A.Ravishankar Prasad & Ors.  INSC 1081 (15 May 2009)
IN THE SUPREME COURT
OF INDIA CRIMINAL APPELLATE JURISDICTION CRIMINAL APPEAL Nos. 1080-1085 OF
(Arising out of SLP
(Crl.) Nos.8854-57 of 2008) Central Bureau of Investigation ... Appellant
Versus A. Ravishankar Prasad & Others ... Respondents
Dalveer Bhandari, J.
Central Bureau of Investigation is seriously aggrieved by the judgment of the
High Court of judicature at Madras dated 30.4.2008 by which the High Court has
quashed the entire criminal proceedings and CC Nos.80, 81 and 82 of 2001
against the respondents herein namely, A. Ravishankar Prasad and A. Manohar
to the appellant, the respondents herein have committed serious offences, such
as forgery, fabrication of 2 documents and using the said documents as
genuine. The respondents, A. Ravishankar Prasad and A. Manohar Prasad also
entered into conspiracy with the Chairman and Managing Director and other
officials of the Indian Bank, Chennai with the object of cheating the Indian
Bank in the matter of recommending/sanctioning/disbursing huge credit
facilities in the form of :
"(1) Letter of
(2) Open Cash Credit
(OCC) (3) Secured- Temporary Overdrafts (SOD/TOO) (4) Bank Guarantee (BG) (5)
Blocked Loan; and (6) Taking over of liabilities from other banks and other
branches of Indian Bank without proper appraisal, without following banking
norms, beyond the delegated powers and without ensuring the end use of the
funds in the name of M/s Ravishankar Films Pvt.Ltd., M/s Gemini Arts Pvt.Ltd.,
M/s Gemini Pictures Circuit Pvt.Ltd. and M/s Prasad Properties and Investments
Pvt.Ltd. represented by respondent no.1 A. Ravishankar Prasad and respondent
no.2 A. Manohar Prasad who fraudulently produced false documents through their
employees and used the same as genuine and defrauded the Indian Bank huge
amounts running into hundreds of crores and obtained pecuniary advantage for
themselves and others."
completion of investigation charge-sheets were filed and four cases were
registered against M. Gopalakrishnan, formerly CMD, Indian Bank, Chennai and
other public servants, bank officials and A. Ravishankar Prasad and A. Manohar
Prasad and their group concerns under section 120- B read with section 420 and
section 13(2) read with section 13(1)(d) of Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988.
28.3.2007 the respondents herein have settled the entire outstanding dues by
paying an amount of Rs.157 crores during March 2007 and the petitions before
the Debt Recovery Tribunal, Chennai have been dismissed as settled out of
nos.1 and 2 had preferred application under section 482 of the Cr.P.C. before
the High Court of Madras, to quash the proceedings against them contending
inter alia that the witnesses so far examined by the prosecution have not
stated anything against the respondents. It is also urged that the respondents
had entered into a compromise with the Indian Bank and have settled the entire
outstanding dues and legal charges to the bank on the recovery certificate
issued to the DRT, Chennai. In this view of the matter, proceedings against the
respondents need to be quashed.
pursuance of the show cause notice issued by the High Court, the CBI contended
that the cases were registered on the basis of written complaint filed by the
General Manager, Indian Bank, Chennai. It was submitted that the active trial
in the case was in progress and 92 witnesses have already been examined. The
CBI also urged that the settlement of the loan transactions between the parties
would not absolve the respondents herein from the criminal liability.
According to the CBI,
the Madras High Court without properly scrutinizing the materials produced by
the prosecution quashed the proceedings against the respondents.
High Court has given undue weightage to the settlement entered between the bank
and the respondents.
