State of A.P. & Anr Vs.
A.P. Pensioners Association & Ors  Insc 638 (11 November 2005)
B.P. Singh & S.B. Sinha
[Arising out of S.L.P. (Civil) No.5394-5470 Of 2004] S.B. Sinha, J :
These appeals are directed against a judgment and order dated 10.09.2003
passed by the High Court of Judicature of Andhra Pradesh whereby and whereunder
the common judgment and order of the A.P.
Administrative Tribunal dated 14.6.2002 rejecting the original applications
filed by the Respondents herein was set aside.
The Respondent Association is an association of the pensioners.
The interveners, Shri K. Nagabhushanam & Ors., Shri A. Sudhakar &
and K.Appana & Ors., are also the retired employees of the State of Andhra
The fact of the matter is as under:- The State of A.P. constituted a Pay
Revision Commission (for short "PRC") for the purpose of considering
the question of revision of scale of pay of the employees working with it as
also merger of D.A., etc. On or about 21.7.1999, PRC recommended revised scale
of pay notionally from 1.7.1998 with financial benefits from 1.4.1999. The
Chief Minister of the State held a meeting with the representatives of the
employees on 24.7.1999 wherein it was agreed:
"The cash benefit of the Revised Pay Scales will be allowed with the
salary for the month of July, 1999 payable in August, 1999. The arrears of
emoluments arising from the Revised Pay Scales for then months of April, May
and June, 1999 will be credited to the General Provident Fund Accounts of the
employees." The State of Andhra Pradesh thereafter issued a Government
Order dated 11.8.1999 being No. GO (P) No. 114 in terms whereof inter alia the
mode and manner for implementing the recommendations of the PRC on pension and
other terminal benefits were specified. The said government order is in two
parts. The first part containing paragraphs 1 to 23 consists of the background
facts and the decision of the State to implement the recommendations of the
PRC. Clauses 9 and 16, which are relevant for the purpose of this case, read as
"9. Persons who retired between 1-7-1998 and 31- 3-1999 shall also be eligible for the Revised Pay Scales, 1999. The notional pay fixed in the
Revised Pay Scales, 1999 in accordance with these orders, shall in such cases
count towards pensionary benefits." "16. Separate orders are also
being issued in regard to the recommendations of the Pay Revision Commission on
Pension and other terminal benefits." The second part of the said
government order contains the draft notification containing the rules made in
terms of the proviso to Article 309 of the Constitution of India called
"The A.P. Revised Scales of Pay Rules, 1999". The said rules in terms
of Rule 1(2) would be deemed to have come into force with effect from 1st July, 1998. They were to be applied to all government employees whether temporary,
regular or permanent appointed before 1st July, 1998. Rule 3 of the Rules
provides for the revised pay scales, sub-rule (1) whereof reads as under:
"(1) Except as otherwise provided in sub-rule-2, the existing scales of
pay specified in column (2) of Schedule -1 shall be revised as specified in the
corresponding entry in column (4) of the said Schedule." Sub-rule (2) of
the said Rule contains an exception to sub-rule (1) which reads as under:-
"(2) Where, in the case of any post on an existing scale of pay specified
in column (2) of Schedule 1, a revised scale of pay other than the revised
scale of pay specified in the corresponding entry in column (4) of that
Schedule is specified in column (4) of Schedule II, the revised scale of pay
so specified in column (4) of Schedule II shall apply." Rule 4 in no
uncertain terms states that no government employee shall be entitled to any
monetary benefit for any period prior to 1.4.1999.
Rule 5 lays down the principles for exercise of option in terms whereof a
government employee should opt for the new scale of pay either from 1st July, 1998 or from the date on which he earns the next increment in the existing scale
of pay but not beyond 30th June, 1999. He could also opt for remaining in the
existing scale. Sub-rules (6) and (7) specifically lay down the modes of
exercising option as regards an employee who retired on or after 1st July, 1998. Such option could also be exercised by the legal representative of a
government employee who died while in service on or after the said date.
Sub-rule (1) of Rule 9 contains a non-obstante clause saying that no rules made
under the proviso to Article 309 of the Constitution of India shall, insofar as
it is inconsistent with any of the provisions of these rules, have any effect.
The State also issued said GO(P) No. 156 on 16.9.1999 wherein it was
categorically stated that the revised consolidated pension shall come into
force with effect from 1.7.1998 with monetary benefits payable from 1.4.1999.
