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Acts Not Constituting Infringement

The Copyright Act provides certain exceptions to infringement. The object of these provisions is to enable the encouragement of private study and research and promotion of education. They provide defenses in an action for infringement.

The exceptions come under the following categories:

1.      Reproduction for use in judicial proceedings and for use of members of the legislature,

2.      Publication of short passages, restricted reproduction or performance for educational purposes,

3.      Making of records under license from Copyright Board on payment of royalty,

4.      Playing of records or performance by a club or society for the benefit of the members of religious institutions,

5.      Reproduction of an article on current economic, political, social or religious matters in newspapers, magazines etc,

6.      Reproduction of a few copies for use in libraries or for research or private study,

7.      Matters published in official gazettes including Act of Parliament (subject to certain conditions ) or its translation,

8.      Making of a drawing, engraving or photograph of an architectural work of art, or a sculpture kept in a public place,

9.      Use of artistic work in a cinematography film,

10.   Use of an artistic work (author not the owner of copyright) by the author of any mould, cast, sketch, plan, model, etc., made by him for the work,

11.   Making of an object in three dimension of an artistic work in two dimensions subject to certain condition, and

12.   Reconstruction of a building in accordance with architectural drawings.

13.   Fair dealing without commercial benefits.

Copyright law does not prevent a person from taking what is useful from an original work and create a new work with additions and improvements. Under the guise of a copyright the owner of a copyright cannot ask the court to close all the venues of research and scholarship and all frontiers of human knowledge.

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