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Report No. 271

Schedule

[See sections 2(j), 12(s), 34(e) and 55(1)]

List of matters for DNA testing

A. Offences under Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) where DNA testing is useful for investigation of offences.

B. Offences under special laws:

(i) The Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956 (104 of 1956);

(ii) The Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971 (34 of 1971);

(iii) The Pre-conception and Pre-natal Diagnostic Techniques (Prohibition of Sex Selection) Act, 1994 (57 of 1994);

(iv) The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005 (43 of 2005);

(v) The Protection of Civil Rights Act, 1955 (22 of 1955);

(vi) The Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989 (33 of 1989);

(vii) The Motor Vehicles Act, 1988 (59 of 1988).

C. Civil disputes and other civil matters:

(i) Parental dispute (maternity or paternity);

(ii) Issues relating to pedigree;

(iii) Issues relating to assisted reproductive technologies (surrogacy, in-vitro fertilization and intrauterine implantation or such other technologies);

(iv) Issues relating to transplantation of human organs (donor and recipient) under the Transplantation of Human Organs Act, 1994 (42 of 1994);

(v) Issues relating to immigration or emigration;

(vi) Issues relating to establishment of individual identity.

D. Other offences or cases:

(i) Medical negligence;

(ii) Unidentified human remains;

(iii) Identification of abandoned or disputed children and related issues.

1 The DNA test has 99.99 % chance of correct conclusions and is perceived as an objective scientific test which may be difficult for an individual to refute. See: Veeran v. Veeravarmalle & Anr., AIR 2009 Mad. 64; and Harjinder Kaur v. State of Punjab & Ors., 2013 (2) RCR (Criminal) 146.

2 Simpson v. Collinson, (1964) 1 All ER 262.

3 Organisation of American States, American Convention on Human Rights art.11, Nov.21, 1969 O.A.S.T.S. No.36, 1144 U.N.TS. 123 (entered into force July18, 1978)

4 Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam, art.18U.N.GAOR, 4th Sess., Agenda Item 5, U.N. Doc. A/CONF.157/PC/62/Add18 (Aug 5, 1990)

5 European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms art.5, Nov.4, 1950, 213, U.N.T.S. 222 (entered into force Sept 3, 1953) as amended by Protocols Nos. 3,5,8 and 11 (entered into force Sept 21, 1970, Dec., 20, 1971, Jan 1 1990 and Nov 1 1998 respectively)

6 Published in FSI Genetics, Forensic Science International Genetics 1 (200) 3-12

7 R. Lessig, C. Grundmann, F. Dahlmann, K. Ro tzscher, J. Edelmann, P.M. Schneider, Tsunami 2004-a review of 1 year of continuous forensic medical work for victim identification, EXCLI J. 5 (2006) 128- 139.

8 From Dust to Dust: Ethical and Practical Issues Involved in the Location, Exhumation, and Identification of Bodies from Mass Graves by Erin D. Williams, John D. Crews. Croatian Medical Journal 44(3):251- 258, 2003

9 Schneider PM. Datenbankenmitgenetischen Merkmalen von Straftaftatern (Criminal DNA databases: data protection and secutiry]. Datenschutz und Datensicherheit 1998; 22:330-3.

10 Ethical-legal problems of DNA databases in Criminal investigation (Margarita Guillen, Maria Victoria Lareu, Carmela Pestoni, Antonio Salas and Angel Carracedo University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain) in Journal of Medical Ethics 2000; 26:226-271.

11 AIR 1961 SC 1808

12 AIR 2010 SC 1974

13 (2013) 2 SCC 357; See also Murlidhar Meghraj v. State of Maharashtra AIR 1976 SC 1929. Kisan Trimbak Kothula & Ors. v. State of Maharashtra AIR 1977 SC 435; and State of Maharashtra v. Natwarlal Damodardas Soni AIR 1980 SC 593.

14 Supra note 12

15 AIR 1953 SC 131 16 AIR 1973 SC 1196

17 State of U P v. Deoman Upadhyaya, AIR 1960 SC 1125

18 Shiv Narayan Dhingra, "Right to Silence of the Accused under Constitution of India", 41 JCPS 32 (2007)

19 State of Gujarat v. Shyamlal Mohanlal Choksi, AIR 1965 SC 1251

20 AIR 2010 SC 2851

21 (2011) 7 SCC 130

22 (2016) 8 SCC 307

23 2015 Cri LJ 4683

24 2017Cri LJ 1911

25 2017 (1) ALT (Crl.) 422 (A.P.)

