Karamchari Union Vs. Union of India & Ors  INSC 458
(3 September 1998)
Agrawal, S.P. Kurdukar. S.P. Lurdukar.J.
Y.K.K. Corporation, Japan, (for short 'YKK') an international group company,
having worldwide net of companies and business locations in various courtries,
on April 29, 1995 submitted a proposal representation to the Foreign Investment
Promotion Board, New Delhi (for short 'FIPB') seeking approval to set up
integrated plants for manufacturing zip fasteners (metallic and non-metallic)
with hundred per cent own capital investment with no export obligation. On
consideration of this proposal the FIPB forwarded the same with its
recommendation to the Central Government. The Deputy Secretary to the Government
of India, Ministry of Industry, Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion
vide its letter dated 7th July, 1995 communicated the approval on behalf of the
Government of India to YKK. Accordingly, YKK through its subsidiary company m/s
YKK Zippers, Singapore (p) Ltd., the third respondent set up integrated plants
at Bawal in Haryana.
The petitioners claiming to be the members of various trade unions operating in
the companies engaged in manufacture of zip fasteners have filed this Writ
Petition under Article 32 of the Constitution of India seeking mandamus to
quash the permission granted to YKK for setting up "INTEGRATED
PLANTS" for manufacturing metallic and non-metallic zip fasteners in India. In addition to this prayer, a Writ
of Mandamus is also sought to set aside the Notification No.S.O. 309(E) dated 30th May, 1986 and for declaration that new
industrial policy of 1991 is in violation of the Industries (Development and
Regulation) Act, 1951 (for short 'the Act'). First respondent is the Union of
India and the second respondent is Foreign Investment Pormotion Board (FIPB).
is alleged by the petitioners that zip fasteners and its components were being
manufactured in India since 1949. eversince 1971 the
manufacturing of zip fasteners has been reserved exclusively for the small
scale sector. Zip fasteners are broadly classified into two categories,
metallic and non-metallic zip fasteners. It is undisputed that the zip fastener
is the final product of various components. There are about 150 small scale
units in India engaging over 45,000 workers in the manufacturing process of
various components for the end product i.e. zip fastener.
of these manufacturers fall within the parameters of small scale industry.
These manufacturers after putting their hard work and on obtaining knowhow have
been manufacturing the zip fasteners and successfully competing with the
international market of zip fasteners. They have been supplying zip fasteners
to the manufacturers of readymade garments, leather garments and allied
today the High technology used by these manufacturers in successfully competing
the world market and earning valuable foreign exchange for India. Notwithstanding this factual
position the reservation contained in Section 29-B (2) (2B) read with item 38
(3) in the First Schedule of the Act, the Central Government dereserved this
item providing exception in case of integrated plant - manufacturing zip
fasteners (metallic and non-metallic) by violating the said provisions of the
Act and extending favourable treatment to the foreign investor for extraneous
consideration. The action of the Central Government is illegal and be quashed.
Before we deal with the contentions raised on behalf of the petitioners it may
not be out of place to mention certain other proceedings in which an identical
challenge was made to the Notification No. S.O. 309 (E) dated 30th May, 1986 as
also to the new industrial policy in Bombay and Delhi High Courts. Writ Petition No.1987/1986 was filed in the
Bombay High Court challenging the validity of Notification No.S.O. No.309(3)
dated 30th May, 1986 issued under Section 29(B)(2)(2B) of the Act. This writ
petition was filed by three petitioners, namely,
Zipper India Pvt. Ltd.,
J. Vora; and
Zipper Association of India.
course to this writ petition YKK could not be a party as it got the approval to
start its integrated plant on 7.7.1995. Learned Single Judge of the Bombay High
Court upheld the Notification No.S.O.No.309(3) dated May 30, 1986 and dismissed
the writ petition. Appeal No.220 of 1988 filed on behalf of unsuccessful writ
petitioners was dismissed by the Division Bench by its judgement and order
dated February 28, 1997. The Special Leave Petition was allowed to be withdrawn
by this Court.
