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Report No. 69

Indian Evidence Act, 1872

Contents
Chapter I Introductory
Introductory
Presidency Towns
Act 2 of 1855-Important provision
Stephen's Bill
Chapter 2 History of Rules of Evidence in England
I. Introductory
II. Documents
III. Three Leading Rules of Evidence Relating to Documents, Opinion and Hearsay
IV. Corroboration
V. Witnesses
VI. Competence and Compellability
VII. Self-Incrimination
VIII. The Accused
IX. Number of Witnesses
Chapter 3 Scope and Object of Rules of Evidence and their Relation to Judicial Investigation of Facts
Nature of law of evidence
Chapter 4 Scheme of the Act
Object of legal proceedings-determination of rights and liabilities
Important relevant fact
Chapter 5 Preliminary Provisions
Preliminary Provisions
Chapter 6 Definitions
I. Introductory
II. Court-the General Concept
III. Sovereignty
IV and V. Definitive Judgment
VI. Judicial Power or Being Part of the Judiciary
VII. Power Otherwise Vested in Courts
VIII. Administrative Courts
IX. Whether Act Should Apply to Administrative Tribunals
X. Position in U.S.A. and England as to Court
XI. Some Statutory Provisions in India as to Administrative Courts
XII. Judicial and Quasi-Judicial
XIII. Natural Justice
XIV and XV. Industrial Tribunals
XVI. Recommendation as to Court
XVII & XVIII. Document
XIX. Evidence
XX. Fact
XXI and XXII. Relevant and Proved
XXIII. Judicial Proceeding
A. Introductory
B. Case Lazy Under the Evidence Act
C. Definitions in other Acts
D. Definition Suggested by Mayne
E. Queries Raised with Reference to Mayne's Definition
F. English Act of 1968
G. Conclusion
XXIV and XXV. Section 4
Appendix Extract of Section 18 of the Civil Evidence Act, 1968 (English}
Chapter 7 Relevant Facts-the General Provisions: Sections 5 to 11
Facts in issue
Declarations
English authorities
Complaints
Introductory
Scientific evidenc
Term 'conduct
Silence when explained
Limits to the rule
Illustration
Identity and similar facts
Section 10
I and II. Introductory
III. Criminal Conspiracy-English Law
IV. Conspiracy as a Tort'
V. Certain Important Aspects of Section 10
VI. Section 10 as Covering Acts beyond Common Purpose
VII. Position in U.S.A.
VIII. Present Position
IX. No Change
Section 11
I. Introductory
II. Illustrative Cases
III. Facts Suggesting an inference
IV. Statement how far relevant
V. Question of Amendment Considered
Chapter 8 Relevancy in Particular Cases
Introductory
Principles of damages matters of substantive law
Breach of contract of marriage
Compensation in criminal court
Section 13
I. Introductory
II. Judgments
III. English Law as to Judgments
IV. Statements
V. Rights
VI. Recommendations
I. Provision Permitting Evidence
II. The Restriction
III. Illustrations
Similar facts
Chapter 9 Admissions and Confessions
Section 17
Introductory
Scheme of the sections
Section 18
Introductory
Section 18, third paragraph sub-paragraph (1)
Section 18, third paragraph
Section 19
Section 19-Introductory
Section 20
Introductory
Section 21
Introduction
Reasons for departure from English law
Section 23
Admission in civil cases, when relevant
Chapter 10 Confessions-general Discussion and Scheme
Introductory
Importance of voluntary character
History
Dixon J.'s observations as to self-incrimination
Discretionary basis
Due process a broad umbrella
Appendix 1,2 Section 162, Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973
Appendix 3 Section 164, Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973
Appendix 4 Judges' Rules (England)
Chapter 11 Confessions and Admissions-sections 24 to 31
Section 24
Negative form
Section 27
I. Introductory
II. Doctrine of Confirmation
III. History
IV. Constitutional Aspects
V. Relationship with other sections
VI and VII. Other Points
Section 29
I and II. Introductory
III. Relationship with section 164, Code of Criminal Procedure
Section 30
Introductory
Position in England
Appendix I and II Section 164, Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973
Chapter 12 Statements Made under Special Circumstances by Persons who Cannot be Called as Witnesses