Paragraph 5 of the said GO reads as under:
"5. The employee retired between 01-07-1998 and 1-4-1999 are eligible to revision of their pay in the Revised Pay Scales, 1999 notionally as per the
orders issued in G.O. 7th read above. As such, the pensions of these employees
may be revised notionally as per the revised pay in Revised Pay Scales, 1999
and monetary benefit should be allowed from 01-04-1999. No difference on Retirement Gratuity and Commutation shall be allowed in the pension notionally
fixed as above." Yet again, another notification was issued on 16.9.1999
being GOM No. 157 in terms whereof maximum limit of retirement gratuity under
Rule 46 of the A.P. Revised Pension Rules, 1980 was raised from 1,75,000/- to
Rs. 2,50,000/-, paragraph 3 whereof reads as under:- "These orders will
come into force from 1-4-1999 and shall apply to all Government Servants who
retire or whose death taken place on or after that date. The arrears due to
issue to these orders to the employees retired after 1-4-1999 shall be paid as per para 4.4 of the Government order fifth read above." GOM No. 158 was
issued on 16.9.1999 enhancing the limit of commutation of pension under A.P.
Civil Pensions (Commutation) Rules, 1944 to 40% of the pension sanctioned to
the pensioners with effect from 1.4.1999. Such enhancement is applicable only
in relation to the persons who retired or died on or after 1.4.1999. On or
about 23.12.1999, GOM No.
206 was issued in terms whereof paragraph 9 of the First Part of the GO(P)
No. 114 dated 11.8.1999 was clarified to the following effect:
"Persons who retired between 1-7-1998 and 31-3- 1999 shall also be
eligible for the Revised Pay Scales, 1999. The notional pay fixed in the
Revised Pay Scales, 1999 in accordance with these orders shall, in such cases
count towards pension notionally and the monetary benefit of the revised
pension shall be allowed with effect from 1-4- 1999." A large number of
original applications were filed before the State Administrative Tribunal by
the employees who had retired between the period 1.7.1998 and 1.4.1999 praying
for payment of pensionary benefits including commutation, pension, gratuity and
encashment of leave in terms of paragraph 9 of GO No. 114.
In terms of its common judgment and order dated 14.6.2002, the Tribunal
opined that the applicants were not entitled to gratuity and encashment of
earned leave based on their notional pay fixed in the revised scale of pay.
They were also not held to be entitled to enhanced gratuity and enhanced
percentage of commutation in terms of GOMs NOs. 157 and 158 but were only
eligible for commutation of portion of revised pension in terms of Rules 3(d)
and (e) of A.P. Civil Pension Commutation Rules, 1944.
Both the State of Andhra Pradesh as also the Original Applicants preferred
writ petitions before the High Court being aggrieved by and dissatisfied
therewith. By reason of the impugned judgment dated 10.9.2003 the High Court
dismissed the writ petition filed by the State whereas the writ petitions filed
by the employees were allowed. Aggrieved the State is before us.
Mr. P.P. Rao and Mr. H.S. Guru Raja Rao, learned senior counsel appearing on
behalf of the State of Andhra Pradesh, submitted that the reasonings of the
High Court that the Government acted contrary to the agreement with the unions,
and that paragraph 9 of GO No. 114 conferred a legal right on the employees,
cannot be sustained.
Drawing our attention to the minutes of the meeting held between the Chief
Minister of the State of Andhra Pradesh, it was submitted that from a perusal
of clause (4) thereof it would be evident that the same relate to the persons
who would be continuing in service even after 1.4.1999 and, not in regard to
the persons who had retired and drawn their retiral benefits prior thereto. As
regard the second reasoning of the High Court Mr. Rao would contend that
paragraph 9 of the said GO which is not a part of the statutory rule has been
completely misconstrued inasmuch as the same merely provides background facts.
Drawing our attention to paragraph 16 of the said GO, it was contended that as
separate orders were to be issued in regard to the recommendations of the PRC
on pension and other terminal benefits, the provisions of the said notification
only could be taken into consideration for the purpose of determining the legal
right of the employees. Terminal benefits, Mr. Rao submitted, does not include
Drawing our attention to the second part of the said GO No. 114, Mr.
