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Report No. 276

Legal Framework: Gambling and Sports Betting Including in Cricket in India

1 Mukul Mudgal, Law and Sports in India: Development Issues and Challenges 226 (LexisNexis, 2016).

2 (2014) 7 SCC 383

3 Report of the Supreme Court Committee on Reforms in Cricket at 61-62 (December, 2015).

4 (2016) 8 SCC 535

5 M.B. Majumdar, Commentary on the Bombay Prevention and Gambling Act, 1887 (Sweden Maxwell).

6 Mukul Mudgal, Law and Sports in India: Development Issues and Challenges 226 (LexisNexis, 2016).

7 2nd Ed. Ancient Indian History and Civilization by Sailendra Nath Sen, New age International Publishers page 69; See Also State of Bombay v. R.M.D. Chamarbaugwala, AIR 1957 SC 699.

8 2nd Ed. Ancient Indian History and Civilization by Sailendra Nath Sen, New age International Publishers page 69.

9 2nd Ed. Ancient Indian History and Civilization by Sailendra Nath Sen, New age International Publishers page 138; See Also State of Bombay v. R.M.D. Chamarbaugwala, AIR 1957 SC 699.

11 As cited in State of Bombay v. RMD Chamarbaugwala, AIR 1957 SC 699.

12 Chanakya is an Indian Philosopher, economist, jurist he is traditionally identified as Kautilya who authored ancient Indian treatise the Arthashastra.

13 Kautilya, "The Arthshashtra", edited and translated by L.N. Rangrajan 61 (Penguin Books India, 1992).

14 W. Norman Brown, "The Indian Games of Pachisi, Chaupar, and Chausar" 6(2) Expedition Magazine (1964), available at :
http://www.penn.museum/sites/expedition/?p=729 (last visited on 01-06-2018).

15 AIR 1965 SC 307.

16 Roll of a Dice, The Ball is in motion, PL 59 (September 2013).

17 The History of Gambling, available at:
http://www.gypsyware.com/gamblingHistory.html (last visited on 25-05-2018).

18 Gambling in ancient civilisations, available at:
http://www.ancient-origins.net/ancient-places-europe/gambling-ancient-civilizations-00931 (last visited on 25-05-2018).

19 The History of Gambling available at:
http://www.gambling.net/history/ (last visited on 25-05-2018).

20 Ibid.

21 LN Rangarajan (ed.), Kautilya's Arthshastra 347 (Penguin Books India Ltd., Calcutta, 1992).

22 Gherulal Parakh v. Mahadeodas Maiya & Ors., AIR 1959 SC 781.

23 What is wager available at: https://thelawdictionary.org/wager (last visited on 23-05-2018).

24 The Finance Act, 1994.

25 The Finance Act, 2017.

26 Available at
https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/gambling#dataset-business-english (last visited on 25-05-2018).

27 Available at:
https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/betting (last visited on 25-05-2018).

28 Bryan A. Garner, Black's Law Dictionary, (8th ed. West Publishing Co.) 701, 2004.

29 Sethi, Sethi's Law relating to Gambling, Betting, Lotteries and Clubs 47(Law Publishers(India) Pvt. Ltd., Allahabad, 3rdedn).

30 It s an Act of Parliament of United Kingdom. It applies to England, Wales and Scotland and is designed to control all forms of Gambling.

31 Section 9.

32 AIR 1996 SC 1153.

33 AIR 2001 Cal 30.

34 6th edn.at 679.

35 AIR 1995 SC 1770.

36 Bryan A. Garner & Henry C. Black, Black's Law Dictionary, (6th ed.) 679, 1990.

37 Bryan A. Garner & Henry C. Black, Black's Law Dictionary, (6th ed.) 679, 1990.

38 AIR 1915 Mad 164.

39 AIR 1957 SC 628.

40 AIR 1968 SC 825.

41 AIR 1996 SC 1153.

42 (2010) 1 SCC 265.

43AIR 1995 SC 1770.

44 2003 Cr LJ 143.

45 (2012) 3 Mad LJ 561.