Zipper Association of India than filed Civil Writ Petition No. 3297 of 1975 in
the High Court of Delhi, at New Delhi under Article 226 of the Constitution of
India challenging the New Industrial Policy, 1991 and office Memorandum No.9(90)/91-FC
(1) dated 22.8.1991. There was also a challenge to the Notification No.309/E
dated 30.05.1986. In these proceedings respondent Nos.3 and 4 were arrayed as
respondents. The High Court of Delhi vide its judgement and order dated
1.7.1996 dismissed the writ petition. Special Leave Petition (C) No.1952 of
1996 was also dismissed by this Court on 15.7.1997. The present Writ Petition
was filed on September
23, 1996 under Art.32
of the Constitution of India by Zippers karamchari Union and it was tagged and heard along with Special Leave
Petition. This Court by its order dated 12.8.1997 admitted Writ Petition for
final disposal but dismissed the Special Leave Petition.
in this backdrop we have to examine various challenges led by the petitioners
in this Writ Petition. The third and fourth respondent are thus required to
face the second round of litigation in this Court at the instance of Zippers Karamchari
Mr. Shanti Bhushan, learned Senior Counsel appearing in support of this Writ
Petition urged that eversince 1973 the policy of the Central Government was to
promote small scale industries as reflected in the Notification dated 16.2.1973
wherein 53 industries were exclusively reserved for the small scale sector
which included zip fastener industry.
policy underwent various changes from time to time but zip fastener industry
remained untouched. However, the Notification dated 30.05.1986 brought about a
change making an exception in respect of integrated plant manufacturing zip
fasteners vide Notification No.S.O.309 dated 30.5.1986.
under this notification YKK was granted permission to set up an integrated
plant in India. This approval granted by the 1st
respondent (Union of India) is ultra virus the provisions of Section 29-B(2B)
of the Act To supplement this submission he relied upon the provisions of
Section 29-B (2B) of the Act which read as under:- 29-B Power to exempt in
special cases:- (1) If the Central Government is of opinion, having regard to
the smallness of the number of workers employed or to the amount invested in
any industrial undertaking or to the desirability of encouraging small
undertakings generally or to the stage of development of any scheduled
industry, that it would not be in public interest to apply all or any of the
provisions of the Act thereto, it may, by notification in the Official Gazette,
exempt, subject to such conditions as it may think fit to impose, any
industrial undertaking or class of industrial undertakings or any scheduled
industry or class of scheduled industries as it may specify in the notification
from the operation or all or any of the provision of this Act or any rule or
order made thereunder.
The Central Government shall, with a view to determining the nature of any
article or class of articles that may be reserved for production by the ancillary,
or small scale industrial undertakings, constitute an Advisory Committee
consisting of such persons as have, in the opinion of that Government, the
necessary expertise to give advice on the matter.
38 in Schedule 1 reads thus:
2................; and (7) The reading of the above provisions and Entry 38 in
Schedule, the Legislature's intent is quite clear that the zip fasteners
(metallic and non-metallic) were reserved for small scale industry under
Section 29-B(2B) read with Entry 38(3) in the Schedule of the Act. But however,
the Central Government may constitute an Advisory Committee consisting of such
persons as have in the opinion of the Government necessary expertise to give
advice on that matter. The question that needs to be considered is as to
whether the Notification dated 30.5.1986 issued under the Act is valid and
sustain role. The relevant portion of the said Notification reads as under:-
Against Sl.No.148, for the entries in the second and third columns, the
following shall be substitute namely:- "30391301 Zip fasteners
non-metallic except in the case of integrated plants manufacturing all
Sl.No.387, for the entries in the second and third columns, the following shall
be sustituted, namely:- "34090601 Zip Fasteners metallic except in the
case of integrated plant manufacturing all components".
From the preamble of the notification itself, it is quite clear that in view of
the recommendations made by the Advisory Committee constituted under
sub-section 2-B of Section 29(B) of the Act, the Government of India dereserved
the integrated plant manufacturing all components. The concept of integrated
plant is well known in the business circle to mean that all components needed
for the end product are manufactured under one roof.
