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Report No. 01

V. Exceptions:

(i) Acts of State: The defence of "Act of State" should be made available to the State for any act, neglect or default of its servants or agents. "Act of State" means an act of the sovereign power directed against another sovereign power or the subjects of another sovereign power not owning temporary allegiance, in pursuance of sovereign rights.

(ii) Judicial acts and execution of judicial process: The State shall not be liable for acts done by judicial officers and persons executing warrants and orders of judicial officers in all cases where protection is given to such officers and persons by section 1 of the Judicial Officers Protection Act, 1850.

(iii) Acts done in the exercise of political functions of the State such as acts relating to:

(a) Foreign Affairs (entry 10, List I, Seventh Schedule of the Constitution);

(b) Diplomatic, Consular and trade representation (entry 11);

(c) United Nations Organisation (entry 12);

(d) Participation in international conferences, associations and other bodies and implementing of decisions made thereat (entry 13);

(e) entering into treaties and agreements with foreign countries and implementing of treaties, agreements and conventions with foreign countries (entry 14);

(f) war and peace (entry 15);

(g) foreign jurisdiction (entry 16);

(h) anything done by the President, Governor or Rajpramukh in the exercise of the following functions:

Power of summoning, proroguing and dissolving the Legislature, vetoing of laws and anything done by the President in the exercise of the powers to issue Proclamations under the Constitution;

(i) Acts done under the Trading with the Enemy Act, 1947;

(j) Acts done or omitted to be done under a Proclamation of Emergency when the security of the State is threatened.

(iv) Acts done in relation to the Defence Forces:

(a) Combatant activities of the Armed Forces during the time of war;

(b) Acts done in the exercise of the powers vested in the Union for the purpose of training or maintaining the efficiency of the Defence Forces;

The statutes relating to these already provide for payment of compensation and the machinery for determining the compensation: See Manoeuvres, Field Firing and Artillery Practice Act, 1948; Seaward Artillery Practice Act, 1949;

(c) The liability of the State for personal injury or death caused by a member of the Armed Forces to another member while on duty shall be restricted in the same manner as in England (Section 10 of the Crown Proceedings Act).

(v) Miscellaneous:

(a) any claim arising out of defamation, malicious prosecution and malicious arrest,

(b) any claim arising out of the operation of quarantine law,

(c) existing immunity under the Indian Telegraph Act, 1885 and Indian Post Offices Act, 1898,

(d) foreign torts. (The English provision may be adopted.)

Liability of the State in Tort Back

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