46 Order of the Delhi District Courts dated November 19, 2012 in Suit No. 32 of 2012.

47 AIR 1995 SC 1770.

48 AIR 1968 SC 825.

49 AIR 1996 SC 1153.

50 M/s Gaussian Network Pvt. Ltd. v. Monica Lakhanpal & Anr., Order dated April 21, 2016 in CRP No. 119 of 2012, Delhi High Court.

5113 Q.B. 308.

52 30 N.C. 271, as cited in Mukul Mudgal, supra note 2 at 234.

53 Roman Yampolskiy, "Game Skill Measure for Mixed Games" 1:3WASET 308-310 (2007).

54 ECLI:EU:C:2017:814

55 Article 132(1)(m), Title IX "Exmeptions", Council Directive 2006/112/EC of 28 November 2006 on the Common System of Value Added Tax. (OJ 2006 L 347).

56 Constituent Assembly Debates, Official Report, Vol IX, Sixth Reprint, Reprinted by Lok Sabha Secretariat, New Delhi, 2014.

57 KC Wheare, Modern Constitutions 51 (Oxford University Press, London, 1962).

58 AIR 1984 SC 781.

59 Nirod Kumar Palai, Sarojini Mishra, et.al., "Gambling v, State: A Study of Problems and Prospects of Gambling Industry in India under Globalization Regime" XIV International Economic History Congress, Helsinki (2006).

60 J.S. Mill, On Liberty and Utilitarianism (Bantom Classic, New York, 2008).

61 Harsimran Kalra, Abhishek Mukherjee, et.al., "Twited Willow, Gambling, Sport and Cricket in India" Hindu Centre of Politics and Public Policy (2013) available at:
http://www.thehinducentre.com/multimedia/archive/01478/Issue_Brief_1478229a.pdf (last visited 31-05-2018).

62 (1998) 2 Cal LT 215.

63 AIR 1959 SC 781.

64 Notification No. LD/Bill/6/76, Official Gazette, Government of Goa, Daman and Diu, Series I No. 20 dated 12-08-1976.

65 Notification No. 7-6-92/LA, Official Gazette, Government of Goa, Daman and Diu, Series I No. 25 dated 17-09-1992.

66 Ravish Tiwari, Santosh Singh, "Why Nitish says no to liquor", Indian Express, New Delhi, 31/05/2018.

67 S. Khushboo v. Kanniammal, AIR 2010 SC 3196.

68 Ramesh Yeshwant Prabhoo v. Prabhakar Kashinath Kunte &Ors., AIR 1996 SC 1113; See also, Bobby Art International, etc. v. Om Pal Singh Hoon & Ors., AIR 1996 SC 1846; and Shri Raghunathrao Ganpatrao v. Union of India, AIR 1993 SC 1267.

69 K. Rand and S. Righty, "Moral Policymaking and Indian Gaming: Negotiating a Different Terrain" available at:
https://www.bc.edu/content/dam/files/centers/boisi/pdf/f07/gamblingpapers/Rand-Light.pdf (last visited on 02-06-2018)

70 AIR 1957 SC 699.

71 Planning Commission, Report of the Expert Group to Review the Methodology for Measurement of Poverty (June, 2014).

72 AIR 1957 SC 699.

73 Supra

74 AIR 1957 SC 628.

75 AIR 1999 SC 1867.

76 AIR 1956 SC 1153.

77 AIR 1957 SC 699; AIR 1957 SC 628.

78 Arvind Datar, "Privilege, Police Power and Res Extra Commercium - Glaring Conceptual Errors", National Law School of India Review, Vol. 21, No.1, 2009, p.145.

79 The Indian Contract Act, 1872.

80 Union of India v. Gopal Chandra Misra, AIR 1978 SC 694; See also, Firm of Pratapchand Nopaji v. Firm of Kotrike Venkata Setty & Sons, AIR 1975 SC 1223.

81 ONGC v. Saw Pipes, AIR .2003 SC 2629.

82 Murlidhar Agrawal v. State of Uttar Pradesh, AIR 1974 SC 1924; See also, Board of Control of Cricket in India v. Cricket Association Of Bihar (2015) 3 SCC 251.

83 AIR 1986 SC 1571.

84 Murlidhar Agrawal (Supra Note 82); and CBI v. Ashok Kumar Aggarwal (2013) 15 SCC 222. See also Egerton v. Earl of Brownlow (1853)4 HLC 484.