Mr. shanti Bhushan, learned Senior Counsel urged that under Section 29-B (2B)
of the Act, the Central Government thought it fit to reserve Zip Fasteners
(Metallic and Non-Metallic) industry under Item 38 of Schedule I for small
scale industry. Any change in the policy of dereservation by notification would
be illegal and ultra vires Section 29-B(2B) of the Act. In our considered view,
the rigidity of such a construction to section 29-B(2B) would not promote the
object and spirit underlying the said section. The industry engaged in
manufacture of zip fasteners (metallic and non-metallic) still continues to be
in the province of small scale industry. The Notification dated May 30, 1986 however, dereserved only an
It is, therefore, quite clear that even today manufacturing of zip fastener
(metallic and non-metallic) would continue to be a small scale industry. What
has been dereserved in an integrated plant. It is taken out from the purview of
small scale industry. This change was made on the basis of the recommendation
of the Advisory Committee constituted under sub-section 2(B) of Section 29-B of
very identical question was raised before the Bombay High Court in Appeal No.
220 of 1988 decided on February
28, 1991 by the
Division Bench. The Report of the Advisory committee was also tendered before
the said court. The Bombay High Court reproduced a passage from the Report of
the Advisory Committee which reads as under:- "Although there are some
units in the small scale sector, most of these are small in operation and they
do not carry out all the operations in-house.
has resulted in indifferent quality. Smuggling of zip fasteners is taking place
on a very large scale. Much of the technology is in the machines itself which
has been developed by the manufacturers of zip-fasteners. An integrated unit
for manufacture of components in-house to ensure high quality will require
large investment, with which it is possible to get specially foreign
collaboration." (12) The Advisory Committee therefore, made
recommendations to the Central Government which thought it fit to accept the
same and consequently the Notification came to be issued on May 30, 1986.
The Bombay High Court after considering the ambit of sub-section (2B) of
Section 29-B and Sections 10, 11, 11-A and 13 of the Act held that the
Notification dated 30th
May, 1986 was not violative
of any of the provisions of the Act.
is holding the field since then.
It was then contended by Mr. Shanti Bhushan, Learned Senior Counsel that the
Notification dated may 30, 1986 issued by the Central Government is arbitrary,
irrational and discriminatory. This Notification has brought about an
artificial classification in the small scale units and an integrated plant
which is violative of Guarantee of Equality contained in Article 14 of the
Constitution of India. The said Notification is totally detrimental to the
small scale units which are manufacturing zip-fasteners (metallic and
non-metallic). In our considered view, there is no substance in this submission
because the integrated plant is a class by itself and totally different from
the small scale industry which is engaged in manufacturing zip fasteners
metallic and non-metallic. The submission raised on behalf of the petitioner
must, therefore, fail.
There is also another aspect which needs to be considered in the light of the
expanding market of readymade garments, leather garments and other articles
where zip fasteners metallic and non-metallic are used. Since 1983, the export
of these goods gaining a good support in the international market and naturally
if India wants to compete with other
countries engaged in the said business will have to improve upon the quality of
its goods. In 1983, the Directorate General of technical Development,
Government of India and appointed a study team and the said team was entrusted
with the work of finding out asto
whether small scale units manufacturing zip fasteners (metallic and
non-metallic) have necessary machinery for the manufacture of zip colla/teeth
or they are simply importing zip chain and components and assembling the same
into finished zips; and
quality of indigenous zips vis-a-vis the imported ones. The quality of
indigenous zip fasteners would be an important factor. The study team during
its survey found that zip fasteners were smuggled into India on large scale and they were being
used by the manufacturers of readymade garments and leather garments and other
allied articles. The Government of India accepted the report of the said study
team and with a view to have quality zip fasteners (metallic and non-metallic)
and in order to compete with the would market and also to generate employment
in the field of readymade garments and leather industry, it thought fit to dereserve
an integrated plant manufacturing zip fasteners. The object seems to be that
all components of zip fasteners if manufactured in an integrated plant, the
same will have a quality control which will compete with the world market in
that behalf. It is in these circumstances we are of the considered opinion that
the Notification dated May
30, 1986 is neither
illegal, irrational nor discriminatory.
It was then contended by Mr. Shanti Bhushan, Learned Senior Counsel that the
integrated plant of YKK owns hundred percent equity capital of foreign national
without any corresponding export obligation. The manufacture of zip fasteners
(metallic and non-metallic) does not require access to high technology and
world markets and if this be so, the Central Government had committed a serious
illegality while permitting YKK to set up an integrated plant for manufacturing
zip fasteners (metallic and non-metallic) with its hundred percent equity
capital without any export obligation. He submitted that grant of such
permission to YKK would mean that they can expand the industry as they like.