26 Ibid, Thogorani @ K Damyanti v. State of Orissa & Ors., 2004 Crl. LJ 4003; Sulabai v. Jagannath & Anr., 1972 Cr.LJ 1392; Venkateshwarulu v. Subbayya, AIR 1951 Mad 190; Subayya Gounder v. Bhoppala, AIR 1959 Mad 396; and Harjinder Kaur, supra note 1.

27 2012 (2) RCR (Crl.) 889

28 AIR 1993 SC 2295

29 AIR 2001 SC 2226

30 AIR 2014 SC 932; See also: Dharam Deo Yadav v. State of U P, (2014) 5 SCC 509; and Dipanwita Roy v. Ronobroto Roy (2015) 1 SCC 365

31 AIR 1954 SC 300

32 AIR 1963 SC 1295

33 (2011) 8 SCC 1

34 AIR 1995 SC 264 35 AIR 1991 SC 207

36 AIR 2008 SC 663

37 (2009) 9 SCC 551

38 Supra note 12

39 4 Harvard L.R. 193 (1890).

40 Supra Note 34

41 AIR 1997 SC 568

42 AIR 1999 SC 495

43 AIR 2003 SC 2363

44 AIR 2003 SC 3450

45 AIR 2005 SC 186

46 AIR 1978 SC 597

47 AIR 1991 SC 207

48 Malak Singh v. State of Punjab, AIR 1981 SC 760

49 Govind v. State of Madhya Pradesh, AIR 1975 SC 1378; (see also: Bhavesh Jayanti Lakhani v. State of Maharashtra, Supra Note 37; and Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973).

50 (2015) 8 SCC 735

51 Supra note 31

52 Supra note 32

53 AIR 1958 SC 538

54 (2006) 8 SCC 212

55 Supra note 36

56 Supra note 41

57 Writ Petition (C) No. 607 of 2016 decided on February 06, 2017.

58 WP (C) No.277 of 2017 decided on June 09, 2017.

59 (2015) 7 SCC 178

60 AIR 2010 SC 806

61 AIR 2016 SC 290

62 (1995) 1 Lloyd's Rep 445, QB (Commercial Division)

63 Ramanathan v. State of Tamil Nadu AIR 1978 SC 1204

64 Jaspal Singh v. State of Punjab, AIR 1979 SC 1708.

65 Sadashiv Mallikarjun Khedarkar v. Nandini Sadashiv Khedakar 1995 Cri. L. J. 4090(Bom)

66 Kanti Devi v. Poshi Ram, AIR 2001 SC 2226 67Supra note 44

68 Kanchan Bedi v. Shri Gurpreet Singh, AIR 2003 Delhi 446

69 Andhra Sugar v. State of Andhra Pradesh, Air 1968 SC 599; Siddheshwar Sehkari Sakhar Karkhana Ltd. v. CIT Kolhapur & Ors., AIR 2004 SC 4716; and Harjinder Kaur, Supra note 1.

70 Prof Elizabeth B. Ludwin King (A Conflict of Interests: Privacy, Truth and Compulsory DNA Testing for Argentina's Children of the Disappeared) 2011

71 133 S. Ct. 1958 (2013)

72 Data obtained from National Institute of Justice of the United States of America (www/ojp.usdoj.gov/nij).

73 533 So.2d 841 (1988).

74 143 Misc.2d 276 (1989).

75 918 F2d 56.

76 577 N.E.2d 477 (1991).

77 509 U.S. 579 (1993).

78 (1997) 1 SCR 6075

79 (2003) 2 SCR 678; see also Harjinder Kaur, supra note 1.

80 (2003) 1 All ER 148,

81 (1997) 23 EHRR 313

82 [2008] ECHR 1581.

83 Schneider PM. DNA databases for offender identification in Europe - the need for technical, legal and political harmonization. Proceedings of the 2nd European Symposium on Human Identification. Madison, WI, USA: PromegaCorporation,1998.

84 Available at www.antoniocasella.eu/dnlaw/DNA-data2011.pdf Last accessed on 13 July 2017

85 "Report of the Group of Experts on Privancy" (Chaired by Justice A P Shah, Former Chief Justice, Delhi High Court), submitted to the Planning Commission on 16 October 2012.

86 Malimath Committee Report on Reform of Criminal Justice System, 2003.



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