The settlement has absolved
the respondents at the most from the civil liability but as far as criminal
liability under section 120-B read with section 420 IPC is concerned, the
respondents share the charges with the Chairman and the Managing Director and
other officials of the Bank. Therefore, quashing of the complaint against the
respondents was wholly unwarranted and against the settled position of law. The
High Court did not comprehend the ratio of the series of judgments of this
court and erroneously quashed
High Court ought to have appreciated that quashing of the criminal proceedings
against the respondents herein would also have grave impact and repercussion on
the criminal proceedings pending against the Chairman and the Managing Director
and other officials of the Bank under section 120-B read with section 420 IPC
and section 13(2) read with section 13(1)(d) of Prevention of Corruption Act,
we examine the legal position, it has become imperative to recapitulate some
averments and material incorporated in the charge-sheet filed against the
incorporated that during the course of investigation the complicity of some
public servants and private persons have come to notice and their names have
been included in the list of accused persons. In the charge- sheet it is
incorporated that the senior bank officials in order to favour respondents A.
Ravishanker Prasad and A. Manohar Prasad representing various companies have
defrauded the bank.
respondents obtained pecuniary advantage for themselves and for the accused
persons mentioned above, 6 causing huge wrongful loss to the Indian Bank T.
Nagar (BOT) Branch to an extent of Rs.5935.65 Lakhs as on 16.6.1997 by M/s
Ravishankar Films Pvt. Ltd. (A-12) (now M/s Ravishankar Industries Pvt. Ltd.)
and to an extent of Rs.750 Lakhs (excluding interest) to the Indian Bank
Kotturpuram Branch, Chennai in the account of M/s Tamil Nadu Video Corporation
to the tune of Rs.675 Lakhs (excluding interest) to Indian Bank, Alwarpt
Branch, Chennai in the account of M/s Media Communication Services to the tune
of Rs.725 Lakhs (excluding interest) to Indian Bank, Abhiramapuram Branch,
Chennai in the account of M/s Sri Balaji Finance and Investments to the tune of
Rs.700 Lakhs (excluding interest) to Indian Bank, Peters Road Branch, Chennai
in the account of M/s Kalyani Audio Enterprises (as on 29.5.1997) and thereby
A-1 to A-31 have committed offences punishable under sections 120(B) read with
sections 420, 467, 468, 471 Indian Penal Code and section 13(2) read with
section 13(1)(d) of Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988.
furtherance of aforesaid criminal conspiracy in the course of the same
transactions, A. Ravishankar Prasad (A-10) vide letter dated 20.8.90 addressed
to the Branch Manager, Indian Bank, T. Nagar (BOT) Branch, Chennai requested
for 7 the following credit limits viz., Open Cash Credit (OCC) facility of
Rs.390 Lakhs, Medium Term Loan (MTL) of Rs.60 lakhs and Letter of Credit (LC)
of Rs.100 lakhs in favour of M/s Ravishankar Films Pvt.Ltd. (A-12) (now changed
its name as M/s Ravishankar Industries Pvt.Ltd).
furtherance of aforesaid criminal conspiracy based on the letter of A-10, S.
Ravindran (A-13) the then Branch Manager, without undertaking any pre-sanction
verifications about the credit worthiness of the company has recommended for an
Open Cash Credit (OCC) facility of Rs.390 lakhs, Medium Term Loan (MTL) of
Rs.60 lakhs and Letter of Credit (LC) of Rs.100 lakhs in favour of M/s
Ravishankar Films Pvt.Ltd. (A-12). While forwarding the proposal, he
exaggerated information about the profile of the company. While this proposal
was pending for sanction, V.R. Chidambaram (A-30), the then Zonal Manager of
Indian Bank, Chennai had permitted an ad hoc TOD facility of Rs.50 lakhs on
25.10.90 over phone, without ascertaining the requirement of the firm for such
huge funds. However, S. Ravindran (A-13) released the entire amount of Rs. 50
lakhs on 24.10.90 itself. This amount was disbursed by S. Ravindran (A-13) to
the sister concerns of M/s Ravishankar Films Pvt.Ltd. (A-12) as per the 8
request of the Directors of the company A. Ravishankar Prasad (A-10) and A.
