Inspector of Police,
Tamil Nadu Vs. Balaprasanna  INSC 1190 (21 July 2008)
JURISDICTION CRIMINAL APPEAL NO. OF 2008 (Arising out of SLP (Crl.) No.3814 of
2006) Inspector of Police, Tamil Nadu ..
Appellant Versus Balaprasanna
Dr. ARIJIT PASAYAT,
in this appeal is to the order of a Division Bench of Madras High Court
allowing the appeal filed by the respondent (hereinafter referred to as the
`accused'). The accused was convicted for offence punishable under Section 302
of the Indian Penal Code, 1860 (in short the `IPC') and sentenced to undergo
imprisonment for life and to pay a fine of Rs.10,000/- with default stipulation
by Principal District Judge, Madurai. He was also convicted for offences
punishable under Section 392 read with Section 397 IPC and sentence to undergo
rigorous imprisonment for 10 years and to pay a fine.
facts in a nutshell are as follows:
The deceased is one
Mayurani, a Sri Lankan student, who was residing in the first floor of the
house belonging to one Solsimalai (P.W.1). The Accused is also a Sri Lankan
student studying in a different college, but staying in the second floor of the
same premises. The occurrence allegedly took place in the afternoon of
22.4.2003. The First Information Report was lodged by P.W.1 on 24-4-2003 at
about 9.30 A.M. It was indicated in the First Information Report that on
24.4.2003 at 9.00 A.M., while the informant had gone to perform pooja in the first
floor of the house, he got foul smell in the last room of the first floor and
found blood seeping through the front door. On opening the window he noticed
that Mayurani was lying in a pool of blood with her face covered with a bag. On
the basis of the aforesaid F.I.R., investigation was taken up initially by
P.W.40. Subsequently on the basis of the order of the High Court, such
investigation was completed by P.W.42.
The accused is stated
to have been arrested on suspicion on 26.4.2003. On the basis of the statement of
the accused, prosecution discovered many materials including a knife and a log
allegedly used for killing.
suspected the role of P.W.1, his wife P.W.2, P.W.3, from whose house certain
incriminating material were recovered allegedly on the basis of statement of
the accused as well as P.W.4, who was working as a cleaner in the vehicle of
P.W.1. Subsequently, however, P.W.42, who took over investigation from P.W.40
filed charge-sheet only against the present appellant on the footing that P.Ws.
1 to 4 had no role to play in the crime.
prosecution relied upon only circumstantial evidence, namely, confessional
statements of the accused leading to recovery of various incriminating
materials. Ex.P-6 is the statement leading to recovery of Travel bags (M.Os. 2
& 3), knife (.M.0.5), wooden log (M.0.28), rubber gloves (M.0.29 series)
cotton rope with human hair (MN.O.30 series), two sponges soaked with blood
(M.0.31 series), bloodstained blue clolour jean pant (M.0.32), bloodstained
white banian (M.0.33), colour banian (M.0.34), bloodstained grey colour pant
(M.0.35), bloodstained pillow (M.0.36), plastic bucket (M.0.37) from the house
of P.W.3. Ex-P-8 is the statement leading to recovery of computer and its
accessories (M.Os. 6 to 17) from the house of P.W.15, a classmate of the
Ex.P-10 is the
statement relating to jewelleries, ultimately leading to recovery of gold
ingots (M.O.18 series) from the house of P.W.19 on the basis of other
connecting statements of P.W.17 and P.W.18. These three statements, Exs. P-6,
P-8 and P-10 dated 26-4-2003, were made before P.W.40 in the presence of P.W.22
and C.W.1. The other confessional statement Ex.P-12 dated 22-9-2003 made before
P.W.42 and Subbiah and P.W.24, led to recovery of "M" dollar (M.0.38)
and key chain with key chain in (M.0.39) from the toilet in the room of the
accused. The prosecution has also relied upon the alleged motive to the effect
that the accused urgently wanted money with a view to increase his marks in
Mathematics and, therefore, the accused had stolen articles belonging to the
trial court found the respondent guilty and recorded conviction and imposed
sentence as aforestated. The trial court found that the prosecution version
rested on circumstantial evidence. The following circumstances were highlighted
to find the accused guilty.
