West Bengal & Ors. Vs. Samar Kumar Sarkar  INSC 1215 (14 July 2009)
SUPREME COURT OF INDIA CIVIL APPELLATE JURISDICTION CIVIL APPEAL NO. 4350 OF
2009 (Arising out of SLP(C) No. 22165 of 2008) State of West Bengal & Ors.
..........Appellants Versus Samar Kumar Sarkar ........Respondent
The petition raises an important question as to the power of the
High Court under Article 227 of the Constitution of India to transfer an
application filed under Section 19 of the Administrative Tribunal Act pending
before the Administrative Tribunal to the High Court for its consideration and
The facts in nutshell are, the respondent before the West Bengal
Administrative Tribunal is the petitioner in this petition. The respondent in
the present petition filed O.A. No. 912 of 2003 under Section 19 of the
Administrative Tribunal Act, 1985, before the West Bengal State 1
Administrative Tribunal, inter alia requesting the Tribunal to direct respondents
therein to appoint the applicant to the post of Group `D' in the office of
District Land and Land Reforms Officer, Howrah, on the ground that he had
served as Tahsil Mohurrior under the Block Land and Land Reforms Officer,
Shyampur. After service of notice on the respondents, several adjournments were
granted by the Tribunal to the parties to complete the pleadings. The
application thereafter was posted before the Tribunal on 1.2.2005. The Tribunal
had granted permission to the respondents therein to file its reply, if any,
within three weeks.
by the order so passed, the applicant had moved a petition before the High
Court at Calcutta under Articles 226 and 227 of the Constitution, assailing the
correctness or otherwise of the order dated 1.2.2005 and also praying for the
very same reliefs that was sought in the application. The Court by its order
dated 7.3.2005 had rejected the writ petition on the ground that the petition
filed is premature.
The Tribunal could not hear the application for various reasons.
Those reasons are not relevant for the purpose of disposal of this appeal.
we are not adverting to the orders passed by the Tribunal on several dates of
The respondent herein who was applicant before the Tribunal has
filed one more writ petition under Article 226 and 227 of the Constitution 2 in
the High Court at Calcutta, wherein apart from others has requested the court
for issuance of a writ in the nature of mandamus directing the respondents in
the said application to give appointment to him with effect from 6.3.2000 and
to release arrears of salary and other benefits. The writ petition No. 649 of
2007 was heard by the High Court on 7.7.2008. The High Court by its order dated
7.7.2008, directed the Registry of the West Bengal Administrative Tribunal to
transmit all the original records of O.A. No. 912 of 2003 to the High Court for
taking a decision in the matter. The findings and the observations of the High
Court in its order dated 7.7.2008 are as under:
our view, with great respect, the learned Tribunal having found no time on
earlier occasions, should have placed, at least on a particular date, this
matter at the top of the list so that the matter could have been heard. In our
order dated 16th August, 2007, it was observed that in the event the learned
Tribunal could not hear out this matter, this Court will, in exercise of its
power under Article 227 of the Constitution of India withdraw the same and hear
out the matter, as the learned Tribunal has failed to decide the matter.
we are of the view that the learned Tribunal has failed to decide the matter.
We are not oblivious of the position of law that this Court cannot try the
above matter at the first instance in view of the judgment of Supreme Court
rendered in the case of L.
Kumar vs. Union of India - A.I.R. 1997 SC 1125. But this Court having
superintending power cannot remain passive institution when learned Tribunal
abdicates its legal, if not constitutional duty.
3 When a
subordinate Court or Tribunal fails or neglects absolutely to function, it can
be concluded without any hesitation that extra ordinary situation has arisen
that endanger due process of law. In such situation to disclose constitutional
obligation to the citizens of India, this Court has power, in our opinion, not
only to withdraw the case of this nature, but to try the same. The word
"Superintendence" is of wide connotation. It has inclusive meaning
which inter alia are to oversee, monitor so that things is done or act is
accomplished with logical conclusion and finally in case of failure to take
upon itself to do and accomplish what ought to have been done by person or
forum subordinate to it.
direct the Registry of the learned Tribunal to transmit all the original
records of O.A.No. 912 of 2003 (Samar Kr. Sarkar vs. State of W.B. and Ors.) to
this Court, for taking a decision in this matter.
records shall be transmitted to this Court by special messenger, cost of which
shall be paid by the applicant and this shall be brought to this Court within
fortnight from the date of service of copy of this order."
Aggrieved by the aforesaid order, the respondents in the
application are before us in this civil appeal.