Rao urged that perusal of Rule 4 thereof would make the position absolutely
clear that no monetary benefit prior to 1.4.1999 accrued or was to be paid. It
was further submitted that the government in exercise of its power conferred
upon it under the proviso to Article 309 of the Constitution of India can
unilaterally alter the terms and conditions of service. The High Court, it was
submitted, failed to notice the grave financial implication in the matter.
Mr. Uday Umesh Lalit, learned senior counsel appearing on behalf of the
Respondents, on the other hand, supported the judgment of the High Court
contending that it is not a case where 1.4.1999 was fixed as a cut-off date for
the purpose of grant of terminal benefits in terms of the rules. The rules, it
was urged, read as a whole would clearly point out that the same had come into
force with effect from 1.7.1998 wherefor a legal fiction has been created and
in that view of the matter, although the monetary benefit was to be paid with
effect from 1.4.1999, the entitlement to the scale of pay for all purposes
including that of computation of the amount of gratuity as also commutation of
pension, etc. cannot be denied. Other GOMs Nos. 156,157, 158 and 206 issued
after GO No. 114, having not been issued under the proviso to Article 309 of
the Constitution of India, whereas GO NO. 114 having been so issued, the same
could not whittle down the effect of a statutory rule. In any event, the said
GOMs have been declared ultra vires by the Tribunal which finding has not been
set aside by the High Court.
As the rules contemplate increase in pay with effect from 1.7.1998, the same
should be applied for all intent and purport and must be given effect to in its
true letter and spirit. If the benefit of the higher pay scale as also other benefits
contemplated thereby are to be computed with effect from 1.7.1998, only because
the actual payment in terms of money is deferred, the same would not take away
the right that had accrued thereover, having regard to the fact that the pay is
a condition of service.
Before adverting to the rival contentions of the parties, we may notice the
findings of the Tribunal and the High Court respectively.
Findings of the Tribunal are as under:
(a) Paragraph Nos. 1 to 23 of GO No. 114 dated 11.8.1999 do not have any
(b) Rule 4 of the Statutory Rule does not confer any legal right upon the
employees who retired between 1.7.1998 and 1.4.1999 to any monetary benefit,
and in that view of the matter on their superannuation, they having not drawn
their pay in the revised pay scales, were not entitled therefor in terms
(c) As regards paragraph 9 of GO No. 114, the Tribunal opined that the same
being an executive order, the original applicants did not become entitled to
get the amount of gratuity fixed on notional pay contrary to statutory rules.
(d) Paragraph 5 of GO No. 156 is not violative of Articles 14 and 16 of the
Constitution of India.
(e) It was noted that the legality or validity of Rule 4 of GO No. 114
fixing the cut-off date of 1.4.1999 was not questioned. Such cut- off date in
any view of the matter is valid having been fixed upon taking into
consideration the financial implications therefor having regard to the fact
that the financial year commenced from 1.4.1999.
(f) Gratuity cannot be a part of pension as conceptually they are different.
The High Court, on the other hand, set aside the aforementioned findings
holding that (i) the Government acted contrary to the agreement arrived at by
and between itself and with the unions; and (ii) paragraph 9 of the GO No. 114
had conferred a right on the employees which could not be taken away by issuing
The High Court, however, did not advert to the other contentions raised on
behalf of the State.
It has not been disputed before us that GO No. 114 is in two parts.
Paragraphs 1 to 23 only state the factual backdrop leading to issuance of
the notifications. It is also not in dispute that the statutory rule embedded
in GO No. 114 does not speak of gratuity. It has further not been disputed
before us that the minutes of meeting dated 24.7.1999, held by the Chief
Minister of the State with the representatives of the employees, do not contain
any agreement as opined by the High Court.
GO No. 114 being in two parts, the first part which is in the nature of
preamble or statement of background facts cannot be treated to be a part of the
rules framed and notified in terms of proviso to Article 309 of the
Constitution of India. Paragraph 16 of the GO, as has been noticed
hereinbefore, in no uncertain terms states that separate orders were being
issued in regard to recommendations of PRC on pension and other terminal
benefits. Only because clauses 9 and 16 of the said GO speak of pensionary
benefits and/ or other terminal benefits, the same, in our opinion, would not
mean that they embraced within their fold all benefits which under different
provisions of a statute or even different statutes could come within the
For the aforementioned purpose, the provisions of the notification are to be
read as a whole. The intention of the State in issuing the aforementioned
notification although may have to be gathered in the backdrop of the facts
stated in the preamble portion thereof, indisputably the legal right of the
Respondents, if any, must be found out from the notification portion itself.