85 AIR 1959 SC 781.

86 O.M.P. No.327/2002decided on November 2, 2015.

87 RFA Nos. 623 and 628/2017 decided on July 17, 2017available at:
http://lobis.nic.in/ddir/dhc/VJM/judgement/18-07-2017/VJM17072017RFA6232017.pdf (last visited on 02-06-2018).

88 The Indian Contract Act, 1872.

89 Gherulal Parakh v. Mahadeodas Maiya & Ors., AIR 1959 SC 781.

90 [1892] 2 Q.B. 484.

91 Subhash Kumar Manwani v. State of Madhya Pradesh, AIR 2000 MP 109.

92 Gherulal Parakh v. Mahadeodas Maiya & Ors., AIR 1959 SC 781.

93 Gherulal Parakh v. Mahadeodas Maiya & Ors., AIR 1959 SC 781

94 Notification No. FEMA 20(R)/ 2017-RB, Reg. 15, 07-11-2017, available at:
https://rbi.org.in/scripts/BS_FemaNotifications.aspx?Id=11161 (last visited on 31-05-2018).

95 D/o IPP F. No. 5(1)/2017-FC-1, 28-8-2017, available at:
http://dipp.nic.in/sites/default/files/CFPC_2017_FINAL_RELEASED_28.8.17.pdf (last visited on 31-05-2018).

96" India Says Paypal Not Authorized For Money Transfer" available at
https://www.reuters.com/article/urnidgns002570f3005978d8002576c7004772a9/india-says-paypal-not-authorized-for-money-transfer-idUS16299391020100211/ (last viewed on 30-05-2018).

97 "Paypal Banking" available at:
https://sportsbetting.net.in/banking/paypal/
(last viewed on 30-05-2018).

98 The Prevention Of Money-Laundering (The Manner Of Forwarding A Copy Of The Order Of Provisional Attachment Of Property Along With The Material, And Copy Of The Reasons Along With The Material In Respect Of Survey, To The Adjudicating Authority And Its Period Of Retention) Rules, 2005, brought to force by Section 73 (1)(b) & (2) of The Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002, available at:
http://www.enforcementdirectorate.gov.in/pmla_rules.pdf (last visited at 26-05-2018).

99 Section 2(c) defines 'young person' to mean a person under the age of twenty-years.

100 Notification No. G.S.R. 314(E), 11-04-2011.

101 Notification No. G.S.R 729 (E), 1944.

102 https://cbec-gst.gov.in/gst-goods-services-rates.html (last visited on 26-05-2018).

103 Unlawful Games Act, 1541, 33 Hen. 8 c. 9 (Eng.); Carl Rohsler (Ed.), The Gambling Law Review, 2 nd Edn., Gideon Roberton, Law Business Research Ltd., London, United Kingdom, 2017, p. 129.

104 The Andhra Pradesh Gambling Act, 1974.

105 The Delhi Public Gambling Act, 1955.

106 The Bombay Prevention of Gambling Act, 1887.

107 The Jammu & Kashmir Gambling Act, 1977.

108 Meghalaya Prevention of Gambling Act, 1970.

109 The Goa, Daman and Diu Public Gambling Act, 1976.

110 The Goa Public Gambling (Amendment) Act, 1992.

111 The Goa Public Gambling (Amendment) Act, 1996.

112 The Goa Public Gambling (Amendment) Act, 2012.

113 Ibid., Explanation to Section 3.

114 K.R. Lakshmanan (Dr) v. State of T.N., AIR 1996 SC 1153.

115 Notification No.FIN/DSSL/2010/III(247)/818, Finance, Revenue and Expenditure Department, Government of Sikkim, March 30, 2011

116 The Telangana Gaming (Amendment) Ordinance, 2017.

117 The Telangana Gaming (Second Amendment) Ordinance, 2017.

118 As on 30-05-2018

119 Ibid, Object and Purpose, available at:
http://164.100.47.4/billstexts/lsbilltexts/AsIntroduced/4408LS.pdf (last visited on 28-05-2018).

120 G.A. Res. 58/5, U.N. GAOR, 58th Sess., U.N. Doc. A/58/5 (Nov. 17, 2003) available at https://www.un.org/sport2005/resources/un_resolutions/engl_58_5.pdf

121 Available at:
http://www.prsindia.org/uploads/media/draft/Draft%20Prevention%20of%20Sporting%20 Fraud%20Bill%202013.pdf. (last visited on 24th May 2018).