Manohar Prasad (A-11) and while doing so he failed to ensure proper end use of
the banks funds.
charge-sheet annexed with the paperbook running from pages 78 to 191 gives
details of the clandestine dealings and systematic fraud committed by the
respondents in collusion with the bank officials. By recapitulating all details
we would unnecessarily burden this judgment. Regarding investigation of this
case, we would like to observe that this case seems to be one of the very few
In this case, details
and particulars regarding respective individual roles of the respondents in
receiving pecuniary advantages from the bank officials in a clandestine manner
have been enumerated. By no stretch of imagination, it can be said that
allegations in the complaint and charge-sheet taken at their face value do not
constitute offences alleged.
the High Court possesses inherent powers under section 482 of the Code of
Criminal Procedure. These inherent powers of the High Court are meant to act ex
debito justitiae to do real and substantial justice, for the administration of
which alone it exists, or to prevent abuse of the process of the court.
Inherent power under Section 482 Cr.P.C. can be exercised in following category
(i) to give effect to
an order under the Code;
(ii) to prevent abuse
of the process of court, and (iii) to otherwise secure the ends of justice.
This court time and
again has observed that the extraordinary power under section 482, Cr.P.C.
should be exercised sparingly and with great care and caution. The court would
be justified in exercising the power when it is imperative to exercise the
power in order to prevent injustice. In order to understand the nature and
scope of power under section 482 Cr.P.C. it has become necessary to
recapitulate the ratio of the decided cases.
to the following cases would reveal that the courts have consistently taken the
view that they must use the court's extraordinary power only to prevent
injustice and secure the ends of justice.
have largely inherited the provisions of inherent powers from the English
jurisprudence, therefore the principles decided by the English courts would be
of relevance for us. It is generally agreed that the Crown Court has inherent
power to protect its process from abuse. The English courts have also used inherent
power to achieve the same objective.
Connelly v. DPP  AC 1254, Lord Devlin while dealing with similar
provisions under the English law stated that where particular criminal
proceedings constitute an abuse of process, the court is empowered to refuse to
allow the indictment to proceed to trial.
Salmon in DPP v. Humphrys  AC 1 stressed the importance of the inherent
power when he observed that it is only if the prosecution amounts to an abuse
of the process of the court and is oppressive and vexatious that the judge has
the power to intervene. He further stated that the court's power to prevent
such abuse is of great constitutional importance and should be jealously
R.P. Kapur v. State of Punjab (1960) 3 SCR 388, this Court summarized some
categories of cases where inherent power can and should be exercised to quash
(i) where it
manifestly appears that there is a legal bar against the institution or
continuance of the proceedings;
(ii) where the
allegations in the first information report or complaint taken at their face
value 11 and accepted in their entirety do not constitute the offence alleged;
(iii) where the
allegations constitute an offence, but there is no legal evidence adduced or
the evidence adduced clearly or manifestly fails to prove the charge.
powers possessed by the High Court under Section 482 of the Code are very wide
and the very plenitude of the power requires great caution in its exercise. The
court must be careful to ensure that its decision in exercise of this power is
based on sound principles. The inherent power should not be exercised to stifle
a legitimate prosecution. The High Court should normally refrain from giving a
prima facie decision in a case where all the facts are incomplete and hazy;
more so, when the evidence has not been collected and produced before the court
and the issues involved, whether factual or legal, are of such magnitude that
they cannot be seen in their true perspective without sufficient material. Of
course, no hard and fast rule can be laid down with regard to cases in which
the High Court will exercise its extraordinary jurisdiction of quashing the
proceedings at any stage.
Court had an occasion to deal with the concept of inherent powers in State of
Karnataka v. L. Muniswamy & 12 Others (1977) 2 SCC 699. The court again
reiterated that the wholesome power under Section 482 Cr.P.C. entitles the High
Court to quash a proceeding when it comes to the conclusion that allowing the
proceeding to continue would be an abuse of the process of the court or that
the ends of justice require that the proceeding ought to be quashed. The High
Courts have been invested with inherent powers, both in civil and criminal
matters, to achieve a salutary public purpose. A court proceeding ought not to
be permitted to degenerate into a weapon of harassment or persecution. The
court observed in this case that ends of justice are higher than the ends of
mere law though justice must be administered according to laws made by the
legislature. This case has been followed in a large number of subsequent cases
of this Court and other courts.
