Singh & Ors Vs. Nirmal Singh & ANR  INSC 549 (9 November 2000)
S.N.Hegde SANTOSH HEGDE, J.
aggrieved by the judgment of the High Court of Punjab & Haryana at Chandigarh dated 16.3.1999 made in E.S.A.
No.1720/98, the appellants have preferred the above noted appeals. Brief facts
necessary for disposal of these appeals are as follows :- Originally the suit
lands belonged to Gobind Mal, Brij Lal, Vassan Mal and Baldev Singh. Their
attorneys sold part of the lands owned by the abovesaid persons in favour of
one Smt. Yashodha Bai and Raj Rani by means of two sale-deeds.
said Yashodha Bai and Raj Rani agreed to sell the said property in favour of Inder
Singh and Gurdit Singh by way of two sale agreements. On failure of the said
ladies to complete the sale deeds, said Inder Singh and Gurdit Singh
(predecessors-in-interest of the present appellants herein after to be referred
to as the appellants) filed two suits for specific performance of their
agreements. Almost simultaneously, the respondents herein also filed two suits
claiming to be the purchaser of the suit lands against Ambi Bai, widow of Gobind
Mal and Yashodha Bai. The trial court viz., Subordinate Judge, Kapurthala,
dismissed both the suits of the respondents and the suits of the appellants
were decreed, and the appellants obtained the sale deeds in regard to the suit
lands executed through the Court Commissioner. The respondents herein, however,
challenged the said decree of specific performance granted in favour of the
appellants by way of an appeal before a learned Single Judge of the High Court
of Punjab & Haryana. The learned Single Judge who heard the appeal, allowed
the appeal and set aside the judgments decrees in favour of the appellants
holding the original plaintiffs in whose favour the trial court granted the
decree, were not ready and willing to perform their part of the contract. Thus,
the decrees of the trial court in those suits came to be reversed and the suits
dismissed. The plaintiffs in those proceedings, namely, the present appellants
filed Letters Patent Appeals before the Division Bench of the said High Court
which, while allowing the Letters Patent Appeal partly, held the claim of the
appellants in regard to the share of Gobind Mal cannot be sustained, hence,
rejected and dismissed the suit in regard to the share of Gobind Mal since the
attorney of Gobind Mal had entered into the agreement of sale after the said Gobind
Mal had died. Therefore, the appellants did not derive any title from the
agreement executed by the attorney of Gobind Mal, however, their claim for the
rest of the property was decreed.
the judgment in the L.P.A., the respondents herein moved application for
restitution urging that since the decree which was executed in favour of the
appellants is modified to the extent of Gobind Mals share, there should be
restitution as contemplated under Section 144 of the Code of Civil Procedure to
that extent and they be put in possession of that part of the suit property.
The trial court and the lower appellate court dismissed the said application
holding that the respondents did not have the locus standi to make/maintain the
said application since their claim to the suit land including that of Gobind Mals
share was rejected by the dismissal of their suit. In appeal, the High Court by
the impugned order, has held that the respondents being the purchasers of the
share of Gobind Mal and having purchased the same from the widow Ambi Bai, they
have the locus standi to make the application under Section 144 C.P.C. It also
held that said Ambi Bai never challenged the sale made by her in regard to the
share of Gobind Mal on any ground much less that the same was without consideration.
Therefore, on the reversal of the judgment and decree, the law cast an
obligation on the parties to the suit who received the benefit of the erroneous
judgment to make restitution to the other party for what it had lost and
further held that it is the duty of the court to enforce that obligation. On
this basis, it directed the remand of the case to the Executing Court to
determine the share of Gobind Mal in the suit land and the proportionate price
thereof and on such determination, the appellants before it i.e. the
respondents before us be asked to deposit such determined amount and thereafter
the Executing Court should pass orders in regard to the corrections to be made
in the sale deed to that extent, and consequential corrections in the registered
documents and the revenue records be made.
the High Court rejected the prayer of the respondents for possession on the
ground that they were not dispossessed pursuant to the reversed decree. In
these appeals, the appellants contend that the respondents having failed in
their suits, it is not open to them to file an application for restitution
because they have no right or title even in regard to the share of Gobind Mal
in the suit land. They contend that the claim of the respondents is barred by the
principle of res judicata, hence, the High Court was wrong in interfering with
the findings of the courts below.
contra, on behalf of the respondents, it is contended that the modification of
the decree by the Letters Patent Bench was done at the instance of these
respondents who had preferred the said Letters Patent Appeals.