I. Introductory
II. Section 32(1), Opening Paragraph-various Situations
III and IV. Section 32(1)-opening Paragraph-other Points
V. Section 32(1)
VI. Revised Section 32(1)
VII. Section 32(3)
A. Introductory
B. Recitals of Boundaries
C. Selected Cases as to Recitals of Boundaries
D. Comments on the Case Law
E and F. Statement of Boundary not Against Interest
G. English Law
H. Other Points
I and VIII. Recommendation
IX. Section 32(5) and 32(6)
X. Section 32(7)
XI. Section 32 (8)
Chapter 13 Entries in Books of Account
I. Introductory
II and III. Previous Law and English Law and Roman Law
IV. Corroboration
V and VI. Interpretation and Procedure
Chapter 14 Entries in Public Records and other Published writings
I. Introductory
II and III. English Law
IV. Illustrations
V and VI. Other Provisions
VII. Other Published Writings-Section 36
VIII. Section 37
IX. Section 38
Chapter 15 How much of a Statement to be Proved Section 39
Introductory
Statutory provisions in the U.S.A
No discretion under section 161
Chapter 16 Judgments
Section 40
Introductory
I. Introductory
II. Orders in Lunacy
III. Orders Refusing Probate
Section 42
Introduction
I and II. General Rule
III. Criticism of The General Rules offences also
IV. English Act of 1968
V to VII. Case Law on the English Act of 1968
Section 43,43A
Section 43,43A
Section 44
I and II. Introductory and Fraud
III. Perjury
IV. Waiver of Objection to Jurisdiction
V and VI. A Verbal Point
Gross Negligence of Guardian and its Effect on Judgment
I. The Problem
II. The Case Law
III and IV. English Law
V. Need for Amendment and Possible Objections
VI. Summary
Chapter 17 Opinion of Experts
I. Introductory
II and III. Cognate Provisions
IV to VI. Questions for Consideration
VII. Who Can Summon Experts
VIII. Questions to be Put to Experts
IX and X Notice
Chapter 18* Foreign Law
I. Introductory
II and III. Varieties of Processes
IV. Procedure
V to VIII. Constitutionality of Foreign Law
Chapter 19* Opinion Evidence-Other Provisions
Sections 46,47
Sections 48 to 51
Chapter 20* Character
Sections 52-55
Sections 53 to 55
Chapter 21 Judicial Notice
I. Introductory
II and III. Scope and Effect of Judicial Notice
IV. Section 57(1)
V and VI. Section 57(2) to 57(7)
Chapter 22 Certificate of the Government as to Certain Matters Concerning International Relations
I and II. Introductory
III and IV. Provision in the Code of Civil Procedure as to Recognition of Foreign States
V to VII. Effect of the Certificate
Chapter 23 Facts Admitted
Section 58
Principle of section 58
Chapter 24 Oral Evidence-general Discussion
Section 59
Introductory
Chapter 25 Oral Evidences-hearsay
Section 60
I. Introductory
II and III. Real Evidence
IV and V. Section Mandatory
VI. Importance of Fact Being Relevant
VII and VIII. Documents
Chapter 26 Hearsay-Whether Basic Changes Needed
I. Introductory
II. Various Definitions of Hearsay
III. Rationale of the Rule-schematic Presentation
IV. Weakness
V and VI. Rule Stated In Terms of Relevancy
VII to IX. Constitutional Aspect
X. Trends in Reform and Conclusion
Stephen's view as to dangers of hearsay
Chapter 27 Documentary Evidence-The General Scheme
Documentary Evidence-The General Scheme
Chapter 28 Primary Evidence
Section 62
Primary evidence
Chapter 29 Secondary Evidence
Section 63
I. Introduction
II. Scope of Secondary Evidence-Sections 63 and 65
Minute of Dr. Tripathi and Shri Mitra Regarding Recommendations Relating to section 63 of the Act
Minute of Shri Dhavan Opposing the Proposal to Amend sections 63 and 65 of the Act
III to V. Various Clauses Considered
Chapter 30 Secondary Evidence when Admissible
Section 64 and 65
I and II. Introductory
III to V. Clause (a)-Person Legally Bound
VI and VII. Clauses (d) to (g)
Chapter 31 Proof of Signature
Section 67
Proof of Signature
Chapter 32 Attested Documents
Sections 68-72
I. General
II. Section 68-The Principal Question
III. Section 68-Some Matters of Detail
IV and V. Redraft
Section 70
Chapter 33 Comparison of Signature by the Court
Section 73
I to III. Introductory
