V.N. Bharat Vs.
D.D.A. & ANR.  INSC 1491 (2 September 2008)
SUPREME COURT OF
INDIA CIVIL APPELLATE JURISDICTION CIVIL APPEAL NO. 1373 OF 2006 V.N. Bharat
...Appellant D.D.A. & Another ...Respondents
appellant applied for registration in respect of a Category-II flat under the
1985 Sixth Self-Financing Housing Registration Scheme, advertised by the Delhi
Development Authority (hereinafter referred to as the "DDA"). As per
the scheme, the flats to be constructed on a Multi-storied basis was expected
to be ready within a period of two years. In clause 10 of the Scheme, the
method of payment has been provided for as follows:- "After a person has
been allotted a flat he/she would be called upon to make the payments as per
the following schedule:
25% (including the
amount paid as registration deposit) as initial deposit on
20% after six months
25% after next six months 20% after next six months 10% when required to take
Demand-cum-allotment letter, whenever issued to the allottees will indicate the
prescribed dates by which payments shall have to be made in regard to the first
four instalments as 3 mentioned above. For the fifth and final installment, a
fresh demand letter will be issued separately and which may also include the
possible increase in the cost of the flat."
far as the first four installments are concerned, there is no difficulty since
such payments had undisputedly been made by the appellant. The problem arose in
connection with the payment of the fifth and final instalment in respect of
which a fresh demand letter was to be separately issued, which could include a
possible escalation towards the cost of the flat.
13 of the Scheme provided that the allotment of specific flats would be made on
the basis of "draw of lots" to be held by the DDA when the flats were
completed. It was also stipulated that all persons registered under the Scheme,
irrespective of the date on which they were registered, would be treated at par
with each other.
the appellant had applied for registration of a semi-finished flat on payment
of Rs.10,000/- towards registration deposit in respect of the same. On 6th
December, 1991 the appellant was allotted a flat at Dwarka, Sector 3,
Pocket-II, First Floor in Category-II and allotment letter was also issued to
him by the DDA on 31st December, 1991, wherein the schedule for payment of the
first four installments was given. As indicated hereinabove, between 31st
January, 1992 and 20th October, 1993, the appellant paid all the four
installments in accordance with the demands made by DDA.
will appear from the materials on record the appellant, despite being allotted
a specific flat, did not make payment of the fifth and final instalment within
15 days of the receipt of the allotment letter as stipulated in the terms and
conditions of the 5 Self-Financing Scheme. This resulted in the issuance of a
show-cause notice by the DDA, which was received by the appellant on 10th
September, 1997, asking him to explain as to why he had failed to make payment
of the amount of Rs.1,63,512/- by 31st December, 1996, towards the fifth and
Without replying to
the show-cause notice, the appellant by a letter dated 19th November, 1997,
informed the DDA that he had never received any demand letter from the DDA for
making payment of the fifth and final installment. The appellant accordingly,
requested the DDA to issue a demand letter indicating the amount of the fifth
instalment so that he could take over possession of the flat in question.
Subsequently, on 8th May, 1998, the appellant received a letter from the DDA
dated 22nd April, 1998, informing him that a demand letter had been issued on
11th September, 1996. According to the appellant, the said letter had never
been tendered to 6 him. In fact, in the letter dated 22nd April, 1998, sent by
DDA it was stated that another demand letter was in process and would be issued
in due course.
is the case of the appellant that on 6th May, 1998, he paid the fifth and final
installment to the DDA by a pay-order for a sum of Rs.1,63,512/-, being the
amount mentioned in the show cause notice dated 10th September, 1997, even
prior to the receipt of the DDA's letter dated 22nd April, 1998 on 8th May,
on 26th May, 1998, the appellant filed a complaint against the respondents
herein under Section 36(B) and Section 12-A of the Monopolies and Restrictive
Trade Practices Act, 1969, (hereinafter referred to as the "MRTP Act,
1969") before the Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Commission
alleging unfair trade practice by the DDA on 7 various grounds. The appellant
prayed for registration of the sale deed by the DDA in his favour and also for
compensation of Rs.2 lacs.
disposing of the appellant's application under Section 12-A of the MRTP Act,
the Commission directed the respondent not to hand over the possession of the
flat in question to any one and not to dispose of the same in any way until the
conclusion of the inquiry under Section 36(B) of the Act. On an interpretation
of clause 4 of the Self-Financing Scheme, the Commission came to the conclusion
that the allegations of unfair trade practice on the part of the respondent
authority, had not been proved. The notice of inquiry was, therefore,
discharged and the interim order issued under Section 12-A of the Act was
vacated. The present appeal is directed against the aforesaid order of the
R. Srivastava, learned senior advocate appearing for the appellant, submitted
that the Commission had erred in upholding the contention of the Respondent
that since the initial allotment had been cancelled, even the revival of the
earlier proposal to make an allotment in favour of the appellant would have to
be in the nature of a fresh allotment.
submitted that pursuant to the representation made by the appellant for
restoration of the allotment of the flat in question at the current cost, the
DDA issued a letter dated 22nd April, 1998, informing him that a fresh demand
letter for the final installment would be issued to him in due course. The said
representation was made after the appellant had received the show- cause notice
dated 10th September, 1997, from the DDA. However, the appellant deposited the
amount as was mentioned in the show-cause notice before receiving the fresh
demand letter, which was allegedly issued on 16th 9 June, 1998. The definite
case of the appellant, however, is that the same was not received by him and
was returned undelivered to the postal authorities. Mr. Srivastava reiterated
the submissions which had been made before the Commission to the effect that
the restoration of the allotment, which was said to have been automatically
cancelled, being a continuation of the initial allotment, it could not be said
to be a new allotment which entailed payment of fresh transfer fees. Mr.