a. The death is
b. The accused was in
need of money to chase mathematics paper and for the aforesaid purpose he has
killed the deceased to take away the valuable articles like computer and gold
ornaments to sell such articles in the market.
c. At the time of
occurrence, only the accused, deceased and PW 9 were available in the premises
and there was no other person.
d. Statement of the
accused leading to recovery of incriminating materials such as knife, rope,
clothes, wooden log and other valuable articles such as computer, gold
ornaments, "M" Dollar and the key chain with key belonging to the
High Court found that the circumstances highlighted were not sufficient to fasten
the guilt on the accused, and directed acquittal. Learned counsel for the
appellant submitted that the High Court failed to notice that the circumstances
highlighted clearly establish the chain of circumstances which established the
prosecution version and the High Court was not justified in directing
counsel for the respondent on the other hand supported the judgment of the High
conviction based on circumstantial evidence has been highlighted by this Court
in various orders of this Court.
has been consistently laid down by this Court that where a case rests squarely
on circumstantial evidence, the inference of guilt can be justified only when
all the incriminating facts and circumstances are found to be incompatible with
the innocence of the accused or the guilt of any other person. (See Hukam Singh
v. State of Rajasthan AIR (1977 SC 1063); Eradu and Ors. v. State of Hyderabad
(AIR 1956 SC 316); Earabhadrappa v. State of Karnataka (AIR 1983 SC 446); State
of U.P. v. Sukhbasi and Ors. (AIR 1985 SC 1224); Balwinder Singh v. State of
Punjab (AIR 1987 SC 350); Ashok Kumar Chatterjee v. State of M.P. (AIR 1989 SC
1890). The circumstances from which an inference as to the guilt of the accused
is drawn have to be proved beyond reasonable doubt and have to be shown to be
closely connected with the principal fact sought to be inferred from those
circumstances. In Bhagat Ram v. State of Punjab (AIR 1954 SC 621), it was laid
down that where the case depends upon the conclusion drawn from circumstances
the cumulative effect of the circumstances must be such as to negative the
innocence of the accused and bring the offences home beyond any reasonable
may also make a reference to a decision of this Court in C. Chenga Reddy and
Ors. v. State of A.P. (1996) 10 SCC 193, wherein it has been observed thus:
"In a case based
on circumstantial evidence, the settled law is that the circumstances from
which the conclusion of guilt is drawn should be fully proved and such circumstances
must be conclusive in nature. Moreover, all the circumstances should be
complete and there should be no gap left in the chain of evidence.
Further the proved
circumstances must be consistent only with the hypothesis of the guilt 8 of
the accused and totally inconsistent with his innocence....".
Padala Veera Reddy v. State of A.P. and Ors. (AIR 1990 SC 79), it was laid down
that when a case rests upon circumstantial evidence, such evidence must satisfy
the following tests:
circumstances from which an inference of guilt is sought to be drawn, must be
cogently and firmly established;
circumstances should be of a definite tendency unerringly pointing towards
guilt of the accused;
circumstances, taken cumulatively should form a chain so complete that there is
no escape from the conclusion that within all human probability the crime was
committed by the accused and none else; and
circumstantial evidence in order to sustain conviction must be complete and
incapable of explanation of any other hypothesis than that of the guilt of the
accused and such evidence should not only be 9 consistent with the guilt of
the accused but should be inconsistent with his innocence."
State of U.P. v. Ashok Kumar Srivastava, (1992 Crl.LJ 1104), it was pointed out
that great care must be taken in evaluating circumstantial evidence and if the
evidence relied on is reasonably capable of two inferences, the one in favour
of the accused must be accepted. It was also pointed out that the circumstances
relied upon must be found to have been fully established and the cumulative
effect of all the facts so established must be consistent only with the
hypothesis of guilt.