They could also use the sophisticated machinery where minimal labour is needed.
The production would be on huge scale and resultantly thousands of labourers
engaged in the small scale units in manufacturing zip fasteners (metallic and
non-metallic) would be rendered jobless and that is how the petitioner would be
vitally affected in a very immediate near future. In a social welfare state and
particularly India being a developing country when labour
is available in abundance who are equally competent to meet the needs of the
country in producing zip fasteners (metallic and non-metallic), their talent
will go waste and they would be rendered jobless. He, therefore , urged that
the Notification dated May
30, 1986 must be
struck down. To supplement this submission, he drew our attention to the
statement on Industrial Policy of Government of India and in particular
paragraph 30-B (I), (III) and (V) which read as under:- "(I) Approval will
be given for direct foreign investment up to 51 percent foreign equity in high
priority industries (annexure III). There shall be no bottlenecks of any kind
in this process. Subh clearance will be available if foreign equity covers the
foreign exchange requirement for imported capital goods. Consequential
amendments to the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act, 1973, shall be carried out.
xxx xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx xxxx (III) Other foreign equity proposals, including
proposal involving 51 percent foreign equity which do not meet the criteria
under (i) above, will continue to need prior clearance. Foreign equity
proposals need not necessarily be accompanied by foreign technology agreements.
xxxxxxxxxxx (V) A specially empowered Board would be constituted to negotiate
with a number of large international firms and to approve direct foreign
investment in select areas. This would be a special programme to attract
substantial investment that would provide access to high technology and would
markets. The investment programmes of such firms would be considered in
totality free from pre-determined parameters or procedures".
Relying upon this policy statement, Mr. Shanti Bhushan urged that government
policy is to promote 51% equity share holding by the foreign
companies/nationals that too in a field where it would provide access to high
technology and world markets. According to learned counsel, there is nothing on
the record to indicate that the government while granting permission to YKK to
set up an integrated plant for manufacturing zip fasteners (metallic and
non-metallic) had considered that an integrated plant would be such which "would
provide access to high technology and world markets".
integrated plant for manufacture of zip fasteners (metallic and non-metallic)
does not involve an access to high technology and would markets. If this be so,
Counsel urged that the above policy statement on Industrial Policy.
however, conceded that expression and used in Clause V ".............
access to high technology and world markets" could be read as 'or' yet the
approval granted to YKK to start integrated plant for manufacture of zip fasteners
(metallic and non-metallic) would be totally opposed to the Industrial Policy
of Government of India. This submission again does not appeal to us. Because it
has come on the record that YKK has acquired a world wide reputation in the
manufacture of zip fasteners (metallic and non-metallic).
Hiroshi Mitani, Managing Director of 4ht respondent in his affidavit dated July 31, 1997 has highlighted the salient
features of YKK corporation in the field of manufacturing zip fasteners all
over the world. It is stated "YKK have the would richest variety of items
which are required by customers. YKK Zippers are produced by using high
technology. The chart prepared with the nucleus technology along with new
technology is annexed as Annexure "B". In paragraph 14, it is stated
"a large number of Indian exporters, manufacturers etc. are already using
Zippers made by YKK to meet the standard required in International Market. In
the domestic market a number of conter-feit zip fasteners bearing the brand YKK
have appeared and are in circulation for which the answering respondent has
instituted the suit for perpetial injunction, infringement of trade marks,
passing off and Rendition of Account etc. which shows that the product
manufactured by YKK is in demand in India. We wish to state that counterfeiting of YKK brand in India is rampant many international burers
specify use of YKK zippers. Many of them have had their own brand names damaged
due to supply of garments with counterfiet Zippers from India and are becoming wary of sourcing
such garments from Indian suppliers." (18) After giving our careful
thought to the pleadings of the parties before us, we are of the considered
opinion that having regard to the quality and worldwise reputation carried by
YKK zip fasteners, it would be reasonable to include that it would provide
access to the world market which is indicated in the statement on Industrial
Policy in paragraph V sub clause V quoted hereinabove.
