Singh & Ors Vs. State of U.P  INSC 110 (7 March 2000)
THOMAS & R.C. LAHOTI
For Bhulani Devi the night on the 1st of August, 1978 turned out to be the most
dreadful in her life, for, it was on that night her husband, her father-in-law,
his brother and two other neighbours were gunned down within her sight inside
her nuptial home by armed dacoits. Police, after investigation challaned the
appellants as three out of a gang of dacoits, as the others could not be
identified thus far. Though the three appellants secured acquittal from the
trial court they fell into the dragnet of conviction when a Division Bench of
the High Court found them guilty of the offence, on the appeal preferred by the
State. All the appellants were thereupon convicted under Section 396 of the
Indian Penal Code and each was sentenced to undergo imprisonm nt for life.
the appellants filed this appeal as of right under Section 379 of the Code of
Criminal Procedure and Section 2 of the Supreme Court (Enlargement of Criminal
Appellate Jurisdiction) Act 1970. We heard detailed arguments advanced by Shri
U.R. Lalit, senior counsel for the appellants and Shri Vishwajit Singh, counsel
for the State of U.P.
lie in a narrow compass. The incident happened in Rudauli Village (Mirzapur District). Bhulani Devi's husband Rama Shankar Yadav
was the Pradhan of that village. His residential building must have been a twin
house wherein the entire family of his father would have been living. On the
fateful night he and his wife Bhulani Devi along with their children were
sleeping on the roof of one segment of the building. His father Chamman Yadav
was sleeping on the verandah of the next segment along wit his brother Sombhar Yadav.
It appears that the family was in reasonably affluent circumstances and they
had a number of valuables which were kept in the house. It was around midnight that the dacoits arrived consisting of a gang of 14
or 15. They tri d to break open the door of the house. On hearing the sound of
gate-crashing Bhulani Devi woke up and saw the dacoits in the light of torchlights
flashed by them. They were armed with guns, chopper and lathis. One of the
inmates of the house - Ram Lak an Yadav - presumably to alert the villagers,
set ablaze a haystack in the courtyard.
flames provided enough alert to the neighbours who started trickling in. The
dacoits first attacked Ram Lakhan Yadav and vanquished him. Some of the neighbours
w o arrived there gathered courage and attacked the marauders with bricks and
turned against Chaman Yadav who entreated to them to spare their lives and
allowed them to take away whatever wealth they required. On realising that Chaman
Yadav had discovered the identity of the attackers some of them fired at him
and also at his brother Sombhar Yadav, and consequently both of them fell down.
Rama Shankar Yadav became forceful and told the dacoits that he would take
revenge for the killing of his father. Instinctively he picked up bricks and
pelted such handy weapons at the killers. Then some of the dacoits turned
against him, broke up his part of the house, climbed up to the roof and shot
him dead. Thereafter the dacoits tried to run away with the booty.
running away some of the local people chased them.
dacoits turned and fired at them also. Lalchand and Kalika Yadav sustained
fatal bullet injuries and later they succumbed to those injuries. The marauders
succeeded in escaping with the booty.
first information was actually conveyed to a Police Outpost where PW-10 Head
Constable was present. He told the informant to report the matter to the police
station. So a written complaint was presented at the police station which was
made the basi for the FIR. Names of three of the dacoits were mentioned in the
said written complaint.
of the appellants, nor any of the remaining dacoits could be arrested by the
police. However on 16.8.1978, first and third appellants surrendered before the
magistrate court while the second appellant surrenered on 24.8.1978.
other persons we e taken into custody on suspicion and were put to Test
Identification Parade. But the witnesses did not identify them and hence they
were dropped out.
examined 12 witnesses. Out of them PW-3 Keshav, PW-4 Bhulani Devi, PW-5 Lalloo,
and PW-6 Chandrika have stated that they identified the appellants as three of
the dacoits. The accused examined two witnesses, DW-1 Jaishree and DW-2 Roop
Nara n Singh. Jaishree is one of the neighbours. His version was that when he
reached the house of occurrence in the night he found some of the inmates lying
dead and some other lying injured, but even on enquiries made by him none could
tell him as to the id ntity of any of the dacoits.
Session Judge was not persuaded to believe that the three appellants were
involved in the dacoity. He advanced 8 reasons for holding the said view. Those
Exhibit KA-22 (which is the written complaint signed by Bhulani Devi and which
is the first information statement) would have been created much after the
occurrence and it would have been prepared under the active care and
supervision of the local po ice.
FIR was ante-dated and hence is devoid of any legal utility.
There was no sufficient light to identify the dacoits.
The investigating officer did not make any effort to arrest the accused.
Instead some other persons were arrested and they were let off later.
Name of the second appellant (Mangala Giri) was not in the FIR, and on the
contrary the name of another person (Baba Singh) was found in place thereof.
According to the police, even the said Baba Singh was not involved in the
is difficult to believe that the appellants who were well known to the inmates
of the house would have gone there without covering/concealing their faces.
There is no acceptable explanation for the non-examination of Ram Lakhan.
PW-3 admitted that there was a previous enmity between Rama Shankar Yadav and
the first appellant there is also the possibility of the accused being falsely implicated.
Division Bench of the High Court agreed with the Sessions Judge that the
investigating officer (PW-11 K.N.
acted in a very unfair manner. Learned judges further felt that PW-11 was
trying to help the appellants.
role played by PW-11 in th investigation has been subjected to very rude
comments passed against him by the Division Bench of the High Court.
