. International Crops Research Institute, AIR 2003 SC 1764.

44 Available at:http://www.humanrightsinitiative.org/programs/ai/rti/india/articles/RTI%20as%20a%20Human%20Right%20and%20Developments%20in%20India.pdf (last visited on 02-01-2018).

45 Roger Vluegels, "Overview of all FOI Laws", Fringe Special (2011), available at: http://www.right2info.org/resources/publications/laws-1/ati-laws_fringe-special_roger-vleugels_2011-oct (last visited on 02-01-2018). See also, Ackerman and Sandoval-Ballesteros, "The Global Explosion of Freedom of Information Laws" 58 Adm. L. Rev. 85(2006).

46 M. Mc Donagh, "The Right to Information in International Human Rights Law" 13 (1)HR L Rev. (2013).

47 Ibid.

48 Article 19,ICCPR 1966; Article 13, American Convention on Human Rights 1969; Article 10, European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms 1950; and Article 9, African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights 1981.

49 Report by the International Advisory Commission of CHRI, chaired by M Reynolds, titled Human Rights and Poverty Eradication: A Talisman for the Commonwealth, available at: https://goo.gl/1RSGWg (last visited on 08-01-2018).

50 See, Reliance Petrochemicals Ltd. v. Proprietors of Indian Express, AIR 1989 SC 190.

51 General Comment No. 34 of the UNHRC, CCPR/C/GC/34, para. 18, available at: http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/hrc/docs/gc34.pdf (last visited on 21-12-2017).

52 Report of the Special Rapporteur, Mr. Abid Hussain, pursuant to Commission on Human Rights resolution 1993/45 E/CN.4/1995/32, para. 135, available at:

https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G94/750/76/PDF/G9475076.pdf?OpenElement (last visited on 21-12-2017).

53 Chris Albin-Lackey, Human Rights Watch, Chop Fine: The Human Rights Impact of Local Government Corruption and Mismanagement in Rivers State, Nigeria available at:https://goo.gl/4W4mny (last visited on 01-04-2018).

54 Report of Special Rapporteur on Promotion and Protection of the Right to Freedom of Opinion and Expression, A/68/362, para. 20, available at:https://undocs.org/A/68/362 (last visited on 19-12-2017).

55 Report of Special Rapporteur on Promotion and Protection of the Right to Freedom of Opinion and Expression, A/70/361, para. 6, available at:

https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N15/273/11/PDF/N1527311.pdf?OpenElement (last visited on 20-12-2017).

56 See, Report prepared by Article 19 (a British human rights organisation), titled "Open Development: Access to Information and the Sustainable Development Goals", available at:

https://www.article19.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Open-Development-Access-to-Information-and-the-SDGs-2017.pdf at 6-9 (last visited on 21-12-2017).

57 See,U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/90/D/1173/2003, Communication No. 1173/2003, Abdelhamid Benhadjand Ali Benhadj v. Algeria, available at:

http://www.worldcourts.com/hrc/eng/decisions/2007.07.20_Benhadj_v_Algeria.htm (last visited on 02-01-2018); See also, U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/64/D/628/1995, Communication No. 628/1995, Tae Hoon Park v. Republic of Korea, available at:http://hrlibrary.umn.edu/undocs/session64/view628.htm (last visited on 02-01-2018).

58 General Comment No. 34, ICCPR, supra note 52.

59 General Assembly Resolution A/RES/70/1, paras. 16.6-16.10, available at:

http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/generalassembly/docs/globalcompact/A_RES_70_1_E.pdf (last visited on 21-12-2017).

60 General Comment No. 25, adopted by the Human Rights Committee under Article 40, paragraph 4, of ICCPR, CCPR/C/21/Rev.1/Add.7, para. 25, available at:https://goo.gl/2myYmt (last visited on 02-01-2018).

61 A/HRC/30/26

62 See, Roy Peled and Yoram Rabin, "The Constitutional Right to Information"42 Columbia HR L Rev (2011).

63 B Gigler, "Informational Capabilities: The Missing Link for the Impact of ICT on Development" (2011); D Souter, "ICTs, SDGs and economic, social and cultural right" (2016); A Esterhuysen, "Why focus on economic, social and cultural rights? Reflections on trends, achievements and challenges in building a global movement working for human rights on the internet" (2011),cited in Maria Garrido and Michelle Fellows, "Access to information and the sustainable development goals" (2017),available at:

https://da2i.ifla.org/sites/da2i.ifla.org/files/uploads/docs/da2i-2017-introduction.pdf (last visited on 03-01-2018).

64 William Eduardo Delgado Páez v. Colombia, Communication No. 195/1985, U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/39/D/195/1985 (1990); Franz Nahlik v. Austria, Communication No. 608/1995, U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/57/D/608/1995 (1996).

