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Report No. 248

Appendix - I

(refer para of the report)

Categories of Central Laws

Category Value Category Brief Description Number of laws in this category
1 Administration of Justice Laws relating to the establishment and jurisdiction of various courts and their functioning. Further, it also includes all laws related to judges and legal services. 38
2 Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Laws relating to agriculture, such as boards set up for promotion of certain agricultural produce and dairy products, relief related to agricultural lands, and protection of farmers rights. 9
3 Alternative Dispute Resolution Laws that provide for alternative dispute resolution mechanisms. 2
4 Banking and Insurance Laws setting up, regulating, and nationalising banks and insurance corporations. 28
5 Charitable and Religious Institutions; Cooperative Societies This category provides for the setting up and regulation of charitable and religious institutions as well as various co-operative societies. 21
6 Citizenship; Admission into, Emigration to, and Expulsion from, India; and Cross-border Movement Laws relating to citizenship and determining the majority age in India; Laws relating to foreigners, immigration laws and extradition laws. 15
7 Civil Procedure Laws that lay down the procedural aspects of any civil suit. 14
8 Consumer Affairs Laws relating to metrology and consumer protection. 6
9 Contracts and Torts Laws relating to contracts, sale of goods, and partnership. In addition, it includes the few laws related to tort. 7
10 Corporate Laws Laws relating to companies, including limited liability partnerships, company securities, and competition law. 8
11 Criminal Justice Laws relating to the criminal justice system, including laws related to substantive offences, laws dealing with criminal procedure, and laws setting up and regulating various institutions involved in criminal justice, such as the police, prisons, and other enforcement bodies 62
12 Defence of India and Armed Forces Laws relating to the armed forces of India, including the army, navy and air forces. It further includes laws relating to cantonments and those in relation to war or use of force, such as weapons. 34
13 Delimitation and Elections Laws relating to elections at various levels as well as delimitation for the purposes of elections 11
14 Education Laws that govern the educational sector, such as right to education and laws setting up of various educational boards. 9
15 Energy Laws Laws relating to petroleum, oil, coal, natural gas, electricity, and nuclear power. 16
16 Environmental Law Laws that provide for the protection of the environment and prevention of pollution. 13
17 Financial Laws Laws related to the financial sector in India, including various specialised institutions other than banks. 45
18 Food and Public Distribution Laws relating to essential commodities, regulation of certain food products, warehousing, and the establishment of food corporation of India. 12
19 Government Employees Laws relating to public servants, including their conditions of service and other related acts. 15
20 Industries Laws providing for the general regulation of all industries as well as laws dealing with certain industries such as mines. 17
21 Institutions of National and Cultural Importance Laws that deal with institutions that have been either declared as institutions of national importance, are monuments or have cultural significance. 18
22 Intellectual Property Law Laws related to different types of intellectual property including trademarks, copyrights and patents. 7
23 International Relations Laws relating to international bodies and international relations of India, including diplomatic and consular relations. 21
24 Labour Laws General laws relating to labour welfare and protection as well as the laws providing for the regulation and safeguard of labour in specific industries. 60
25 Land Laws Laws relating to land acquisition, land ceiling, land administration laws prior to independence, and other land related laws. 42
26 Land Revenue This category deals exclusively with the imposition, and the mechanism for imposing, land revenue by the government. Most of these laws are pre-independence era and would now be administered by States. 20
27 Laws Relating to Administration and Development of Local Areas Laws relating to setting up of local level bodies, such as municipal corporations and district boards. 12
28 Laws Relating to Administration of Union Territories and Delhi Laws relating to the general administration of Union Territories, and to the National Capital Territory of Delhi 23
29 Legal, Medical and Other Professions Laws that regulates various professions and professionals, such as lawyers, doctors, chartered accountants, etc. 19
30 Maritime Law; Shipping and Inland Navigation Laws relating to various aspects of maritime law, shipping and inland navigation. 25
31 Media, Communications and Publishing Laws related to various forms of media, including print, newspapers and television. It also includes laws regulating different modes of communication and the publishing of books and newspapers. 17
32 Nationalisation Laws that enabled and dealt with the nationalisation of various industries and companies, other than banks. 59
33 Ombudsman and Monitoring Bodies Laws relating to the monitoring of government functions, such as those relating to the CAG, CVC and the Lokpal 5
34 Personal Laws Laws governing the personal relationships of an individual, such as marriage, divorce, succession, etc. 31
35 President, Parliament and State Legislatures Laws related to the organisation of the parliament and various state legislatures. Further, it also includes laws relating to the President, Vice-President, Governors and ministers. 21
36 Property Law Laws relating to private property, such as trusts, easements, transfer of property etc. 15
37 Public Health Laws related to disease control, disabilities, and other public health related laws. It also includes laws that regulate the standards for food, medicines, cosmetics etc. 17
38 Rent and Tenancy Rent control laws as well as laws regulating landlord and tenant relationships. 11
39 Residuary Laws relating to Administration This is a residuary category, which includes laws relating to changing of name of a State or Union Territory, laws relating to the administration of Union Territories, and other general laws applicable to the administration and legislature. 6
40 Social Welfare Laws protecting various disadvantaged groups, including laws setting up commissions for such groups. 14
41 State Re-organisation and Extension of Laws Laws related to the administrative formation of states and transfer of land in relation to re-organisation of States. In addition, laws that have extended, repealed or assimilated central or state laws of a certain area to other States or areas. 58
42 Symbols, Records and Statistics Laws relating to national and state emblems, public records, and statistics collected for different purposes. 9
43 Taxes, Tolls & Cess Laws Laws related to taxes, custom duties, excise, cess etc. 68
44 Textiles Laws regulating various specialised textile industries. 7
45 Trade and Commerce Laws relating to inter-state and international trade, including SEZs and import and export. In addition, it also includes the formation of Boards for the promotion of trade of certain cash crops. 21
46 Transportation and Infrastructure Laws governing various aspects of the different modes of transportation, including railways, aircrafts, motor vehicles, ferries etc. It also includes laws relating to infrastructure of the country, including roads, waterways and dams. 30
47 Tribunals Laws that establish specialised tribunals. 8
48 Universities and Technical Institutions Laws that establish various universities, scientific and technical institutions. 46
49 Woman and Child Development This category includes all laws that relate to the welfare and protection of women and children, including laws setting up commissions in this regard. 14
Total 1086


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