IV. Section 73-First Paragraph
V to VII. Section 73-Second Paragraph
Chapter 34 Public Documents and Private Documents
Sections 74 and 75
I and II. Public Documents-Importance
III to VI. Meaning of Documents Forming Acts
Chapter 35 Certified Copies
Sections 76-77
I and II. Section 76-Introduction
III and IV. tatutory Provisions
V. Confidential Documents
VI and VIII. Other Points Concerning section 76
Appendix Provisions in the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 as to Inspection Etc. of Certain Documents
Chapter 36 Public Documents-Proof by other Modes
Section 78
Section 78(3)-Recommendation
Appendix 1 Extracts of the Relevant Provisions of the English Acts of 1868 and 1882
Chapter 37 Presumptions as to Documents
Section 79
I. Presumptions as to Documents-General
II. Section 79-Jammu and Kashmir
Chapter 38 Presumptions as to Record of Evidence
Section 80
I and II. Introductory
III to V. Dying Declarations
Chapter 39 Presumptions as to Certain Official Documents
Sections 81 to 84
Chapter 40 Miscellaneous Presumptions as to Documents
Sections 85 to 89
Sections 85,86
Sections 88,89
Chapter 41 Ancient Documents
Section 90
I and II. Introduction and Conditions
III and VI. Computation of the Period
VII. Recommendation
Chapter 42 Exclusion of Oral Evidence-in Substitution for Documentary Evidence
Section 91
I and II. Introductory
III to VI. Utility of the section
VII and VIII. Depositions
Chapter 43 Variation of Documentary Evidence by other Evidence
Section 92
I. Introductory
II. Want of Symmetry
III to V. Position in England
VI to VIII. Section 92-the First Five Provisos
Chapter 44 Evidence for Interpretation of Documents
Sections 93-100
Sections 93 to 96
Sections 97 to 100
Chapter 45 Burden of Proof
Sections 101-104
I to III. Introduction
IV and VI. Scheme of sections 101-104
Chapter 46 Burden of Proof
Exceptions to Criminal Liability-Section 105
I to III. Introductory
IV. Quantum of Proof
V. Conclusion
Chapte 47 Fact Especially within a Party's Knowledge
Section 106
I to III. Introductory
IV and V. English Law
Chapte 48 Presumption of Life
Section 107
Presumption of Life
Chapte 49 Presumption of Death
Section 108
I and II. Introductory
III and IV. Absence for less than Seven Years
Chapte 50 Proposed New Section
Section 108A-commorientes
I to III. Introductory
IV and V. Hindu Law and Muslim Law and English Law
VI to X. Need for Change
Chapter 51 Partnership, Tenancy and Agency
Section 109
Chapter 52 Possession
Section 110
Possession
Chapter 53 Good Faith Section 111
Good Faith Section 111
Chapter 54 Presumption of Legitimacy
Section 112
I and II. Introductory
III and IV. Legitimacy
V to VIII Roman Law and Civil Law
VIII and IX. Rebuttal
X and XI. Blood Group Evidence
Chapter 55 Cession of Territory
Section 113
Chapter 56 Presumptions-discretionary and Rebutting
Section 114
I and II. Introductory
III and V. Illustration (a),(b)
VI to IX. Illustration (d) to (i)
Chapter 57 Estoppel Section 115
I to III. Introductory
IV to VI. Promissory Estoppel
Chapter 58 Rule Excluding Evidence of title
Section 116
I to III. Introductory
IV and VI. Limitations of the section
VII to IX. Attornment
Chapter 59 Estoppel of Acceptor of Bill, Bailee or Licensee
Section 117
Chapter 60 Competence and Compellability-General Rule
Sections 118-119
Competence and Compellability-General Rule
Chapter 61 Parties and Their Spouses
Section 120
I and II. Introductory
III and IV. Position of Spouse of the Accused
Chapter 62 Privilege and Disability-general Observations
Introductory
Balancing
Chapter 63 Judicial Privilege
Judicial Privilege
Chapter 64 Marital Privileges
Section 122
I to III. Introductory
IV and VII. Limitations-Third Person Not Privileged
VIII to X. Law in U.S.A
Chapter 65 State Privilege
Section 123
I and II. Introductory
III. Essential Conditions
IV and V. Affairs of State
VI to VII. Procedure
IX Position in U.S.A
X and XI. Other Countries
XII. Points for Amendment
XIII and XV. National Security
Chapter 66 Communications in Official Confidence
Section 124
I and II. Introductory