65 Costello-Roberts v. United Kingdom, 247-C Eur. Ct. H.R. (ser. A) (1993); Woś v. Poland, 2005-IV Eur. Ct. H.R.; Storck v. Germany, 2005-V Eur. Ct. H.R.; Sychev v. Ukraine, App. No.4773/02 (2005) (unreported)available at: http://www.echr.coe.int/echr/ (last visited on 21-12-2017), cited in S. Palmer, "Public functions and private services: A gap in human rights protection" Intl Jrnl of Constl Law585-604 (2008), available at:https://academic.oup.com/icon/article/6/3-4/585/654442(last visited on 03-01-2018).

66 General Comment No. 31, Para. 8, available at:https://goo.gl/ZsYVic(last visited on 03-01-2018).

67 Ineta Ziemele, "Human Rights Violations by Private Persons and Entities: The Case-Law of International Human Rights Courts and Monitoring Bodies"EUI Working Papers(2009)available at:

http://cadmus.eui.eu/bitstream/handle/1814/11409/AEL_2009_08.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y(last visited on 03-01-2018).

68 Rosalyn Higgins, Problems and Process. International Law and How We Use It, 96 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994).

69 Article 27, African Charter on Human Rights and Peoples' Rights.

70 UN Guiding Principle 11, available at:

http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/GuidingPrinciplesBusinessHR_EN.pdf (last visited on 03-01-2018).

71 Id at 15-16.

72 314 Parl. Deb., H.C. (6th ser.) (1998) 409-410. Debate cited in S. Palmer,

note 65.

73 Catherine Donnelly, Delegation of Governmental power to private parties: A comparative perspective, 228 (Oxford University Press, 2007)cited in S. Palmer, supra note 65.

74 AIR 2016 SC 2393.

75 National Human Rights Commission(NHRC), Annual Report 2003-2004, at 9.

76 Mega-Sporting Events Platform for Human Rights, "Human Rights Risk Mitigation in the Sports Context" (Sporting Chance White Paper 2.3, Version 1, 2017), available at:

https://www.ihrb.org/uploads/reports/MSE_Platform%2C_Human_Rights_Risk_Mitigation_in_the_Sports_Context%2C_Jan_2017.pdf (last visited on 19-12-2017).

77 Institute for Human Rights and Business, "Sports Governing Bodies and Human Rights" (2014), available at:https://www.ihrb.org/megasportingevents/mse-resources (last visited on 19-12-2017).

78 Rollin M. Perkins & Ronald N. Boyce, Criminal Law 855 (Foundation Press, Mineola, New York, 3rdedn.,1982), referred in Black's Law Dictionary (8thedn.)

79 AIR 1998 SC 889. See also, State of Madhya Pradesh v. Shri Ram Singh, AIR 2000 SC 870.

80 (2012) 12 SCC 384 : (2013) 2 SCC (Cri) 784 : (2013) 2 SCC (L&S) 201.

81 (2012) 3 SCC 64 : (2012) 1 SCC (Cri) 1041 : (2012) 2 SCC (L&S) 666.

82 (2014) 8 SCC 682.

83 Available at:
http://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/Development/GoodGovernance/Pages/AntiCorruption.aspx
(last visited on 19-12-2017); See also, Mega-Sporting Events Platform for Human Rights, "Corruption and Human Rights in the Sports Context" (Sporting Chance White Paper 1.3, 2017), available at:
https://www.ihrb.org/uploads/reports/MSE_Platform%2C_Corruption_and_Human_Rights_in_the_Sports_Context%2C_Jan_2017.pdf (last visited on 19-12-2017).

84 R. Klitgaard, Controlling Corruption(University of California Press, Berkeley, CA, 1988), cited inDanilo Lučić, Mladen Radišić, et al., "Causality between corruption and the level of GDP", available at:

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/1331677X.2016.1169701 (last visited on 04-01-2018).

85 K.M. Murphy, A. Shleifer, et al.,"Why is Rent-Seeking So Costly to Growth?"AmrcnEcoRev. 409-414(1993), cited in Danilo Lučić, MladenRadišić, et al., supra note 84.

86 Danilo Lučić, Mladen Radišić, et al., supra note 85.

87 Available at: http://www1.worldbank.org/publicsector/anticorrupt/index.cfm (last visited on 04-01-2018), cited in Danilo Lučić, Mladen Radišić, et al., supra note 85.

88 P. Mauro, "Corruption and growth" Qtly Jrnlof Eco 681-712(1995), cited in Danilo Lučić, Mladen Radišić, et al., supra note 85.