Mr. Nariman, learned Senior Counsel urged that the integrated plant which has
already been set up by YKK through its subsidiary company, the third and 4th
respondent at Bawal in Haryana is highly sophisticated plant involving high
technology. He also urged that the third respondent the subsidiary of YKK corporation,
Japan being would leaders in zip
fasteners have acquired high reputation because of use of the high technology
used in their integrated plant for manufacture of metallic and non-metallic zip
considered the pleadings of the parties before us we are of the firm opinion
that having regard to the quality and worldwide reputation earned by YKK zip
fasteners, it would not be out of place to mention that it would provide access
to the world market which is indicated in the Statement on Industrial Policy in
paragraph 39 Clause V quoted hereinabove. Consequently we hold that approval
granted to YKK is neither illegal non contrary to the Industrial Policy, 1991.
Coming to the other limb of the argument of Mr. Shanti Bhushan Learn ed Senior
Counsel that many workers of the present petitioner association wou ld be
rendered jobless has also no force. We are told that as of today, there a re as
many as 17 Indian companies which have been granted licences and are outsi de
the purview of small scale units. This statement appearing in the affidav it of
Shri Hiroshi Metani in paragraph 12 is contested on behalf of the petition ers
contending that many of these Indian companies have been rendered
non-functional because of variety of reasons. But, however, the fact rema ins
that some of the Indian companies have started integrated plants for
manufacture of metallic and non-metallic zip fasteners, Whether they are
successful in their attempt Orr not is really not a devisive factor. In t his
behalf, it is really not a decisive factor. In this behalf, it is also
necessary to highlight the ratio between the production and requirement of zip
fasteners (metallic and non-metallic) in India. In paragraph 7, Shri Hiro shi Mitani has stated that in 1997, the
production of YKK was 2.2 corer pieces .
said figure was calculated on the basis that Indian Market size is abo ut 100 crore
pieces. Therefore, YKK production was 2-3% of the Indian Market in the year
1997. In 1998 onwards the production of YKK is going to be 9.2 c rore pieces
i.e. 9-10% of the local market. There is no effective denial to t his statement
in the rejoinder filed on behalf of the petitioners and if this fact has any
bearing upon the factual state of requirement, it is quite clear t hat yet a
sizeable market is available to the Indian manufacturers and the apprehension
entertained by the petitioner appears to us a mere figment of imagination.
On 15th July 1997, when this Court heard this writ
petition for preliminary hearing, it observed as under:- W.P. (C) No. 781/96.
of the submissions of the learned counsel for the petitioner is that even
according to the opinion of the Minister of State, Industries Department as
contained in his Note dated 5/9/1995 (at pages 109-110 of the paperbook), entry
to thee multinational company should be allowed with a 75 per cent export
commitment as is normally done in clearing cases of 100 percent foreign equity
where relatively low technology is involved, this condition should have been
imposed on the respondent company".
Mr. Shanti Bhushan, Learned Senior Counsel urged that non-imposition of
condition of export commitment on YKK was totally wrong, irrational and
contrary to thee note submitted by the Minister of State while allowing entry
to the multi national company in India. A strong reliance was sought to be
placed by Mr. Shanti Bhushan on the note of Minister of State dated 5th September, 1995 which reads thus:-
"Secretary's point that YKK would help domestic readymade garment industry
is valid. It is quite clear that YKK was allowed primarily as a result of Ministry
of Textiles intervention in emphasizing the need to supply an internationally
acceptable brand for the export oriented Ready Made Garment Industry.
objective could be better served if YKK is allowed entry with a 75% export
commitment as is normally done in clearing cases of 100% foreign equity where
relatively low technology is involved.