The notification read as a whole does not suggest that the State of Andhra
Pradesh thereby intended to pay before 1.4.1999 retirement gratuity reckoned on
the basis of the revised scale of pay as recommended by the PRC.
Mr. Lalit may be right in his submissions that the revised scale of pay
notionally was fixed from 1.7.1998, but, concededly, cash benefit therefor was
payable from 1.4.1999. Pension and gratuity connote two different things. In
given situations, they may be payable under different statutes.
Admittedly, the matter relating to payment of pension and gratuity is
governed by the A.P. Revised Pension Rules, 1980. Rule 31 of the said rules
defines "emoluments" to mean 'pay' as defined in Rule 9(21)(a)(i) of
the Fundamental Rules, which a Government servant had been receiving
immediately before his retirement or on the date of his death. Rule 46 provides
for retirement gratuity, clause (1)(a)(A) whereof reads as under:
"46. Retirement Gratuity : - (1)(a) A Government servant, who has
completed five years' qualifying service and has become eligible for service
gratuity or pension under Rule 45, shall on his retirement, be granted as
retirement gratuity, - (A) In case he draws pay in the Revised Scales of Pay,
1993, a sum equal to (i) 1/4th of emoluments for each completed six monthly
period of service, subject to a maximum of fifteen times the emoluments or
rupees sixty five thousand, whichever is less; or (ii) 3/16th of emoluments for
each completed six monthly period of service, subject to a maximum of 12.375
times the emoluments or Rupees one lakh, whichever is less;
in accordance with the choice exercised by him in his behalf;"
Computation of retirement gratuity payable to a Government servant is,
therefore, required to be done on the basis of the formula laid down therein. A
bare perusal of the aforementioned rule clearly shows that for the purpose of
computation either 1/4th of the emolument for each completed six monthly period
of service, or 3/16th of emoluments for each completed six monthly period of
service, is to be taken into consideration. Such emoluments necessarily were
payable either immediately before the date of retirement or the date of death.
On 1.4.1999, in view of the clear expressions contained in the aforementioned
GO No. 114, those employees who retired between the period 1.7.1998 and
1.4.1999 would have received the actual benefit calculated in terms of the said
rule. The submission of Mr.
Lalit to the effect that they became entitled to enhanced pay and,
therefore, to enhanced gratuity from 1.7.1998 is not wholly correct. They
became entitled thereto but only notionally for the purpose of calculation of
such recurring liability of the State which became payable with effect from
1.4.1999. The High Court has heavily relied upon the purported legal fiction
created in the said rule to the effect that the same would come into force with
effect from 1.7.1998. The legal fiction undoubtedly is to be construed in such
a manner so as to enable a person, for whose benefit such legal fiction has
been created, to obtain all consequences flowing therefrom.
and Ors. [(1978) 3 SCR 761], whereupon Mr. Lalit placed strong reliance, the
court was concerned with the share of the deceased in the coparcenary property
in terms of Section 6 of the Hindu Succession
Act, 1956. In terms of the said provision a legal fiction was created for
the purpose of reckoning the share of the deceased which would have been
allotted to him if a partition of the property had taken place immediately
before his death.
Plaintiff therein had 1/6th interest in the share. Applying the principles
laid down in the explanation appended to Section 6 of the Hindu Succession
Act, it was held that the plaintiff was also entitled to 1/6th share from
1/4th share of the coparcenary property, i.e., to say 1/24th. As on the date of
partition, the plaintiff was to have an independent 1/4th share, the Court held
that the plaintiff's share would be 1/4th + 1/24th in the property.
The case at hand indeed poses a different problem. Although like Gurupad
Khandappa Magdum (supra) a notional revision of pay was to be considered as if
the same took effect from 1.7.1998, but the rule went further and stated that
actual monetary benefit thereof shall be given with effect from 1.4.1999. The
rule, therefore, not only creates a legal fiction but also provides the
limitations in operation thereof. If the effect of the legal fiction is
extended in the manner suggested by Mr. Lalit, clause (4) of the rule will
become otiose. In other words, all the consequences ordinarily flowing from a
rule would be given effect to if the rule otherwise does not limit the
operation thereof. If the rule itself provides a limitation on its operation,
the consequences flowing from the legal fiction have to be understood in the
light of the limitations prescribed. Thus, it is not possible to construe the
legal fiction as simply as suggested by Mr. Lalit.
