The Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 aims at making provisions for the prevention of adulteration of food. The Act extends to the whole of India and came into force on 1st June 1955.
What is adulterated food?
An article of food shall be deemed to be adulterated –
- if the article sold by a vendor is not of the nature, substance or quality demanded by the purchaser or which it purports to be;
- if the article contains any substance affecting its quality or of it is so processed as to injuriously affect its nature, substance or quality;
- if any inferior or cheaper substance has been substituted wholly or partly for the article, or any constituent of the article has been wholly or partly abstracted from it, so as to affecting its quality or of it is so processed as to injuriously affect its nature, substance or quality;
- if the article had been prepared, packed or kept under insanitary conditions whereby it has become contaminated or injurious to health;
- if the article consists wholly or in part of any filthy, putrid, disgusting, rotten, decomposed or diseased animal or vegetable substance or being insect-infested, or is otherwise unfit for human consumption;
- if the article is obtained from a diseased animal;
- if the article contains any poisonous or other ingredient which is injurious to health;
- if the container of the article is composed of any poisonous or deleterious substance which renders its contents injurious to health;
- if the article contains any prohibited coloring matter or preservative, or any permitted coloring matter or preservative in excess of the prescribed limits;
- if the quality or purity of the article falls below the prescribed standard, or its constituents are present in proportions other standard, or its constituents are present in proportions other than those prescribed, whether or not rendering it injurious to health.
Thus, additions of water to milk amount to adulteration, within the meaning of sub-clauses (b) or (c).