could supply to domestic readymade garment units against their advance licences
on a deemed export basis. In no circumstances should we permit the decimation
of thee small scale sector in a low technology/low priority industry. It is
therefore, recommended, that permission to YKK be amended to include a 75%
export commitment." (23) Admittedly, YKK was granted permission to set up
integrated plant for manufacture by the Government of India on 7th July, 1995. It is thus clear that the note of
the Minister of State is dated 5th September, 1995 after the permission was granted to YKK. The question is what is the
effect of such a note. Shri Om Prakash, Deputy Secretary to the Government of India. Ministry of Industry, in his
affidavit has stated:
A copy of a note allegedly signed by the then Minister of State for Industry,
dated 5-9-1995 has been filed from which it appears that Shri M.Arunachalam on
5-9-1995 as the then Minister of State for Industry had recommended that the
permission granted to MS. YKK Corporation be amended to include a 75% export
commitment. In this connection, I submit that the file in which this note is
said to have been written by the then Minister of State for Industry is not
available in the concerned office, i.e. Office of the Development Commissioner
for Small Scale Industries.
making this submission on the basis of communication No. 9(10)/95-Chem. dated 22-7-1997 from the office of the Development Commissioner for
Small Scale Industries."
He further stated that the Industry Minister is a cabinet rank minister and a
note made by the Minister of State can only be his viewpoint/recommendation to
the Industry Minister who has to take a final decision on such recommendation.
The grant of approval to MS YKK Corporation with the approval of the Empowered
committee on foreign investment under the Chairmanship of Finance Minister (Dr.
Manmohan Singh), preceded the said note of the then Minister of State for
Industry. The approval letter was issued on 7th July, 1995 and the note of the Minister of
State was made on 5th
September, 1995. This
note was considered in the department of Industrial Policy and Promotion which
is the department dealing with the foreign investment violation as well as
matters relating to approval of foreign and domestic investment. The department
of Industrial Policy and Promotion expressed the view that the approval granted
to MS YKK Corporation is in consenance with the notification dated 25th July, 1991 incorporating the list of items
reserved for small scale sector. According to the guidelines for the Foreign
Investment Promotion Board issued through press note No. 3(1997 series) dated
17th July, 1997, no conditions specific to the letter of approval issued to a
foreign investor would be changed or additional condition be imposed subsequent
to the issue of letter of approval. The stand of the central government
contained in the affidavit in reply is that it would neither be desirable nor
legally permissible to prescribe 75% export obligation on YKK. The industry
Minister on 13th March,
1997 having considered
all aspects of the matters and the note of the Department of International
Policy and Promotion has granted approval to YKK Corporation and did not impose
any export obligation on YKK.
Mr. Vaidyanathan, Learned Addl. Solicitor General appearing for the Union of
India urged that since the said note of the Minister of State dated 5th
September, 1995 was after letter of approval issued to the YKK corporation on
7th July, 1995 and that theere is no material on the record to indicate that
such a note was approved by the Minister of Industry. He further stated that it
would not be possible to impose such a condition after a lapse of such a long
period. He, therefore, urged that no relief whatsoever could be granted to the
petitioner on the basis of the said note.
Mr. Nariman, Learned Senior Counseel urged that noting made by the
officer/Minister of State on the government file cannot be used to alter the
situation and, therefore, a letter of approval granted to YKK Corporation on
7th July, 1995 cannot be varied. In support of his submission, he drew our
attention to the decision of this Court in State of SCR 1. In our considered
view, it would not be possible to direct the first respondent to impose the
condition in tune with the note dated 5th September, 1995 made by the Minister of State. The
Minister of the cabinet rank holding the protfolio of Industry has granted the
approval to YKK Corporation on 7th July, 1995.
It is a matter of government policy and in our opinion no sustainable ground
was urged before us to hold that the approval granted to YKK was contrary to
the government policy. The Court would not be justified in inter ering in such
matters when it is satisfied that a grant of approval to YKK was neither
irrational, non for any extraneous consideration.
it may also be mentioned that the third and fourth respondent have commenced
the production of zippers in their factory at Bawal, Haryana on 21st March, 1997 with the investment of 90 crores.
Any change in the terms and conditions of the approval at this stage may lead
to several legal complications.
For the foregoing conclusions, we are of the considered view that the
petitioner has made out no case for grant of any of the reliefs claimed in this
petition under Article 32 of the Constitution of India. The Writ Petition is
thus devoid of any merit. The Writ Petition, therefore, stands dismissed. In
the cirrcumstances of the case, parties are directed to bear their own costs.
When I circulated my draft judgment for approval to Brother Rajendra Babu, J.,
he agreed with my judgment. But, however, he has given a separate concurring
judgment to which both of us agree.