Report No. 170
Need for urgent measures to instil stability in governance and for improving the electoral system
7.1. In this part, we shall deal with (A) measures to instil stability in governance within the existing constitutional system and (B) certain other suggestions for improving the electoral system. Though the proposals in this behalf were not put forward in our working paper, the matters discussed herein have been the subject-matter of intense and widespread public debate and appear to be essential to redress the several weaknesses which have come to light in the recent years in the governance of this country. We proceed to discuss these issues.
Stability in governance
7.1.1 First Measure.-
The proliferation of political partie.- almost a mushroom growt.- over the last few decades, necessitating the formation of coalitions with all their internal contradictions, pulls and pressures, has contributed to instability in the governance. This has to be checked. A parliamentary democracy can be run successfully only if there are two or three parties. U.K. has three parties, U.S.A. only two and Germany has four. Multiplicity of parties is not good for the health of a democracy. The French had bitter experience with 'revolving door' coalitions and eventually changed the system.
Italy is having the same problem where it is said that over the last 50 years, there have been more than 40 governments. In our own country, we have had an unhappy experience with coalition governments. In the last three years, we have had three governments, all of which fell for reasons inherent in such coalitions. All this brings home the urgency of rectifying this state of affairs. Already, there are strident voices, some of them emanating from very high and reputed quarters, in favour of switch-over to presidential form of government. That is an issue outside the scope of the present report. Herein we are confining ourselves to solutions within the parameters of the existing constitutional system.