Alfred Wills in his admirable book "Wills' Circumstantial Evidence"
(Chapter VI) lays down the following rules specially to be observed in the case
of circumstantial evidence: (1) the facts alleged as the basis of any legal
inference must be clearly proved and beyond reasonable doubt connected with the
factum probandum; (2) the burden of proof is always on the party who asserts
the existence of any fact, which infers legal accountability; (3) in all cases,
whether of direct or circumstantial evidence the best evidence must be adduced
which the nature of the case admits; (4) in order to justify the inference of
guilt, the inculpatory facts must be incompatible with the innocence of the
accused and incapable of explanation, upon any other reasonable hypothesis than
that of his guilt, (5) if there be any reasonable doubt of the guilt of the
accused, he is entitled as of right to be acquitted".
is no doubt that conviction can be based solely on circumstantial evidence but
it should be tested by the touch- stone of law relating to circumstantial
evidence laid down by the this Court as far back as in 1952.
Hanumant Govind Nargundkar and Anr. V. State of Madhya Pradesh, (AIR 1952 SC
343), wherein it was observed thus:
11 "It is well
to remember that in cases where the evidence is of a circumstantial nature, the
circumstances from which the conclusion of guilt is to be drawn should be in
the first instance be fully established and all the facts so established should
be consistent only with the hypothesis of the guilt of the accused.
circumstances should be of a conclusive nature and tendency and they should be
such as to exclude every hypothesis but the one proposed to be proved. In other
words, there must be a chain of evidence so far complete as not to leave any
reasonable ground for a conclusion consistent with the innocence of the accused
and it must be such as to show that within all human probability the act must
have been done by the accused."
reference may be made to a later decision in Sharad Birdhichand Sarda v. State
of Maharashtra, (AIR 1984 SC 1622). Therein, while dealing with circumstantial
evidence, it has been held that onus was on the prosecution to prove that the
chain is complete and the infirmity of lacuna in prosecution cannot be cured by
false defence or plea. The conditions precedent in the words of this Court,
before conviction could be based on circumstantial evidence, must be fully
established. They are:
12 (1) the
circumstances from which the conclusion of guilt is to be drawn should be fully
established. The circumstances concerned must or should and not may be
(2) the facts so
established should be consistent only with the hypothesis of the guilt of the
accused, that is to say, they should not be explainable on any other hypothesis
except that the accused is guilty;
(3) the circumstances
should be of a conclusive nature and tendency;
(4) they should
exclude every possible hypothesis except the one to be proved; and (5) there
must be a chain of evidence so compete as not to leave any reasonable ground
for the conclusion consistent with the innocence of the accused and must show
that in all human probability the act must have been done by the accused.
aspects were highlighted in State of Rajasthan v. Rajaram (2003(8) SCC 180),
State of Haryana v. Jagbir Singh & Anr. (2003(11) SCC 261).
main circumstances relied upon by the prosecution relates to the statements of
the accused leading to discovery of materials facts, admissible under Section
27 of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 (in short the 'Evidence Act').
is well settled that the prosecution while relying upon the confessional
statement leading to discovery of articles under Section 27 of the Evidence
Act, has to prove through cogent evidence that the statement has been made
voluntarily and leads to discovery of the relevant facts. The scope and ambit
of Section 27 of the Evidence Act had been stated and restated in several
decisions of this Court.
However, in almost
all such decisions reference is made to the observation of the Privy Council in
Pulukuri Kotayya v. Emperor (AIR 1947 PC 67). It is worthwhile to extract such
fallacious to treat the 'fact discovered' within the section as equivalent to
the object produced; the fact discovered embraces the place from which the object
is produced and the knowledge of the accused as to this and the 14 information
given must relate distinctly to this fact. Information as to past user or the
past history, of the object produced is not related to his discovery in the
setting in which it is discovered. Information supplied by a person in custody
that 'I will produce a knife concealed in the roof of my house' does not lead
to the discovery of the knife; knives were discovered many years ago. It leads
to the discovery of the fact that a knife is concealed in the house of the
informant to his knowledge, and if the knife is proved to have been used in the
commission of the offence, the fact discovered is very relevant.
But if to the
statement the words be added 'with which stabbed A', these words are
inadmissible since they do not related to the discovery of the knife in the
house of the informant (p.77)".
one time it was held that the expression "fact discovered" in the
section is restricted to a physical or material fact which can be perceived by
the senses, and that it does not include a mental fact, now it is fairly
settled that the expression "fact discovered" includes not only the
physical object produced, but also the place from which it is produced and the
knowledge of the accused as to this, as noted in Pulukuri Kottaya's case
various requirements of the section can be summed up as follows:
(1) The fact of which
evidence is sought to be given must be relevant to the issue. It must be borne
in mind that the provision has nothing to do with the question of relevancy.