89 Danilo Lučić, Mladen Radišić, et al., supra note 85.

90 This phenomenon is known as "greasing the wheel" effect where restrictive economic policies of governments are overcome tangentially by way of corruption, see, supra note 85. Specifically, in the case of Asian countries, it is referred to as the "Asian Paradox" wherein it is observed that several Asian economies have high levels of corruption as gauged by conventional indicators but at the same time they record high GDP growth. See generally, P. Bardhan, "Corruption and Development:

A Review of Issues"35(3)Jrnl of Eco Lit (1997), cited inDanilo Lučić, MladenRadišić, et al., supra note 85; Also see, Issues Paper on Corruption and Economic Growth, available at:
https://www.oecd.org/g20/topics/anti-corruption/Issue-Paper-Corruption-and-Economic-Growth.pdf (last visited on 04-01-2018).

91 Available at:
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/business/india-business/lower-corruption-level-boosts-gdp-growth-says-sbi-report/articleshow/61028872.cms (last visited on 04-01-2018).

92 AIR 1979 SC 478.

93 John G. Ruggie, "For the Game. For the World. FIFA and Human Rights", available at:
https://www.hks.harvard.edu/sites/default/files/centers/mrcbg/programs/cri/files/Ruggie_humanrightsFIFA_reportApril2016.pdf (last visited on 03-01-2018).

94 Nandan Kamath, "The Way Forward for Sports Federations", available at:
http://www.sportstarlive.com/magazine/the-way-forward-for-sports-federations/article19715238.ece (last visited on 03-01-2018).

95 AIR 1995 SC 1811.

96 AIR 2007 Ker 230.

97 AIR2008All92; See also Committee of Management, Azad Memorial Poorva Madhyamik Vidyalaya, Koloura v. State of Uttar Pradesh, AIR 2008 (NOC) 2641 (All); Committee of Management, Ismail Girls National Inter-College, Meerut v. State of Uttar Pradesh, AIR 2009 All 236

98 Ibid

99 Global Principles on National Security and the Right to Information ("The Tshwane Principles") (2013), available at:
http://issat.dcaf.ch/download/22892/289132/Global%20 Principles%20on%20National%20Security%20and%20the%20Right%20to%20Information%20(Tshwane%20Principles)%20-%20June%202013.pdf
(last visited on 20-12-2017).

103 General Comment No. 34 (ICCPR), Para. 18, supra note 44.

104 Section 5, Freedom of Information Act 2000.

105 Virginia Hills, "When is it the Public's Interest for Government Policy Documents to be Disclosed" 3 Convergence 186 (2007).

106 Article 4

107 Lord Esher, M.R. in Gough v. Gough, [(1891) 2 QB 665 : 60 LJQB 726 : 65 LT 110].See also,P. Kasilingam v. P.S.G. College of Technology [1995 Supp (2) SCC 348 : AIR 1995 SC 1395].

108 Bharat Coop. Bank (Mumbai) Ltd. v. Coop. Bank Employees Union, (2007) 4 SCC 685.

109 (2007) 4 SCC 502. See also, Regional Director v. High Land Coffee Works of P.F.X. Saldah, 1991(3) SCC 617; C.I.T A.P. v. Taj Mahal Hotel, 1972 SC 168 (6); South Gujarat Roofing Tiles Manufactures Association v. State of Gujarat, (1977) SC 90; Ponds India Ltd. v. Commissioner of Trade Tax, 2008 (8) SCC 369.

110 G.P. Singh, Principles of Statutory Interpretation (10th edn., 2006).

111 AIR 2008 P&H 101.

112 (2008) 6 Mad LJ 737.

113 Online version. Available at:
https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/control (last visited on 28-12-2017).

114 (2007) 9 SCC 539. See also, State of West Bengal v. Nripendra Nath Bagchi, AIR 1966 SC 447;Madan Mohan Choudhary v. State of Bihar, (1999) 3 SCC 396 : 1999 SCC (L&S) 700;Yoginath D. Bagde v. State of Maharashtra, (1999) 7 SCC 739 : 1999 SCC (L&S) 1385;High Court of Judicature for Rajasthan v. Ramesh Chand Paliwal, (1998) 3 SCC 72 : 1998 SCC (L&S) 786 : AIR 1998 SC 1079. 115(1948) 76 CLR 1.

116 AIR 2010 Bom 1.

117 AIR 2009 Bom 75.

118 (2010) 169 DLT 508.

119 (2010) 118 DRJ 176.

120 (2013) 16 SCC 82.

121(2005) 6 SCC 657.

122 de Smith, Woolf & Jowell, Judicial Review of Administrative Action (5th Edn.) referred in ibid.

123 AIR 2003 SC 1764.

124 AIR 1989 SC 1607.

125 [2002] Q.B. 48.

126 [2004] 1 A.C. 546.