The learned Senior Counsel for the appellant submitted that the
impugned order of the High Court in withdrawing the application O.A.No. 912 of
2003 (Samar K.V. vs. State of West Bengal and Others) pending before West
Bengal Administrative Tribunal for its consideration and decision is contrary
to law and also decision of this Court in the case of Thakur Jugal Kishore vs.
Sitamarhi Central Cooperative Bank Ltd., (1967) 3 SLR 163, wherein it is
stated, that, 4 `needless to add that errors as to the interpretation of the
Constitution is not out of the purview of Article 227, although the High Court
could not, under the powers conferred by this Article, withdraw a case to
itself from a Tribunal and dispose of the same, or determine merely the
question of law as to the interpretation of Constitution arising before the
Tribunal. It is further submitted that the High Court has no inherent power to
transfer a case to itself outside the provisions contained in Article 228 of
the Constitution of India and since the instant case is not covered by Article
226 of the Constitution of India, the High Court committed a grave error in
directing the transfer of the case pending before the State Administrative
Tribunal to itself'. It is further submitted that the order and direction
issued by the High Court is contrary to the direction and observation made by
this Court in the case of L. Chandrakumar vs. Union of India and Others.
The learned Counsel for the contesting respondent submitted that
the petition that was filed before the High Court was both under Articles 226
and 227 of the Constitution and therefore, the High Court in exercise of its
supervisory jurisdiction was justified in directing the Tribunal to transmit
all the records pertaining to the case of the respondent, since there was
inordinate delay by the Tribunal in 5 deciding an application which did not
involve either complicated questions of fact or the law.
The relevant Articles of the Constitution of India may be
227 : Power of superintendence over all Courts by the High Court:
High Court shall have superintendence over all Courts and Tribunals throughout
the territories in relation to which it exercises jurisdiction.
Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing provisions, the High Court
may - (a) call for returns from such Courts;
and issue general rules and prescribe forms for regulating the practice and
proceedings of such Courts; and (c) prescribe forms in which books, entries and
accounts shall be kept by the officers of any such Courts.
High Court may also settle tables of fees to be allowed to the sheriff and all
clerks and officers of such Courts and to attorneys, advocates and pleaders
that any rules made, forms prescribed or tables settled under clause (2) or
clause (3) shall not be inconsistent with the provision of any law for the time
being in force, and shall require the previous approval of the Governor.
Nothing in this article shall be deemed to confer on a High Court powers of
superintendence over any Court or Tribunal constituted by or under any law
relating to the Armed Forces.
228: Transfer of certain cases to High Court:
High Court is satisfied that a case pending in a Court subordinate to it
involves a substantial question of law as to the interpretation of the
Constitution the determination of which is necessary for the diposal of the
case, it shall withdraw the case and may - a. either dispose of the case
itself, or 6 b. determine the said question of law and return the case to the
Court from which the case has been so withdrawn together with a copy of its
judgment on such question, and the said Court shall on receipt thereof proceed
to dispose of the case in conformity with such judgment."
Under Article 227, the High Court has been given power of
superintendence both in judicial as well as administrative matters over all
Courts and Tribunals throughout the territories in relation to which it
exercises jurisdiction. It is in order to indicate the plentitude of the power
conferred upon the High Court with respect to Courts and the Tribunals of every
kind that the Constitution conferred the power of superintendence on the High
Court. The power of superintendence conferred upon the High Court is not as
extensive as the power conferred upon it by Article 226 of the Constitution.
Thus, ordinarily it will be open to the High Court, in exercise of the power of
superintendence only to consider whether there is an error of jurisdiction in
the decision of the Court or the Tribunal subject to its superintendence.
In the case of Gujarat vs. Vakhatsinghji Vajesinghji Vaghela, AIR
1968 SC 1481, this Court held, that Article 227 of the Constitution of India
gives the High Court the power of superintendence over all Courts and Tribunals
throughout the territories in relation to which it 7 exercises jurisdiction. It
is held that this jurisdiction cannot be limited or fettered by any act of the
State Legislature. It is held that the supervisory jurisdiction extends to
keeping the subordinate Tribunals within the limits of the authority and to
seeking that they obey the law.
In Bathutmal Raichand Oswal vs. Laxmibai R. Tarta, (1975) 1 SCC
858, this Court again reaffirmed that the power of superintendence of the High
Court under Article 227 being extraordinary was to be exercised most sparingly
and only in appropriate cases. High Court's function is limited to see that the
subordinate court or Tribunal functioned within the limits of its authority.
The Court further said that the jurisdiction under Article 227 could not be
exercised `as the cloak of an appeal in disguise'.