The relevancy of the fact discovered must be established according to the
prescriptions relating to relevancy of other evidence connecting it with the
crime in order to make the fact discovered admissible.
(2) The fact must
have been discovered.
(3) The discovery
must have been in consequence of some information received from the accused and
not by the accused's own act.
(4) The person giving
the information must be accused of any offence.
(5) He must be in the
custody of a police officer.
(6) The discovery of
a fact in consequence of information received from an accused in custody must
be deposed to.
(7) Thereupon only
that portion of the information which relates distinctly or strictly to the
fact discovered can be proved. The rest is inadmissible.
observed in Pulukuri Kottaya's case (supra) it can seldom happen that
information leading to the discovery of a fact forms the foundation of the
prosecution case. It is one link in the chain of proof and the other links must
be forged in a manner allowed by law. To similar effect was the view expressed
in K. Chinnaswamy Reddy v. State of A.P. (AIR 1962 SC 1788).
above position was highlighted in Anter Singh v. State of Rajasthan (AIR 2004
Rammi alias Rameshwar v. State of Madhya Pradesh (AIR 1999 SC 3544) the scope
and ambit of Section 27 of the Evidence Act was analysed in great detail and it
was concluded in para 12 as follows:
"12. True, such
information is admissible in evidence under Section 27 of the Evidence Act, but
admissibility alone would not render the evidence, pertaining to the above
information, reliable. While testing the reliability of such evidence the court
has to see whether it was voluntarily stated by the accused."
the prosecution has relied upon the evidence of PW 40 who was investigating
initially. His evidence has to be considered in the background of what has been
stated by PW 22 and CW 1. It has been accepted by the prosecution that great
efforts were made by PW 40 to falsely implicate to PWs 1 to 4 and for that
purpose a departmental proceeding was initiated. Even according to the
statement of the subsequent investigating officer (PW 42), several blank papers
with the signature of PW 22 and CW 1 had been by PW 40 and such documents had
been used to create false records to implicate PWs 1 to 4. It is to be noted that
PW 2 himself was one of the suspected person at the initial stage of
apart, materials on record such as the statement of P.W.22 recorded under
Section 164 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (in short `Code') and the
statement of C.W.1, raise a reasonable doubt relating to voluntariness of the
alleged confession. P.W.22, who is a close relation of the deceased (cousin)
has stated that two days after the occurrence after the information that Bala
Prasanna was roaming near LIC Colony, Anna Nagar Police brought him to the
Police Station and Bala Prasanna was arrested at 5.00 P.M. and was taken to the
police station and a witness was present there. It is further stated that at
the time of enquiry, the accused was beaten up by the police and they have
seized a gold ring and Rs.5000/- cash from him. If this is the statement of
P.W.22 recorded under Section 164 of the Code a witness in whose presence the
confessional statement leading to discovery of articles from the house of
Hajeeali, P.W.3 had been made, it raises serious doubt regarding the
voluntariness of the statement. In this context, it is also note worthy to
indicate that C.W.1 in his evidence has stated that the accused was in police
station on 24-4-2003 itself. Similar statement is made by P.W.4. That apart,
C.W.1 has stated that no statement has been made in his presence. The
prosecution version to the effect that even some signatures on blank papers had
been taken from P.W.22 and C.W.1 thus assumes great importance.
alleged statement made by the accused led to discovery of knife, bloodstained
clothes, rope, etc.
the prosecution there is no evidence to show that in fact the wearing apparels
containing bloodstains belonged to the accused, save and except the alleged
confessional statement. No witness has spoken that those clothes were worn by
the accused at any time far less at or about the time of occurrence. It is also
to be kept in view that those articles were recovered from the house of P.W.3
and at the initial stage of investigation, P.W.3 himself was one of the
suspected person and he was arrested. Therefore, the statement of P.W.3 and his
mother that those articles were brought by the accused and left in the upstairs
room is to be considered with a pinch of salt. Moreover, there is nothing to
indicate that in fact the bloodstained clothes and rope had tallied with the
blood grouping of the deceased. The knife did not contain any bloodstain.