128 Available at:
http://ppp.worldbank.org/public-private-partnership/financing/government-support-subsidies#_ftn1 (last visited on 26-12-2017).

129 (1948) 1 All ER 1, 11 (HL).

130 Meaning of the term 'substantial' as discussed in Krishak Bharticase.

131 Amulya Gopalakrishnan, "Information by right", Frontline (2003) available at:
http://www.frontline.in/static/html/fl2001/stories/20030117002710000.htm
(last visited on 02-04-2018).

132I LR (2011) 2 P&H 64.

133I LR (2010) 4 Del 1.

134 W.P.(C) 3422/2012: 2013 SCC OnLine Del 3659.

135 (2016) 12 SCC 258.

136 (2014) 226 TAXMAN 301 (Kar)

137 322 ITR 63 (Bom.).

138 ITA No. 1133 of 2008, dated 02.08.2011.

139 2012(3)RCR(Civil)660.

140 AIR 2015 Delhi 132.

141 Complaint Nos. CIC/MP/C/2015/000044 and CIC/SH/C/2016/000123. Decided On: 13-11-2017.

142 File No: CIC/AD/C/2010/001271dated 29/1/2011.

143 R.K. Jain &Ors. v. lndian Bank Association (lBA),Complaint Nos. CIC/MP/C/2015/000044 and CIC/SH/C/2016/000123. Decided On: 13-11-2017

144 CIC/SH/A/2014/000684. Decided On: 04-12-2017.

145 (2010) 100 SCL 464 (Del).

146 No. CIC/OK/C/2006/000129

147 2013(3)RCR(Civil)400.

148 CW.NO.632/89. Decided on 23-08-1989.

149 (2002) 95 DLT 14.

150 (2004) 78 DRJ 155 (DB).

151 (1997) 9 SCC 377 : 1997 SCC (L&S) 1344.

152 AIR 2005 SC 592 : (2005) 4 SCC 741. Paras 80-82.

153 AIR 2005 SC 2677: (2005) 4 SCC 649.See also, A.C. Muthiah v. Board of Control for Cricket in India &Anr., (2011) 6 SCC 617.

154 AIR 1992 SC 76.

155 AIR 1981 SC 212.

156 Para 55. Note: All future references to the paragraphs of the Zee Telefilms case are of the SCC citation.

157 Paras 257 and 258.

158 Para 70.

159 Para 71 and 73.

160 Para 172.

161 Para 173.

162 See, Annexure to the Report - MoA of BCCI.

163 Ibid.

164 Black's Law Dictionary (8thedn.).

165 See, Desh Bandhu Gupta v. Delhi Stock Exchange Association Ltd., AIR 1979 SC 1049; K.P. Varghese v. ITO, AIR 1981 SC 1922; Indian Metals and Ferro Alloys Ltd., Cuttack v. Collector of Central Excise, Bhubaneshwar, AIR 1991 SC 1028; N Suresh Nathan v. Union of India, AIR 1992 SC 564; M.B. Joshi v. Satish Kumar Pandey, AIR 1993 SC 267.

166 See,Netaji Cricket Club case, Zee Telefilms case, Cricket Association of Bihar case (the referral case), decision of CIC in Subhash Chandra Agarwal case, 2017.

167 Laurence H. Tribe, American Constitutional Law, 1705 (The Foundation Press Inc., 1978).

168 Zee Telefilms case. Para 144.

169 Available at:
http://164.100.47.194/Loksabha/Questions/QResult15.aspx?qref=117915&lsno=15
(last visited on 15-02-2018). See also, Subhash Chandra Agrawal v. PIO, Department of Sports, CIC/LS/C/2012/000565. Decided on 16-06-2017. (Subhash Chandra Agrawal case, 2017); Annexure II.

170 Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports, Department of Sports' letter number F.No.36-2/2010-SP-II, dated March 30, 2010 'Declaring National Sports Federations as Public Authority'; Annexure III.

171 Available at:
https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/anurag-thakur-former-himachal-cms-son-turned-hpca-into-a-company-after-benefitting-from-state-largesse/articleshow/31431494.cms
(last visited on 05-01-2018).

172 See, Annexure II.

173 Zee Telefilms case. Para 236.

174 Id. Paras 5 and 248.

175 Id. Para 242.

176 See, Union of India v. Board of Control for Cricket in India & Ors., 2017 (9) SCALE 400

177 Available at:
https://yas.nic.in/sites/default/files/English_Annual%20Report_2016-17-min.pdf
(last visited on 13-02-2018). See also, supra note 160; Annexure II.

178 Available at:
https://yas.nic.in/sites/default/files/File907.pdf
(last visited on 13-02-2018). See also, supra note 160; Annexure II.



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