Nonetheless learned Judges felt that the evidence of the four eye witnesses
could be relied on and hence the order of acquittal was rever ed and appellants
were convicted by the High Court of the offence mentioned above.
if the evidence of those four eye witnesses can be accepted regarding
identification of the appellants as the culprits there is no difficulty to
confirm the conviction.
crucial question in this appeal is whether the evidence of those witnes ses can
safely be acted on, merely because in the trial court those witnesses
identified the appellants as three of the culprits. We are definite that the
identification made by the four witnesses in court must be subjected to severe
scrutiny for the rea on that the appellants were admittedly at loggerheads with
the husband of PW-4 Bhulani Devi.
inmates of the robbed house could not identify any of the dacoits but later
they suspected that the appellants were behind the dacoity, there can certainly
be the possibility of implicating the appellants out of suspicion. Is it enough
to sidelin e their testimony merely because of such a possibility? There are
certain broad incongruities staring at the prosecution version against the
appellants. They can be narrated below:
is that the written complaint made by PW-4 Bhulani Devi which became the basis
for the FIR, reached the magistrate only on 3.8.1978. If the incident happened
on the night of 1st August and the police was told on the next morning that
appellants wer e the dacoits, we have no reason to think that the FIR would not
have been registered against the appellants on the same morning. PW-11
investigating officer admitted that no case was registered against the
appellants till the night of 2nd August, 1978.
If so, the arguments that the case against the appellants was registered only
on the 3rd of August 1978, cannot be ruled out. What was the
reason for such a peculiar dodging in making an FIR? The second aspect is that
names of the appellants did not officer on 2nd August. The argument was
attempted to be made in defence of such non-inclusion of the appellants on the
premise that no su figure in any of the papers prepared by the investigating ch
document required mention the names of the accused. We find it difficult to
believe that even the general diary need not contain the names of the culprits
whose identity was known by then. It is equally difficult to comprehend that
the inquest prepar d on the morning of 2nd August 1978, should be totally silent about the
names of at least the known culprits. Is it not more reasonable to presume that
no names were mentioned in all the investigative records made on 2nd August 1978, because the investig ting officers
had not come to know of the names of any of the dacoits till then? In the above
context we may point out that the police did not think it necessary to raid the
houses of the appellants either on the 2nd or on the 3rd of August, 1978.
only on the 4th that the police chose to make a search of the houses of the acc
used. This could be on account of the fact that police had no idea of the
involvement of the said accused till 3rd of August, 1978.
next impediment against the veracity of the prosecution version is, why the
investigating officer did not feel the necessity to recover at least one of the
articles robbed away. We must remember that the investigating officer could not
recover even the guns with which the appellants would have killed five persons
in the occurrence. Such a serious flaw cannot be explained away simply because
the police failed to know where such guns were disposed of.
above context it must be remembered that the appellants surrendered to the
court on their own initiative.
difficult to appreciate that the investigating officer could not interrogate
any of the appellants even after they surrendered in the court.
now point out the prosecution version that Chaman Yadav and Sombhar Yadav were
gunned down by the police because they realised the identity of the appellants.
PW-4 Bhulani Devi said that she heard one of the appellants uttering the words:
"Chaman Yadav had already identified us". We have to pause here for a
minute and ask a question - if the dacoits did not want the inmates of the
burgled house to know their identity, is it not reasonable to assume that they
would have reached the house after c vering their faces? Instead, all of them
turned against the old man Chaman Yadav, only because Chaman Yadav understood
the identity of the dacoits.
the above broad aspects it is quite possible that none of the witnesses could
mention the names of the persons on 2.8.78. If that be so the evidence of DW-1
(the neighbour) that nobody could say who the dacoits were even though he
reached the place immediately after the occurrence, cannot be brushed aside. If
that was the real position, it is possible that the names of the accused were
mentioned by PW-4 and others out of suspicion.
again in the aforesaid context that we have to evaluate the impact of the
non-examination of Ram Lakhan Yadav. When four witnesses were examined to speak
to the occurrence normally non-examination of one more witness is not a serious
flaw. But in this case non-examination of Ram Lakhan Yadav cannot be sidelined
with such a reasoning.
is because it was Ram Lakhan Yadav who set fire to the haystack, in the light
of which flames the culprits were identified; and it was Ram Lakhan Yadav who wa
first attacked by the dacoits, and it was Ram Lakhan Yadav who had seen the
dacoits earlier than any other person connected with victims' house. What he
would have said about the identity of the dacoits cannot now be left in
surmise. If he also had sa d that all the dacoits were unknown persons it would
have had a very deleterious impact on the veracity of the four witnesses who
pointed to the three appellants as the dacoits.
rate, the reasons advanced by the trial court are by no means weak or untenable
for not relying on the evidence regarding identity of the dacoits. In an appeal
against acquittal interference cannot be made if the reasons of the trial court
are go od and sturdy.
amount of doubt which the court would entertain regarding the complicity of the
appellants in this case is much more than the level of reasonable doubt. We are
aware that acquitting the accused in a case of this nature is not a matter of satisfactio
n for all concerned. At the same time we remind ourselves of the time-tested
rule that acquittal of a guilty person should be preferred to conviction of an
innocent person. Unless the prosecution establishes the guilt of the accused
beyond reasonable d ubt a conviction cannot be passed on the accused. A
criminal court cannot afford to deprive liberty of the appellants, lifelong
liberty, without having at least a reasonable level of certainty that
appellants were the real culprits. We really entertain oubt about the
involvement of the appellants in the crime.
therefore, allow this appeal and set aside the judgment of the High Court. We
restore the order of acquittal passed by the trial court and direct the jail
authorities to set the appellants free, unless they are involved in any other