This Court in the case of State through Special Cell, New Delhi
vs. Navjot Sandhu, (2003) 6 SCC 641, held that Article 227 of the Constitution
of India gives the High Court the power of superintendence over all Courts and
Tribunals throughout the territories in relation to which it exercise
jurisdiction. The powers under Article 227 are wide and can be used, to meet
the ends of justice. However, the power under Article 227 is a discretionary
power and it is difficult to attribute to an order of the High Court, such 8 a
source of power, when the High Court itself does not in terms purport to
exercise any such discretionary power.
Article 228 of the Constitution covers a different field from that
covered by Articles 226 and 227 of the Constitution. It lays down the procedure
regarding transfer of a case pending in Courts subordinate to the High Court.
This power is not to be founded both under Articles 226 and 227 of the
Constitution. The conditions that require to be fulfilled before Article 228 of
the Constitution can be applied are, that a case must be pending in the Court
subordinate to the High Court, the case must involve a substantial question of
law as to the interpretation of the Constitution or the Government of India
Act, 1935 and the determination of the question of law must be necessary for
disposal of the case. Once these three conditions are fulfilled, the Article
requires that the High Court will withdraw the case and then may either dispose
of the case itself or determine the question of law and return the case to the
Court from which the case has been withdrawn.
Reference may also made to the decision of this Court in the case
of Umaji Keshao Rao Mesharam vs. Radhikabai, 1986 Supp. SCC 401, wherein, it
was held that Article 228 confers upon the High Court the power to transfer a
case pending in a Court subordinate to it for 9 disposal by itself if "it
involves a substantial question of law as to the interpretation of the
In Rao Shiva Bahadur Singh vs. State of Vindya Pradesh, (1956) 2
SCR 206, it is stated by this Court that the High Court if satisfied that a
case pending in a Court subordinate to it involves a substantial question of
law as to the interpretation of the Constitution, the determination which is
necessary for the disposal of the case, may withdraw the case either to dispose
of the case itself or determine the said question of law and return the case to
the Court from which it has been so withdrawn so as to enable the said Court to
proceed to dispose of the case in conformity with the judgment of the High
Therefore, the High Court in exercise of power under Article 228
of the Constitution can withdraw a case from subordinate Court and decide the
whole case by itself or decide the question of law and return the case to the
Court from which it is withdrawn. But the primary ingredient for exercise of
the power under this Article is that the case should contain a substantial
question of law, which requires an interpretation of the Constitution.
But, at this stage, we are not concerned in this appeal with
Article 228 of the Constitution but only with Article 227 of the Constitution
and more specifically with the correctness of the order passed by the 10
Division Bench of the High Court, wherein the High Court has withdrawn the
application pending before the Administrative Tribunal for its consideration
With regard to the power of the High Court in withdrawing a case
from the Tribunal for deciding it by itself by exercising its power under
Article 227, this Court in the case of Thakur Jugal Kishore that Article 227 is
of wider ambit; it does not limit the jurisdiction of the High Court to the
hierarchy of Courts functioning directly under it under the Civil Procedure
Code and Criminal Procedure Code but it gives the High Court power to correct
errors of various kinds of all Courts and Tribunals in appropriate cases.
Needless to add that errors as to the interpretation of the Constitution is not
out of the purview of Article 227 although the High Court could not, under the
powers conferred by this Article, withdraw a case to itself from a Tribunal and
dispose of the same, or determine merely the question of law as to the
interpretation of the Constitution arising before the Tribunal.
It was held in the case of Nagendra Nath Bora vs. Commissioner of
Hills Division and Appeals, AIR 1958 SC 398, that under Article 226, the power
of interference may extend to quashing an impugned order on the ground of a
mistake apparent on the face of the record. But 11 under Article 227 of the
Constitution, the power of interference is limited to seeing that the Tribunal
functions within the limits of its authority.
n the light of the above discussions, in our view, it would have
been proper if the High Court in exercising its jurisdiction under Article 227
had directed the Tribunal to dispose of the matter expeditiously, instead of
transferring the matter to itself.
In the result, the appeal is allowed. The impugned order is set
Court is requested to return all the documents pertaining to O.A.No. 912 of
2003 to the Administrative Tribunal forthwith. The Tribunal is directed to
consider the matter promptly and dispose of the same within six months from the
date of the pronouncement of this judgment. No order as to costs.
.......................................J. [TARUN CHATTERJEE]
.......................................J. [ H.L. DATTU ]
New Delhi, July 14, 2009.
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