Srivastava pointed out that while the demand in respect of the fifth and final
installment was Rs.1,63,512/-, in the fresh demand letter for the fifth and
final installment the net amount payable was shown to be Rs.4,43,336/-.
Srivastava submitted that since the demand notice for the fifth and final
installment had not been received by the appellant, the question of paying the
amount in the demand notice within a stipulated time did not arise.
10 He submitted that
it is only after the show- cause notice was received, that the appellant became
aware of the demand of Rs.1,63,512/- which was immediately deposited by the
appellant. It is only thereafter, that the appellant was informed that he would
be required to pay not the amount as mentioned in the show- cause notice, but a
further sum of Rs.4,43,336/-on account of the fresh allotment of the flat made
in his favour. Mr. Srivastava submitted that the question of fresh allotment
did not arise having regard to the fact that even in the show-cause notice
dated 10th September, 1997, it had been indicated that cause should be shown as
to why the allotment should not be cancelled for breach of the terms and
conditions of such allegations. In the show-cause notice it was also mentioned
that in case the reply was not to the satisfaction of the DDA, the allotment
would be cancelled and the amount of penalty and interest charges would be adjusted
against 11 the deposit made by the appellant and the balance money would be
refunded to him. Mr. Srivastava pointed out that without termination of the
appellant's allotment of 22nd April, 1997, the DDA wrote to the appellant as
follows :- "DELHI DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY F.177(691)/91/sfs/11/43 22.4.1998
P.L. Arora, Accounts
Officer, SFS- I, D- Block, 3rd Floor, Vikas Sadan.
To Sh. Vishwanath
Bharat, H.No. 539, Gali No. 5-A Gibind Puri (Kalkaji) New Delhi - 19 Sub.: For
issue of the 5th & final demand letter Please refer to your letter dated
9.2.1998 and subsequent letter dated 12.2.1998 on the subject cited above.
12 In the connection
it is informed that 5th and final demand letter was issued to you vide this
office letter dated 11.9.96 through Regd. Post RL 2911 which has not been
returned undelivered to this office so far.
However the matter
for issue of another demand letter is in process and will be issued in due
Sd/- (PL Arora) Sr.
Srivastava pointed out that even in the said letter it had been indicated that
a fresh demand letter was in process and would be issued in due course. It was
urged that the contents of the said letter clearly supports the claim of the
appellant that the fifth and final demand was to be made on the basis that it
was with reference to the allotment which had already been made in the
fact, Mr. Srivastava concluded on the note that the only point for decision in
this 13 appeal is whether alleged cancellation of the appellant's original
allotment could on revival be said to be a fresh allotment which entailed
payment of fresh allotment charges.
According to Mr.
Srivastava, since at no point of time had the respondent treated the
appellant's allotment to be cancelled, the issue being raised on behalf of the
respondent DDA was untenable and had erroneously been accepted by the
Manika Tripathy Pandey, learned advocate appearing for the DDA, however,
reiterated that after an allotment is cancelled, there can only be a fresh
allotment and the question of revival of a dead proposal could not arise.
emphatically relied on clause 4 of the Scheme which indicates the procedure to
be followed in the matter of allotment of flats and the same is reproduced
hereinbelow :- 14 "The estimated cost of the flat as given in this letter
is provisional and is subject to revision on the completion of the flat. Any
price difference between the estimated cost and the cost as it works out on completion
as per costing formula in vogue would have to be paid alongwith the fifth and
final instalment. No definite time by which the construction, of the flats will
be completed can be indicted at this stage. Normally it takes 2 = years period
for completion of the project.
Sometimes, due to
unforeseenable reasons completion of project may get delayed. For delay beyond
30th month upto 36th month till the issue of demand letter for fifth and final
instalment the allottee shall be paid interest @ 7% per annum and beyond 36th
month interest will be paid 10% on his/her deposit.
The specific flat
number will be allotted through draw of lots. The date and time for the draw
will be announced through the leading newspapers. The demand letters for fifth
and final instalment indicating the number of flat allotted, the amount
payable, documents to be furnished and formalities to be completed for taking
over the possession will be sent by RAD post to the allottee at the address on
record with the DDA within one month from the date of draw of letter for
allotment of specific flat number. Failure to furnish all the requisite
documents within a period of 120 days from the date of issue of the demand
letter for fifth and final instalment will result 15 in automatic cancellation
of the allotment."