the said modified judgment became inter-partes hence to effectuate the
modification of the decree, it had become necessary for the respondents herein
to move an application for restitution hence such an application was
maintainable by them. They also justify the observations of the High Court made
in their favour as to the purchase of a suit property by them from Gobind Mals
widow Ambi Bai, so also the directions given by the High Court as to the
deposit of the consideration amount equivalent to the share of Gobind Mal in
the suit property, by them. They contended that it is the interest of equity
and justice that such directions, as has been given by the High Court, be
maintained. They also contended that they are entitled to be put in possession
of the land equivalent to the share of Gobind Mal.
have carefully considered the arguments of the parties. From the narration of
the facts noted hereinabove, it is clear that neither Yashodha Bai, Raj Rani
nor Ambi Bai widow of Gobind Mal has taken any interest in this litigation. It
was a dispute inter se between the appellants and respondents herein. When the appellants
suit was decreed, it was the respondents herein who challenged the said decree inspite
of their suits being dismissed and got the decree of the trial court reversed
by the Single Judge of the High Court. Thereafter, when the LPA was preferred
before the High Court, it is only the respondents herein who were parties to
the said appeal.
it could be said that learned Single Judges judgment dismissing the suit and
the judgment of the Letters Patent Bench modifying the decree of the trial
court were done in the proceedings to which the appellants and the respondents
alone were parties. Therefore, such proceedings should be deemed to be inter partes.
Hence, there is substantial force in the argument of the respondents that since
the ultimate decree of the Letters Patent Bench was made in a proceeding to
which they alone were parties, an application on their behalf for restitution
to the extent of modified decree must be held to be maintainable on their
behalf because they are the other party referred to in Section 144 of the
to be noted that neither in the appeal before the Single Judge nor in the
Letters Patent Appeal before the Letters Patent Bench, it was ever contended
that these respondents have no interest in the suit lands since their suits
were dismissed, nor was it contended the proceedings initiated by them ought to
be dismissed as being not maintainable. In the said proceedings both Single
Bench and the Appellate Bench accepted these respondents as necessary parties
and it is at their instance the judgments were delivered in those proceedings.
Therefore, it is trite to say for the purpose of getting the modification of
decree pursuant to the judgment of the Letter Patent Bench these respondents
would become stranger to the proceedings. We agree with the High Court that the
respondents are proper parties to move the restitution application to bring the
original decree in conformity with the judgment of the Letters Patent Bench.
That is to the extent of deleting the share of Gobind Mal from the registered
sale deed and making necessary consequential changes in the other relevant
documents. In this regard, it is worthwhile to refer to the observations of
this Court in the case of Lala Bhagwandas vs. Lala Kishen Das, 1953 SCR 559
wherein this Court held:
the duty of the Court to enforce that obligation unless it is shown that
restitution would be clearly contrary to the real justice of the case.
instant case, when it is established that the appellants did not have right
title or interest in the property falling to the share of Gobind Mal, the
benefit so obtained by them by the judgment which is reversed must be changed
to that extent by bringing necessary changes in the original decree. This is
because of the principle of the doctrine of restitution that on the reversal of
a decree in appeal, the law imposes an obligation on the party to the suit who
received the benefit of the erroneous decree to make restitution to the other
party for what it had lost.
obligation arises automatically on the reversal or modification of the decree
from which a party has obtained certain benefits. In the instant case, we have
already held that the respondents will be the other party as contemplated under
Section 144 of CPC though not for the purpose of getting their right
established in the suit property but to the extent of seeing that the
appellants did not get a title to the share of Gobind Mal which they obtained
by virtue of the erroneous decree which later came to be reversed.
we are in agreement with the judgment of the High Court that the Executing
Court should determine the share of Gobind Mal and its value and thereafter
carry out necessary corrections in the sale deed executed in favour of the
appellants by virtue of the decree of the trial court and also make necessary
changes in the concerned records including that of the revenue records.
this, we do not hold that the respondents have established any title to the
share of Gobind Mal nor are they entitled to seek restitution of the possession
of that share of property because as per the finding of the High Court, with
which we agree, these respondents have not been dispossessed by virtue of that
decree. The title to the share of Gobind Mal and entitlement to possess the
same will have to be left open to be adjudicated in other proceedings if any.
For the reasons stated above, these appeals fail and are dismissed.
196-97/2000 in SLPŠNos.10616-17/99) In view of our judgment rendered in C.A.@
SLPŠNo.10616-17/99, these Special Leave Petitions and Contempt Petitions do not
survive for consideration, hence the same are also dismissed.