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Report No. 165

5.2. Data projected by World Bank in its Publication.-

The World Bank chronologically brings out1 the details of the National Policy, Central Schemes, State projects and the decentralised education development and District primary Education Programme approved in 1992. It states:

"Working groups of the Planning Commission established ambitious target dates for achieving Universal Elementary Education, targets that were revised throughout the 1960s and 1970s. In 1966, the Kothari Commission proposed achieving the goal no later than 1986. This target, too was superseded when the 1986 National Policy on Education articulated a goal of ensuring that by 1990 all children 11 years of age would have completed five years of formal or non-formal education.

The 1986 National Policy on Education sets the stage for the Central Government to play an increasingly important role in primary education. The policy explicitly recognised the need to make a concerted effort to expand and improve basic education, meaning formal and non-formal primary and adult literacy education. At the primary schools level, the policy gave priority to reducing the disparities in enrolment for girls and for students from Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. To carry out the policy, the Department of Education created a set of centrally sponsored grant schemes to assist States in developing basic education."

Such schemes included, inter alia, Operation Blackboard: 1986; District Institutes of Education and Training (DIETs): 1988; Total Literacy Campaign: 1988; Minimum Levels of Learning: 1989.

1. The World Bank Publication: Primary Education in India, March, 1997, Chapter 1.

5.2.1. The publication adds1 that assisted by donors various State projects were also initiated such as Andhra Pradesh Education Project, which began in early 1980s with the support of United Kingdom's Overseas Development Administration (ODA), Bihar (United Nations Children Fund, UNICEF), Rajasthan (Swedish International Development Authority) and Uttar Pradesh (International Development Association, IDA) started projects between 1990 and 1993. In each State, registered societies have been created to receive and disburse funds and to provide an umbrella organisation, closely linked to state education departments for project implementation.

1. Ibid.

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