III to V. Points for Amendment
Chapter 67 Information as to Offences
Section 125
I and III. Introductory
IV to VI. American Law
Chapter 68 Legal Professional Privilege
Sections 126-129
I. Introduction
II. Rationale
III and IV. Section 126-Principle and Scope
V and VI. Suggested New Exception
VII to IX. Section 126-Some Points of Detail
Chapter 69 Incriminating Documents and Title Deeds
Sections 130 and 131
I to III. Introductory
IV and V. Recommendation as to Section 130
Chapter 70 Incriminating Questions
Section 132
I and II. Introductory
III. Two Doctrines
IV and V. English Law
VI and VII. Position of the Accused
VIII andIX. Proviso-The Meaning of "Compulsion"
Chapter 71 Privilege of Family Counsellors
Section 132A
Chapter 72 Patent Agents
Section 132B
Chapter 73 Accomplice Evidence
Section 133 and Section 114, Illustration (u)
I to III. Introductory
IV and V. Meaning and English Law
VI. Entrapment
VII. Recommendation
Chapter 74 Minimum Number of Witnesses
Section 134
I and II. Introductory
III. Present English Law
IV and VII. Previous Law in India
Chapter 75 Order of Examination of Witnesses
Section 135
Chapter 76 Determination of Questions as to Admissibility
Section 136
Chapter 77 Examination and Cross-Examination
Sections 137-138
I to III. Introductory
IV and V. Cross-Examination wider Than Direct Examination
VI and VII. Co-defendants and Co-accused
Chapter 78 Cross-Examination-who can be Cross-Examined
Sections 139 and 140
Chapter 79 Leading Questions
Sections 141 to 143
Introductory
Leading questions in cross-examination of favourable witness
Chapter 80 Matters in writing used in Examination
Section 144
Chapter 81 Contradiction of Witnesses
Section 145
I and II. Introductory
III and IV. English Law
V to VII. Points for Consideration-Oral Statements
Chapter 82 Impeaching the Credit
Sections 146 and 147
Chapter 83 Cross-Examination as to Credit-the Powers of the Court
Section 148
I and II. Introductory
III. Legislative Precedents
IV. Position in U.S.A
V and VI. Recommendations as to Accused
Chapter 84 Objectionable Question in Cross-Examination
Section 149
Section 150
Sections 151,152
Chapter 85 Contradiction as to Matters Affecting Credit
Section 153
Contradiction as to Matters Affecting Credit
Chapter 86 Cross-Examination of One's own Witness
Section 154
I and II. Introductory and English Law
III. Question of Effect
Chapter 87 Impeachment of Credit of Witnesses
Section 155
I. Introductory
II. Section 155(1) to 155(4)
III. Recommendation
Chapter 88 Corroborative Evidence and Re-Establishing Credit
Sections 156-157 and Proposed Section 157A
Significance
Principle
Rationale
Section 157-Meaning of "competent to investigate"
Chapter 89 Credit of Declarants other than witnesses
Section 158
Chapter 90 Refreshing the Memory of witness
Section 159
Chapter 91 Evidence with Reference to Past Memoranda
Section 160
Chapter 92 Rights of Adverse Party with Reference to writings used as Aids to or Substitutes for Memory
Rights of Adverse Party with Reference to writings used as Aids to or Substitutes for Memory
Chapter 93 Production of Documents
Section 162
Chapter 94 Documents Produced After Notice and Inspected
Section 163
Chapter 95 Documents Not Produced After Notice
Section 164
Chapter 96 Power of the Judge
Section 165
Chapter 97 Jury and Assessors
Section 166
Chapter 98 Improper Admission or Rejection of Evidence
Section 167
Chapter 99 Discretion of the Judge
Discretion of the Judge
Chapter 100 Conclusion
Various aspects of the law of evidence
What can be proved
Position in England
Note of Dissent of Shri Sen-Varma
Should the Word Admissible be Substituted for the word Relevant in Certain Sections of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872? (1)
Should the Word Admissible be Substituted for the word Relevant in Certain Sections of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872? (2)
Note of Dissent of Shri Mitra
Regarding Recommendations Relating to Section 23 and Section 68 of the Evidence Act


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