122 Regulating Sports Betting in India: FICCI available at:
http://blog.ficci.com/sports-betting-india-faq/3708/2/(last visited on 01-06-2018).

123 s. 1(c).

124 Rohani Mahyera,"Saving Cricket: A Proposal for the Legalization of Gambling in India to Regulate Corrupt Betting Practices in Cricket" 26 Emory Intl L. Rev.378 (2012).

125 Available at:
https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2018/may/17/maximum-stake-for-fixed-odds-betting-terminals-cut-to-2 (last visited on 31-05-2018).

126 England & Wales Cricket Board., Regulations Governing the Qualification and Registration of Cricketers available at:
https://www.ecb.co.uk/governance/regulations/first-class-county-regulations (last visited on 02-06-2018) .

127 Gambling Commission Annual Report - 2016-17, available at:
http://www.gamblingcommission.gov.uk/PDF/Annual-report-and-accounts-2016-2017.pdf(last visited on 01-06-2018).

128 Gambling Commission of UK, Industry Statistics - April 2013 to March 2016. Report available at:http://www.gamblingcommission.gov.uk (last visited on 01-06-2018).

129 National Gambling Statistics available at:
http://www.ngb.org.za/SiteResources/documents/2016/Stats%20FY16%20Audited.pdf (last visited on 23-11-2017).

130 18 U.S.C. 1084.

131 18 U.S.C. 1952.

132 18 U.S.C. 1953.

133 18 U.S.C. 1955.

134 28 U.S.C. 3701 et seq.

135 31 U.S.C. 5361 et seq.

136 United States Department of Justice, Whether Proposals By Illinois And New York To Use The Internet And Out-Of-State Transaction Processors To Sell Lottery Tickets To In-State Adults Violate The Wire Act, Sept. 20, 2011, available at:
https://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/olc/opinions/2011/09/31/state-lotteries-opinion.pdf (last visited at 29-05-2018).

137 313 F.3d 257 (5th Cir. 2002).

138 18 U.S. Code 1952; 12 U.S.C. 1752; 12 U.S.C. 1813.

139 U.S. Code.& Cong. News, 87th Cong. 1st Sess., 2635.

140 Erlenbaugh v. United States, 409 U.S. 239, 246 (1972).

141 United States v. Sacco, 491 F.2d 995, 998 (9th Cir. 1974).

142 Winner, Winner, No Chicken Dinner: An Analysis of Interactive Media Ent'mt & Gaming Ass'n v. Att'y Gen. of the U.S. and the Unjustified Consequences of the UIGEA, 31 LOYOLA OF LOS ANELES ENTERMAINENT LAW REVIEW 55, 59 (2011); Geolocation and Federalism on the Internet: Cutting Internet Gambling's Gordian Knot, 11 COLUMBIA SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY LAW REVIEW, 41, 45 (2010); Gottfried, The Federal Framework for Internet Gambling, 10 RICHMOND JOURNAL OF LAW AND TECHNOLOGY 26, 53 (2004); General Accounting Office [now the Government Accountability Office], Internet Gambling: An Overview of the Issues 11 (Dec. 2002); Blackjack or Bust: Can U.S. Law Stop Internet Gambling? 16 LOYOLA OF LOS ANGELES ENTERTAINMENT LAW JOURNAL 667, 675-77 (1996).

143 18 U.S.C. 1955(a), 3571(d).

144 18 U.S.C. 1955(d).

145 31 U.S.C. 5362

146 31 U.S.C. 5366(a), 18 U.S.C. 3571.

147 31 U.S.C. 5364, 5364.

148 31 U.S.C. 5362(1)(B),(C).

149 31 U.S.C. 5362(1)(E)(i)-(iv).

150 31 U.S.C. 5362(1)(E)(v)-(vii).

151 31 U.S.C. 5362(1)(E)(viii)

152 31 U.S.C. 5362(1)(E)(ix).

153 18 U.S.C. 1961 et seq.

154 18 U.S.C. 1956, 1957.

155 18 U.S.C. 1084.

156 18 U.S.C. 1955.

