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Report No. 104

5.6. Range of authorities.-

The question passed above assumes practical importance, because these authorities have a very wide range. At the one end of the scale are statutory tribunals which operate almost like courts. These tribunals are vested with the function of finding facts and applying the law, in a formal manner and after following the procedure prescribed for a civil court.1

At the other end of the scale are administrative authorities who, though they are bound to act quasi-judicially and to follow the rules of natural justice, do not perform any judicial function as such. In between the two, there is a vast variety of authorities. Where there is no judicial immunity (because the authorities concerned are not "courts") nor is statutory protection given by a special provision, the presiding officers of such authorities would presumably be liable in the same circumstances as other purely executive officers.2

1. Cf. Wade Administrative Law, (1977), pp. 641-642.

2. Cf. Wade Administrative Law, (1977), p. 642.

The Judicial Officers Protection Act, 1850 Back

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