Report No. 35
Capital Punishment in Hindu Law
B. Homicide in Hindu Law.
C. Capital Punishment in Hindu Period.
D. Principles of punishment.
E. Classification of punishment in Hindu Law.
F. Different kinds of punishment in Hindu Law.
G. Arguments against capital punishment.
H. Capital punishment for various crimes.
I. References from Manu.
I. Capital punishment and Buddhist Rules.
K. Capital punishment in the Maratha Period.]
Before dealing with the position in Hindu Law, it would be convenient to state the chronology of various texts, etc., relevant to the Hindu Period, which is given below:1-
|1500-1000 B.C.||Vedic Samhitas and Brahmanas.|
|1000-800 B.C.||Principal Upnishads.|
|600-300 B.C.||Dharmasutras of Gautama, Apastamba Baudhayana and Vasishtha|
|300-100 B.C.||Sankha-Lakhita Smriti.|
|400-300 B.C.||Works of Pali Buddhist Canon.|
|300-200 B.C.||Arthashastra of Kautilya.|
|200 B.C.-A.D. 200||Manu-Smriti.|
|300 B.C.-A.D. 200||Ramayana.|
|A.D. 100-200||Budhocharita and Saundarananda of Asvaghosha.|
|A.D. 100-300||Original Panchatantra.|
|A.D. 100-300||Pratima-nataka and other works of Bhasa.|
|A.D. 100-300||Works of classical Tamil literature.|
|A.D. 100-300||Works of Jaina (Svetambra) Canon.|
|A.D. 200-300||Chatushiataka of Aryadeva.|
|A.D. 200-500||Sabara's commentary on Jaimini's Mimamsa-sutras|
|A.D. 300-400||Abhidharmakosa of Vasubandhu.|
|A.D. 300-400||Jatakamala of Aryasura.|
|A.D. 400-500||Visuddhimagga of Buddhaghosa.|
|A.D. 300-600||Vayu, Vishnu and Markandeya Puranas.|
|A.D. 350-420||Abhijananasakuntalam and other works of Kalidasa|
|A.D. 400-600||Nitisara of Kamadaka.|
|A.D. 400-800||Mudrarakshasa, Bhaktikavya, Kiratary juniyam, Sisupalavadha and other works.|
|A.D. 650-700||Tantravartika and other works on Mimamsa by Kumarila-Bhatta|
|A.D. 600-650||Kadambari of Bana.|
|A.D. 600-650||Dasakumaracharita of Dandin.|
|A.D. 705-775||Commentaries on Avasyakasutras etc. by Haribhadra.|
|A.D. 800-850||Balakrida, commentary on Yajnavalkya-Smriti by Visvarupa.|
|A.D. 800-900||Manubhashya, commentary on Manu-Smriti by Medhatithi.|
|A.D. 959||Nitivakyamritam of Somadeva.|
|A.D. 1000-1100||Commentaries on Uvasagadasao and other works by Abhayadeva.|
|A.D. 1063-1081||Kathasaritagara of Somadeva|
|A.D. 1082-1100||Mitakshara, commentary on Yajnavalkya-Smriti by Vijnanesvara.|
|A.D. 1089-1173||Adisvaracharita and other works by Hemchandra.|
|A.D. 1100-1130||Commentary on Yajnavalkya-Smriti by Aparkarka.|
|A.D. 1100-1130||Rajadharmakanda and other works belonging to the Smriti digest called Krityakalpataru of Lakshmidhara.|
|A.D. 1131||Manasollasa by King Somesvara III Bhulokamalla.|
|A.D. 1150-1160||Rajatarangini of Kalhana.|
|A.D. 1150-1225||Vyavaharanirnaya of Varadaraja.|
|A.D. 1150-1300||Commentaries on Gautama-Dharma-sastra and Apastamba-Dharma-sutra by Haradatta.|
|A.D. 1150-1300||Commentary on Manu-Smriti by Kulluka.|
|A.D. 1200-1225||Smritichandika by Devanbhatta.|
1. Taken from Ghoshal, A History of Indian Political Ideas, (1959), pp. xxi-xxii.