another leading case State of Haryana & Others v. Bhajan Lal & Others
1992 Supp. (1) SCC 335, this Court in the backdrop of interpretation of various
relevant provisions of the Cr.P.C. under Chapter XIV and of the principles of
law enunciated by this Court in a series of decisions relating to the exercise
of the extraordinary power under Article 226 of the Constitution of India or
the inherent powers under Section 482 Cr.P.C. gave the following categories of
cases by way of 13 illustration wherein such power could be exercised either
to prevent abuse of the process of the court or otherwise to secure the ends of
justice. Thus, this Court made it clear that it may not be possible to lay down
any precise, clearly defined and sufficiently channelised and inflexible
guidelines or rigid formulae and to give an exhaustive list to myriad kinds of
cases wherein such power should be exercised:
(1) Where the
allegations made in the first information report or the complaint, even if they
are taken at their face value and accepted in their entirety do not prima facie
constitute any offence or make out a case against the accused.
(2) Where the
allegations in the first information report and other materials, if any,
accompanying the FIR do not disclose a cognizable offence, justifying an
investigation by police officers under Section 156(1) of the Code except under
an order of a Magistrate within the purview of Section 155(2) of the Code.
(3) Where the
uncontroverted allegations made in the FIR or complaint and the evidence
collected in support of the same do not disclose the commission of any offence
and make out a case against the accused.
(4) Where, the
allegations in the FIR do not constitute a cognizable offence but constitute
only a non-cognizable offence, no investigation is permitted by a police
officer without an order of a Magistrate as contemplated under Section 155(2)
of the Code.
(5) Where the
allegations made in the FIR or complaint are so absurd and inherently
improbable on the basis of which no prudent person can ever reach a just
conclusion that there is sufficient ground for proceeding against the accused.
(6) Where there is an
express legal bar engrafted in any of the provisions of the Code or the
concerned Act (under which a criminal proceeding is instituted) to the
institution and continuance of the proceedings and/or where there is a specific
provision in the Code or the concerned Act, providing efficacious redress for
the grievance of the aggrieved party.
(7) Where a criminal
proceeding is manifestly attended with mala fide and/or where the proceeding is
maliciously instituted with an ulterior motive for wreaking vengeance on the
accused and with a view to spite him due to private and personal grudge.
Court again in Janata Dal v. H. S. Chowdhary & Others (1992) 4 SCC 305
observed that in what circumstances the inherent powers should be exercised:-
"132. The criminal courts are clothed with inherent power to make such
orders as may be necessary for the ends of justice. Such power though
unrestricted and undefined should not be capriciously or arbitrarily exercised,
but should be exercised in appropriate cases, ex debito justitiae to do real
and substantial justice for the administration of which alone the courts exist.
The powers possessed by the High Court under Section 482 of the Code are very
wide and the very plentitude of the power requires great caution in its
exercise. Courts must be careful to see that its decision in exercise of this
power is based on sound principles."
learned counsel for the respondents submitted written submissions and relied on
some of the decided cases of this court.
decision in Central Bureau of Investigation, SPE, SIU(X), New Delhi v. Duncans
Agro Industries Ltd., Calcutta (1996) 5 SCC 591 was relied upon by the learned
counsel for the respondents. The court observed that for the purpose of
quashing the complaint, it is necessary to consider whether the allegations in
the complaint prima facie make out an offence or not. It is not necessary to
scrutinize the allegations for the purpose of deciding whether such allegations
are likely to be upheld in the trial. Any action by way of quashing the
complaint is an action to be taken at the threshold before evidences are led in
support of the complaint.
For quashing the
complaint by way of action at the threshold, it is, therefore, necessary to
consider whether on the face of the allegations incorporated in a complaint or
F.I.R., a criminal offence is constituted or not.
this case, the court further held that looking to the facts of the case it
appears that after completion of civil suit 16 further investigation in
connection with complaints may not be expedient. In concluding para, it was
observed as under:- "In the facts of the case, it appears to us that there
is enough justification for the High Court to hold that the case was basically
a matter of civil dispute.