Furthermore, in construing the rule, this Court cannot lose sight of the
fact that the same did not provide for payment of gratuity.
Andhra Pradesh [(1986) 3 SCC 501], this Court accepted that when the revised
scheme became operative from 1st April, 1978, non-payment of gratuity under the
Revised Pension Rules, 1980 was not payable to those pensioners who retired
prior thereto stating that at the time of retirement they were governed by the
then existing rules and their gratuity was calculated on that basis. The Court
rejected the contention that the same was ultra vires Article 14 of the
Constitution of India.
Another [(1988) 2 SCC 580], the law is stated in the following terms:
"8. From the foregoing it is clear that this Court has made a
distinction between the pension payable on retirement and the gratuity payable
on retirement. While pension is payable periodically as long as the pensioner
is alive, gratuity is ordinarily paid only once on retirement" (1994) 2
SCC 729], this Court held that gratuity, in absence of any express provision in
a statute, cannot be treated to be a part of pension.
SCC 733], it was stated:
"7. On merits we find that the retirement benefits which are claimed by
the respondent are benefits which are conferred by subsequent orders/
notifications. Therefore, persons who retired after the coming into force of
these notifications and order are governed by different rules of retirement
than those who retired under the old rules and were governed by the old rules.
The two categories of persons, who retired were governed by two different sets
of rules. They cannot, therefore, be equated. Further, granting of additional
benefits has financial implications also. Hence, specifying the date for the
conferment of such additional benefits cannot be considered as arbitrary."
[(2005) 6 SCC 754], upon consideration of a large number of decisions, this
Court opined that the decision of a State to limit the benefits only to
employees who retire or died on or after a particular date upon calculating the
financial implications thereof was neither irational nor arbitrary. It was
"28 It is trite that, the final recommendations of the Pay Commission
were not ipso facto binding on the Government, as the Government had to accept
and implement the recommendations of the Pay Commission consistent with its
financial position. This is precisely what the Government did. Such an action
on the part of the Government can neither be characterised as irrational, nor
as arbitrary so as to infringe Article 14 of the Constitution." of India
[(1983) 1 SCC 305] for the proposition that the financial implication for
implementation of the recommendations of PRC has not much relevance.
Therein, the Constitution Bench came to the conclusion that the increased
liability upon the said judgment is not too high to be unbearable or such as
would have detracted the Government from covering the old pensioners under the
The decisions of this Court which have been noticed in Amar Nath Goyal
(supra) categorically point out that financial implication is one of the
relevant considerations for the State to deny certain benefits to a class of
employees who retire on or before a particular date.
It is, therefore, beyond any shadow of doubt that the financial implication
is a relevant criterion for the State Government to determine as to what
benefits can be granted pursuant to or in furtherance of the recommendations
made by the PRC. The PRC also said that while revision of pay shall take effect
from 1.7.1998, the monetary benefit would be payable only from 1.4.1999. If
monetary benefit was payable only from 1.4.1999, all rights to get the benefits
computed on the basis of the revised scale of pay would only be for the purpose
of payment of pay with effect from 1.4.1999 or payment of the recurring amount
of pension with effect from that date.
Clause (4) does not make any exception so far as payment of actual monetary
benefit is concerned for the purpose of payment of gratuity or otherwise. Had
that been so, the rule would have stated expressly. On the other hand, GO No.
157 dated 16.9.1999 fixed the maximum limit of gratuity under rule 46 of the
A.P. Revised Pension Rules with effect from 1.4.1999 only.
We, therefore, are of the opinion that the intention of the State was not to
grant any benefit towards payment of gratuity even in relation to those
employees who had retired in between 1.7.1998 and 31.3.1999.
For the reasons aforementioned, the judgment and order of the High Court
cannot be sustained. We, however, agree with the Tribunal that the employees
are eligible for computation of portion of revised pension in terms of Rule 3
of A.P. Civil Pensions (Commutation) Rules, 1944. The appeal is allowed. The
impugned judgment of the High Court is set aside and as of the Tribunal is
restored. No costs.