Tripathy submitted that the allotment of flats by the DDA was to be done in two
In the first phase
the estimated cost of the flat is given on a provisional basis and subject to
revision on the completion of the flat. No definite time period was indicated
but it has been mentioned that it takes about 2 = years to complete the
project, which period could also stretch upto 36 months.
For delay beyond the
30th upto the 36th month, till the issue of demand letter for the fifth and
final instalment, the allottee shall be paid interest @ 7% per annum and beyond
36th months interest will be paid @ 10% on the deposit of the applicant. In the
second phase, on the basis of a `draw of lots' a specific flat number would be
allotted and the demand letter for the fifth and final installment indicating
the number of the flat 16 allotted, the amount payable, documents to be
furnished and formalities to be completed for taking over possession would be
sent by Registered post with acknowledgement due to the allottee at the address
on record with the DDA, within one month from the date of the draw for
allotment of a specific flat number.
Ms. Tripathy laid
stress on the condition that failure to furnish all the requisite documents
within a period of 120 days from the date of issue of the demand letter for the
fifth and final installment would result in automatic cancellation of the
Tripathy contended that having remained silent despite having received the
demand notice as also the show-cause notice, which led to the termination of
the appellant's allotment, the appellant waited for 2 = years before making
payment of the purported balance when, in fact, the amount had to be calculated
on the basis that the restoration was, in fact, a fresh allotment.
Tripathy urged that since the notice of demand in respect of fifth and final
installment had been duly sent to the appellant by Registered Post with
acknowledgement due at the address given by him, there would be a statutory
presumption under Section 114(f) of the Evidence Act that the demand notice had
been duly served on the appellant. Ms. Tripathy urged that the Commission
rightly dealt with the matter and no ground had been made out on behalf of the
appellant for interference with the same.
will be evident from what has been mentioned hereinbefore, the real controversy
in this appeal appears to be whether the demand letter dated 10th September,
1996, for payment of the fifth and final installment had, in fact, been received
by the appellant and as to whether non-compliance with the same resulted in
termination of the appellant's allotment and whether the restoration of such
18 allotment on a representation made by the appellant would amount to a fresh
or new allotment.
submitted by Ms. Tripathy, except for the statutory presumption under Section
114(f) of the Evidence Act, there is no other material to suggest that the
demand notice had actually been received by the appellant.
assertion of service of notice on account of such presumption has been denied
by the appellant as a result whereof onus of proving service shifted back to
the respondent. The respondent DDA has not led any other evidence in support of
the presumption of service. In such circumstances, it has to be held that such
service had not been effected.
Therefore, when on
the appellant's application for restoration of the allotment, the allotment was
restored, the only conclusion that can be arrived at is that the earlier 19
allotment continued as no cancellation and/or termination had, in fact, taken
place in terms of clause 4 of the Scheme in question.
far as the MRTP Commission is concerned, there is no definite finding on the
question of service of the demand notice. On the other hand, the Commission
presumed that the appellant must have had knowledge of the allotment which had
been widely publicised in leading newspapers. According to the Commission, it
was for the appellant to have made inquiries relating to completion of the
construction and it should have waited for a demand notice to have been sent to
him. In our view, the Commission also erred in placing the onus of proof of
service of the demand notice on the appellant, since except for denial there is
nothing else that the appellant could have produced to prove a negative fact.
As we have indicated hereinbefore, the presumption under Section 20 114(f) of
the Evidence Act is a rebuttable presumption and on denial of receipt of the
Registered letter from DDA the appellant discharged his onus and the onus
reverted back to the respondent to prove such service by either examining the
postal authorities or obtaining a certificate from them showing that the
registered article had been delivered to and had been received by the
appellant. It is on a mistaken understanding of the provisions of Section
114(f) of the Evidence Act that the Commission came to the erroneous conclusion
that the allegation of unfair trade practice on the part of the respondent
authority had not been proved. In our view, from the material on record it is
quite clear that the respondent authority was unable to prove that service of
the demand notice for the fifth and final installment had been effected on the
it is established that the notice of demand for the fifth and final installment
had not been received by the appellant, the other consequences, as indicated by
Ms. Tripathy, namely, automatic termination and fresh allotment, cannot follow.
In any event, in our view, the restoration of the allotment did not amount to a
fresh allotment on the basis of which the fresh demand notice could have been
regard to what has been stated hereinabove, in our view the MRTP Commission
erred in law in shifting the onus of proof of service of the demand notice on
the appellant and in discharging the notice of inquiry and vacating the interim
order issued under Section 12-A of the M.R.T.P. Act. The allegation of unfair
trade practice on the part of the respondent authority stands established. The
decision of the Commission is, therefore, liable to be set aside.
appeal is, therefore, allowed. The judgment of the MRTP Commission impugned in
this Appeal is set aside. The respondents are directed to accept the sum of
Rs.1,63,512/-, which had been deposited by the appellant prior to receipt of
the demand notice, together with interest, if any, accrued thereupon, in full
and final settlement of their dues in respect of the flat allotted to the
appellant and to hand over possession thereof to the appellant within a month
from the date of receipt of a copy of this order.
regard to the facts of the case, the parties will bear their own costs.