Therefore, the aspect relating to recovery of articles from the house of P.W.3
and his mother cannot be considered as a link to complete the chain of
next recovery relates to recovery of computer and accessories. Apart from the
fact that there is niggling doubt about the so called confession, in view of
statement under Section 164 of the Code of P.W.22 and the statement of C.W.1, a
further doubt is raised regarding such aspect in view of evidence of C.W.1 to
the effect that he had seen such computer in the room of the deceased when they
had gone to the room after the offence was reported. The fact that C.W.1 is a
close relation of the deceased adds weight to his evidence rather than taking
it away. Even accepting that the computer had been given to P.W.15 by the
accused, such circumstance by itself does not unerringly points towards the
guilt of the accused either in respect of offence of murder or even robbery. It
is quite possible that such articles might have been borrowed by the accused
from the deceased and not necessarily stolen by the accused from the deceased
after killing her. The fact that P.W.9 had not initially stated anything before
P.W.40 about the accused coming down with computer at 3.30 P.M. and stated so
for the first time when she was re-examined after 5 months cannot be lost sight
of. As a matter of fact, P.W.9 who was examined on the very date when police
started investigation did not inform the police that she had seen the accused coming
down from upstairs or that the accused had threatened her. Her statement to the
"I did not tell
anyone that Balaprasanna took away the computer and threatened me. I did not
tell this even to the Inspector of Police after going to the police station. I
do not tell this even to P.W.1...".
next recovery relates to the ingots. For the aforesaid aspect, the evidence of
P.Ws. 17, 18 and 19 is relevant. Since the golden jewellery had been molten and
were recovered in the shape of ingots, it would be very hazardous to come to
the conclusion that in fact the golden jewellery belonged to the deceased. If
the accused had killed the deceased and stolen those golden jewellery, there is
no reason as to why he had also not taken ear rings from the deceased. The fact
that ear rings were on the dead body is admitted by the prosecution.
prosecution has strongly relied upon the fact that "M" Dollar
belonging to the deceased and a chain with key of the room of the deceased were
discovered from inside the toilet in the room which was previously occupied by
the accused. For the aforesaid purpose, they have relied upon the evidence of
P.W.42 and the seizure witness P.W.24. The accused had allegedly made earlier
confessional statement before P.W.40 on 26-4-2003 leading to discovery of
several articles. The subsequent statement spoken to by P.W.42, the subsequent
Investigating Officer, is alleged to have been made only in September, 2003,
after about five months. So far as the first confession statement made before
P.W.40 is concerned, admittedly the accused was under physical custody, at that
time, whereas at the time of last confession stated to have been made before
P.W.42, the accused was on bail and he had been summoned by P.W.42 for further
examination and, therefore, technically in custody. If the accused had not made
such a statement at such first instance, when he had confessed about other
articles, it is not understood as to how after 5 months when he was on bail he
would make such a statement. Such alleged confession made belatedly thus
creates doubt regarding its authenticity or voluntariness. In this context, it
is to be noted that C.W. 1 states that "M" Dollar was taken from him
by P.W.42 for the purpose of facilitating investigation. Keeping in view the
fact that C.W.1 is a close relation of the deceased and obviously interested in
punishing the real culprit, such a statement coming from C.W.1 cannot be
slightly brushed aside.
fact that there had been a statement allegedly made by P.W.1 leading to
recovery of a parallel key from the dash board of the car of P.W.1, cannot be
lost sight of. It is of course true that the prosecution has tried to exonerate
P.W.1 by adducing evidence through P.Ws. 36 and 39 to the effect that
immediately after recovery of the dead body, P.W.40 had taken two such keys,
thus contradicting the alleged confession of P.W.1. However, the very
suspicious role of P.W.40, who apparently was in possession of at least two
keys of the same lock creates suspicion regarding recovery of another key after
is well settled that when the prosecution relies upon circumstantial evidence,
all the links in the chain of circumstances must be complete and should be
proved through cogent evidence.
the judgment of the High Court is analysed in the background of what has been
stated by this Court as regards circumstantial evidence, the inevitable
conclusion is that the impugned judgment of the High Court does not suffer from
any infirmity to warrant interference. The appeal is dismissed.
ARIJIT PASAYAT) ................................J.
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