Report No. 179
(e) Transparency International and Corruption Perception Index
The Transparency International is an international body founded in 1993 and publishes Global Corruption Reports annually. It also publishes a Corruption Perception Index (CPI). The Index refers to the rankings of various countries from the least corrupt to the most corrupt.
The latest report is of 2001 and it refers to serious cases of corruption in several countries in the world, including India. It also refers to steps taken in various countries to eradicate corruption and 21 the obstacles that legislations face in relation to challenge to their validity and also challenges to the implementation of the legislation.
The Report further refers to the judgment of the Kenyan High Court of December, 2000, declaring the Kenya Anti Corruption Authority as an unconstitutional body. In South Africa, the head of the Special Investigating Unit who is mandated to probe corruption, was excluded by a Constitutional Commission from taking part in a high profile investigation. Reference is also made in the Report to the OECD AntiBribery Convention, 1999. The United Nations is yet to formulate a Convention against Bribery.
It is significant that the Transparency International also publishes a 'Bribe Payer's Index' (BPI). Eleven International Banks have evolved a 'Know Your Customer' principles, which are called the 'Wolfberg Principles'.
The Corruption Perception Index (CPI) was first published by the Transparency International in 1995. The Index for the year 2001 is based on several surveys conducted in various countries. It is however unfortunate that the CPI focuses only on corruption among public officials 'but not upon secret payments to 22 finance political campaigns, the complicity of banks in money laundering or bribery by multinationals'.
In a list of 91 countries for the year 2001, India stands set at No. 71 with a score of 2.7 out of 10. There are, no doubt, 20 other countries where corruption is higher and those countries are listed between No. 71 to No. 91. In that list come the following countries, namely, Vietnam, Zambia, Nicaragua, Equador, Pakistan, Russia, Tanzania, Bolivia, Cameroon, Kenya, Indonesia, Uganda, and Nigeria and Bangladesh comes last at No. 91. Among the least corrupt countries from are Finland, Denmark, New Zealand, Iceland, Singapore, Sweden, Canada, Netherlands, etc. (which lie between 9.9 and 8.8), UK stands at No. 13 and USA at No. 16 with 8.3 and 7.6 points respectively. Germany is at No. 20 with 7.4 points, and Japan is at No. 21 with 7.1 points.