The Banks had already
filed suits for recovery of the dues of the Banks on account of credit facility
and the said suits have been compromised on receiving the payments from the
companies concerned. Even if an offence of cheating is prima facie constituted,
such offence is a compoundable offence and compromise decrees passed in the
suits instituted by the Banks, for all intents and purposes, amount to
compounding of the offence of cheating".
tenor of the judgment indicates that quashing of the complaint would depend on
the facts of the each case.
Union of India & Others v. B.R. Bajaj & Others (1994) 2 SCC 277 the
court after examining this court's judgment in Ch. Bhajan Lal's case (supra)
observed that at the stage of FIR the court should refrain from interfering
when the FIR discloses commission of a cognizable offence.
B.S. Joshi & Others v. State of Haryana & Another (2003) 4 SCC 675 the
court reiterated the legal position that the court's inherent powers have no
limit but should be exercised with utmost care and caution. Inherent powers
must be utilized with the sole purpose to prevent the 17 abuse of the process
of the court or to otherwise secure the ends of justice. In exercise of
inherent powers, proper scrutiny of facts and circumstances of concerned case
are absolutely imperative.
Nikhil Merchant v. Central Bureau of Investigation & Another (2008) 9 SCC
677, this court while relying on the aforesaid judgment in B.S. Joshi's case
(supra) observed that on overall view of the facts the court was satisfied that
technicality should not be allowed to stand in the way of quashing of the criminal
Jagdish Chanana & Others v. State of Haryana & Another 2008 (4) Scale
411 this court observed as under:- "The fact that a compromise has indeed
been recorded is admitted by all sides and in terms of the compromise the
disputes which are purely personal in nature and arise out of commercial
transactions, have been settled in terms of the compromise with one of the
terms of the compromise being that proceedings pending in court may be
withdrawn or compromised or quashed, as the case may be. In the light of the
compromise, it is unlikely that the prosecution will succeed in the matter. We
also see that the dispute is a purely personal one and no public policy is
involved in the transaction that had been entered into between the parties. To
continue with the proceedings, therefore, would be a futile exercise."
Madan Mohan Abbot v. State of Punjab (2008) 4 SCC 582 in which one of us (Bedi,
J.) was the author of the judgment observed as under:- "We need to
emphasise that it is perhaps advisable that in disputes where the question
involved is of a purely personal nature, the court should ordinarily accept the
terms of the compromise even in criminal proceedings as keeping the matter
alive with no possibility of a result in favour of the prosecution is a luxury
which the courts, grossly overburdened as they are, cannot afford and that the
time so saved can be utilized in deciding more effective and meaningful
litigation. This is a common sense approach to the matter based on ground of
realities and bereft of the technicalities of the law."
a recently delivered judgment of this court in Smt. Rumi Dhar v. State of West
Bengal & Another JT 2009 (5) SC 321, this court approved the observations
of the Special Judge. The observations of Special Judge are set out as under:-
"The learned Special Judge in his order dated 16.12.2006 rejected the
contention raised on behalf of the appellant herein, stating:
"I have gone
through the record, citation and considered the circumstances. It is true that
the accused has put a good gesture by paying of the dues of the bank but I am
at one with the Ld. PP that this payment cannot exonerate the accused from a
prima facie charge. If I allow this, then I may have to swallow in a case of
19 bribery that the accused has paid back the amount to the sufferer the amount
received as bribe. It is a question of trial whether there was any criminal
intention on the part of this Lady accused in this crime. The criminal
intention is to be inferred from the evidence to be adduced by the prosecution.
Simply because the money has been returned, I cannot shut the mouth of the
prosecution from adducing evidence against this accused.
Thus, I do not like
to pass any order in favour of the accused. The prayer for discharge of accused
no. 7, Rumi Dhar stands rejected. Let the case proceed. Fix 7.2.07 for
consideration of charge. The sureties must produce all the accused persons on
facts of the instant case are quite akin to Rumi Dhar (supra)'s case. In the
instant case, the charge-sheet clearly reveal substantial material on record
making a clear case under section 120-B read with section 420 IPC against the
respondents and their connivance with the bank officials.