157 18 U.S.C. 1952

158 31 U.S.C. 5363.

159 18 U.S.C. 1962.

160 18 U.S.C. 1956.

161 18 U.S.C. 1957.

162 18 U.S.C. 371, 2.

163 The AGA Survey of the Casino Industry, 2017 State of the States, available at:
https://www.americangaming.org/sites/default/files/research_files/2017%20State%20of%20the%20States.pdf (last visited on 25-05-2018).

164 International Study of Gambling Jurisdictions, Gambling Commission Report 2010, The Department of Trade and Industry, South Africa, p.8, available at:
https://www.thedti.gov.za/news2011/Appendix.pdf (last visited on 29-05-2018).

165 Latest edition (32nd) of the Australian Gambling Statistics available at:
http://www.qgso.qld.gov.au/products/reports/aus-gambling-stats/aus-gambling-stats-32nd-edn.pdf
(last visited on 01-06-2018).

166 Available at:
https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichCode.do;jsessionid=E279E76100934840D376F7E2861681AF.tpdjo04v_1?idSectionTA=LEGISCTA000025507989&cidTexte=LEGITEXT000025503132&dateTexte=20140912 (last visited on 29-05-2018).

167 available at:
https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichTexte.do?cidTexte=JORFTEXT000022204510 (last visited on 29-05-2018).

168 Available at:
https://www.pmu.fr (last visited on 01-06-2018).

169 Available at:
http://www.arjel.fr (last visited on 01-06-2018).

170 ARJEL, Annual Report 2016-17, available at:
http://www.arjel.fr/IMG/pdf/rapport-activite-2016en.pdf (last visited on 01-06-2018).

171 Pavel V. Vasiliev Bo J. Bernhard, Global Gaming Industry: A Genealogy and Media Content Analysis of Gaming Restrictions in Contemporary Russia, UNLV GAMING RESEARCH & REVIEW JOURNAL VOLUME15, 71,75(2011).

172 Available at:
https://rg.ru/2006/12/31/azart-dok.html (last visited on 01-06-2018).

173 Deputy State Prosecutor for the Pskov Region v. Rostelecom (Case No. 91-KGPR12-3)

174 Ibid.

175 Guru Dhillon& Ng, YihMiin, The regulations and control of online betting in Malaysia, UUM JOURNAL OF LEGAL STUDIES (Volume 4, 2013,) Pg. 79, 81

176Act 559.

177 (Act 136) 1950.

178 S. 31, Contract Act, 1950, Malyasia.

179 Available at:
http://www.gamblingresearch.com/gambling-oligopolies-of-malaysia-limiting-competition-and-encouraging-growth-of-grey-markets/ (last visited on 01-06-2018).

180 Ley 13/2011, de 27 de mayo, de regulacióndel Juego.

181 Carl Rohsler (Ed.), The Gambling Law Review, 2nd Ed. Law Business Research Ltd, London, ISBN 978-1-910813-63-8, at Pg. 252.

182 Código Penal (Criminal Code), 10/1995 (Spain), art.286bis.

183 As per the figures released by, the Directorate General for the Regulation of Gambling, available at:
https://www.ordenacionjuego.es/cmis/browser?id=workspace://SpacesStore/4cabef34-1605-435d-a21f-2a991eee34bf (last visited on 30-05-2018).

184 Sports Betting: Law and Policy edited by Paul M. Anderson, Ian S. Blackshaw, Robert C.R. Siekmann, Janwillem Soekpg, 777.

185 Article 106, Swiss Federal Constitution.

186 Available at: https://www.admin.ch/gov/en/start/documentation/votes/20180610/Federal-Act-on-Gambling.html (last visited on 01-06-2018)

187 https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-44430267 (last visited on 15.06.2018)

188 The Framework, Principles and Standards to which EGBA Member operations annually subscribe, commit and adhere to, available at:
http://www.egba.eu/media/EGBA-Standards-October-2011.pdf
(last visited on 01-06-2018).

189 European Commission on Growth in Gambling Sector, available at:
http://ec.europa.eu/growth/sectors/gambling_en (last visited at 30-05-2018).