High Court in the impugned judgment has misunderstood and misapplied the ratio
of the three-Judge Bench of this court in Inder Mohan Goswami & Anr. V. State
of Uttarachal & Ors. 2007(12) SCALE 15 to the facts of this case. One of us
(Bhandari, J.) was the author of the 20 said judgment. The ratio of the said
judgment is in para 24 at at page 25 which reads as under:- "Inherent
powers under section 482 Cr.P.C.
though wide have to
be exercised sparingly, carefully and with great caution and only when such
exercise is justified by the tests specifically laid down in this section
Authority of the
court exists for the advancement of justice. If any abuse of the process
leading to injustice is brought to the notice of the court, then the Court
would be justified in preventing injustice by invoking inherent powers in
absence of specific provisions in the Statute."
court in para 27 also observed that inherent power should not be exercised to
stifle a legitimate prosecution.
us consider the facts of this case and apply the ratio of Goswami's case
(supra) where facts are as follows:- (I) allegations are that accused have
committed serious offences such as forgery, fabrication of documents and used
those documents as genuine;
(II) allegations are
that accused/respondents herein, A. Ravishankar Prasad and A. Manohar Prasad
have entered into a conspiracy with the Chairman and Managing Director and
other officials of the Indian Bank, Chennai with the object of cheating the
Indian Bank in 21 the matter of recommending, sanctioning, disbursing huge
credit facilities running over hundreds of crores.
(III) Trial of all
four cases are at advanced stage in which 92 witnesses have already been
applying the ratio of Goswami's case (supra), how any court in its legitimate
exercise of power under section 482 Cr.P.C. quash the proceedings against
accused A. Ravishankar Prasad and A. Manohar Prasad in the face of aforesaid
allegations. In the instant case, wrong application of the ratio of the said
judgment has led to grave miscarriage of justice.
analysis of all these judgments clearly reveals that the exercise of inherent
powers would entirely depend on the facts and circumstances of the each case.
The object incorporating inherent powers in the Code is to prevent abuse of the
process of the court or to secure ends of justice.
English and the Indian courts have consistently taken the view that the
inherent powers can be exercised in those exceptional cases where the
allegations made in the first information report or the complaint, even if are
taken on their 22 face value and accepted in their entirety do not prima facie
constitute any offence or make out a case against the accused.
we apply the settled legal position to the facts of this case it is not
possible to conclude that the complaint and charge-sheet prima facie do not
constitute any offence against the respondents. It is also not possible to
conclude that material on record taken on face value make out no case under
section 120-B read with section 420 IPC against the respondents. Prima facie,
we are of the opinion that this is one case where adequate material is
available on record to proceed against the respondents.
our considered view it was extremely unfortunate that the High Court in the
impugned judgment has erroneously invoked inherent power of the court under
section 482 of the Code of Criminal Procedure. The High Court ought to have considered
the entire material available to establish a case against the respondents under
section 120-B read with section 420 IPC. It is significant that the respondents
and the other bank officials share the charges under section 120-B read with
section 420 IPC. Quashing the charges against the respondents would also have
very serious repercussions on the pending cases against the other bank
four cases, 92 witnesses have already been examined.
The trial of the case
was at the advanced stage. At this sage, the High Court has seriously erred in
quashing the charges against respondent nos.1 and 2.
the proceedings at that stage was clearly an abuse of the process of the court.
The court neither considered the entire material nor appreciated the legal
position in proper perspective. The impugned judgment is wholly unsustainable
in law and is accordingly set aside.
because of unnecessary interference by the High Court under section 482 Cr.P.C.
the trial of this case could not be completed and concluded.
parting with the case we would like to observe that mere re-payment of loan
under a settlement cannot exempt the accused from the criminal proceeding in
the facts of this case.
would like to observe that any observations made in this case have been made to
decide the present case. The trial court may decide the case without being
influenced by any observations made by this court.
this view of the fact, in the interest of justice we direct that the trial be
now completed as expeditiously as possible.
The trial court is
directed to conduct the trial on day to day basis and parties are directed to
cooperate with the trial court.
The trial court shall
ensure that unnecessary adjournments be avoided and trial be concluded as
expeditiously as possible.
appeals are consequently allowed and the impugned judgment of the High Court is
set aside. The appeals stand disposed of accordingly.
(Harjit Singh Bedi)