190 Opinion of Advocate General, Mengozzi, delivered on 3 March 2010 in Case C-46/08, Para 103.

191 Available at:
http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/infopedia/articles/SIP_1615_2009-11-30.html (last visited on 31-05-2018)

192 (2016) 8 SCC 535.

193 Dr. Luke Clark:
http://www.cam.ac.uk/research/news/the-psychology-of-gambling (last visited on 25-05-2018).

194 Ibid.

195 Telangana Gaming Amendment Act, 2017, Act No. 15, Acts of Government of Telangana, 2017 (India).

196 Order of the Delhi High Court dated April 21, 2016 in C.R.P. 119/2012 arising out Order of the Delhi District Courts dated November 19, 2012 in Suit No. 32 of 2012 of M/s Gaussian Network Pvt Ltd v. Monica Lakhanpal & Anr.

197"Thanks to ambiguous laws, online poker websites are flourishing in India", available at:
http://www.business-standard.com/article/current-affairs/thanks-to-ambiguous-laws-online-pokers-are-flourishing-in-india-116110400758_1.html(last visited on 25-05-2018).

198 Shalina Pillai, "Now, online gaming is a career for some", (May 7, 2018) available at:
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/now-online-gaming-is-a-career-for-some/articleshow/64056984.cms,
(last visited on 02-06-2018).

199 Study by KPMG and Google, online gaming in India: Researching a new Pinnacle, May 2017. See also
https://www.stoodnt.com/blog/career-in-online-gaming/ last visited 25-05-2018.

200 "Should Gambling Be Legalized?" The Hindu (Mar. 30, 2018) available at:
http://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/should-gambling-be-legalised/article23385128.ece (last visited on 25-05-2018).

201 Available at:
https://www.rbi.org.in/Scripts/NotificationUser.aspx?Id=11243&Mode=0, last viewed at 04.07.2018)

202 Internet and Mobile Association of India v. Reserve Bank of India, W.P.(C) No.528/2018

203 https://www.reuters.com/article/us-soccer-worldcup-gambling-asia/authorities-across-asia-battle-illegal-gambling-surge-ahead-of-world-cup-idUSKBN1J70PN

204 Sriram Veera, "The games cricket's fixers love to play", Indian Express, New Delhi, 31-05-2018.

205 Available at:
http://www.espn.in/espn/story/_/id/20514748/coming-soon-new-sports-code-targets-vips-voting-lobbies (last visited on 30-05-2018); See also
http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/Govt.-constitutes-panel-to-draft-National-Sports-Development-Code/article16993002.ece
(last visited on 30-05-2018)

206 Available at:
https://www.pressreader.com/india/the-times-of-india-new-delhi-edition/20170131/textview (last visited on 30-05-2018).

207 Available at:
http://www.espncricinfo.com/ci-icc/content/story/978837.html (last visited on 25-05-2018).

208 David Harrison (26th May 2018), Exclusive: Al Jazeera exposes the match fixer from Mumbai, available at:
https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2018/05/exclusive-al-jazeera-exposes-match-fixer-mumbai-180526162256017.html (last visited at 30-05-2018).

209 Sriram Veera, "The games cricket's fixers love to play", Indian Express, New Delhi, 31-05-2018.

210 Available at:http://ficci.in/SEdocument/20208/report-betting-conference.pdf (last visited on 25-05-2018).

211 European Gaming and Betting Commission Report on Sports Betting, available at:
http://www.egba.eu/facts-and-figures/studies/6-sports-betting-report/
(last visited on 25-05-2018).

212 Notification No. G.S.R.381(E), 03-5-2000, available at:
https://rbidocs.rbi.org.in/rdocs/content/pdfs/87256.pdf (last visited on 26-05-2018)

213 Chapter 5 of D/o IPP F. No. 5(1)/2017-FC-1, 28-8-2017, available at:
http://dipp.nic.in/sites/default/files/CFPC_2017_FINAL_RELEASED_28.8.17.pdf (last visited on 26-05-2018).

214 The Information Technology (Intermediaries guidelines) Rules, 2011 have been enacted under the power conferred upon the Central Government under clause (zg) of subsection (2) of section 87 read with sub-section (2) of section 79 of the Information Technology Act, 2000 (21 of 2000).

215 Gherulal Parakh v. Mahadeodas Maiya & Ors., AIR 1959 SC 781.



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