Government of Tamil Nadu & ANR Vs. S. Arumugham & Ors  INSC 839
(20 November 1997)
20TH DAY OF NOVEMBER, 1997 Present:
Mrs. Justice Sujata V. Manohar Hon'ble Mr. Justice D.P. Wadhwa R. Mohan, Sr.
Adv., M.A. Krishnamoorthy, J.B. Ravi, Rajsekaran, Advs. with him for the
Jain Madan, B.P. Singh, R.A. Perumal, Advs. for the Respondents.
following judgment of the Court wad delivered:
V. Manohar. J.
appeals arise from the order dated 30.4.1991 of the Tamil Nadu Administrative
Tribunal in O.A. Nos. 1969, 3631, 3975,3976 all of 1990 O.A. No. 192 of 1991.
All these applications had been filed by persons who were working as
Superintendents in the office of the Director of Urban Land Ceiling and Urban
Land Tax. They challenged G.O.Ms. No. 145 (Revenue) dated 29.1.1990 issued by
the appellant State of Tamil
Nadu increasing the
quota of Superintendents working in various specified offices for deputation as
Tehsildars in the Tamil Nadu Revenue Subordinate Service since they were not
satisfied with the quota for which they were eligible.
Tribunal has set aside G.O.Ms. No. 145 (revenue) dated 29.1.1990 and has
directed the appellants to review their scheme as far as the Secretariat staff
is concerned and has directed them to evolve a different scheme which would
give the staff a wider perspective in all aspects of executive works which,
according to the Tribunal, would be more useful to the staff in the Secretariat
working in different departments. The Tribunal has also directed all Revenue
officers to be clubbed into one group and for the manner of deputing officers
from that group it has also given directions as to how such grouping could be
made. The decision of the Tamil Nadu Administrative Tribunal has been
challenged by the appellants before us.
who have been deputed as Tehsildars become eligible for further promotion as
Deputy Collector in the Tamil Nadu Civil Service. The post of Tehsildar is
governed by the Tamil Nadu Revenue Subordinate Service Rules.
to this post is from two sources - (1) by promotion from Deputy Tehsildars in
the Tamil Nadu Revenue subordinate Service or (2) by deputation from amongst
Section Officers in the Secretariat and t he Superintendents in the office of
the Board of Revenue (Land Revenue), Board of Revenue (food production), Board
of Revenue Settlement of estates, the Commissioner of Civil Supplies, the
Director of Service Settlements, the Director of Harijan and Tribal welfare,
the Director of Backward Classes, the Director of Rehabilitation, the
Commissioner of Agricultural Income-tax, the Director of Urban Land Ceiling and
Urban Land Tax and the Board of Revenue (land Reforms), who had rendered
satisfactory service as such for two years and who are otherwise qualified for
appointment as Tehsildar. The Board of Revenue was abolished with effect from
1.12.1980 by reason of the Tamil Nadu Board of Revenue (Abolition) Act of 1980.
Prior to its abolition the Board of Revenue Comprised the following branches:-
Land Revenue including excise;
Food Production ;
Settlement of Estates;
Urban Land Ceiling and Urban Land Tax; and
Land Revenue branch of the Board of Revenue enjoyed a pre-eminent position
because the Land Revenue branch was in overall control of the entire Revenue
Department, while the other branches had specific functions and, therefore, had
a limited field of activity. After the abolition of the Board of Revenue the
Land Revenue branch has been replaced by the office of the Special Commissioner
and Commissioner of Revenue Administration. the other branches also have become
separate. Some sections are headed by commissioners, such as, the Commissioner
of Agricultural Income-tax, the commissioner of Land Administration and so on.
The branch of Urban Land Ceiling and urban land Tax has been replaced by the
Directorate of Urban Land Ceiling and Land Tax.
G.O. Ms. No. 276 (Revenue) dated 31.1.1950 the appellants decided that the
Superintendents of the Secretariat and the Superintendents of the Board of
Revenue who were qualified for appointed to the Madras Revenue Subordinate
Service as was then being done, be deputed to undergo training in the districts
for a total period of three years in the Madras Revenue Subordinate Service,
namely, six months as Deputy Tehsildars, six months as Stationary
Sub-Magistrate and two years as Tehsildars. They should then be reverted to the
Secretariat or the Board of Revenue, as the case may be, and be considered for
inclusion in the Deputy Collectors' list. The G.O.Ms. further stated that in
order to safeguard the prospects of the men in the mofussil the deputation of
the city-men working in these offices should be restricted to 3 or 4 a year.
The number was subsequently restricted to 3 per year. Under G.O.Ms. No. 1154
(Revenue) dated 16.4.1959 the number of Superintendents to be so deputed as Tehsildars
was increased from 3 to 6 per year. By another G.O.Ms. No. 2584 (Revenue) dated
4.9.1959 the Government reserved two posts out of six for the Revenue
secretariat on the ground that the training of Superintendents of the Revenue
Secretariat in the Madras Revenue Subordinate Service Will increase the
standard of efficiency in the Revenue Secretariat which is concerned with most
of the subjects that are dealt with by Tehsildar/Deputy Tehsildar in the
No.2982 (Revenue) dated 28.10.1968 the number to be sent on deputation was once
again increased from 6 to 8. It was further decided that as a convention, 2
vacancies shall be reserved for the Board of Revenue, Land Revenue branch. By
this G.O.Ms. Superintendents in the Directorate of Harijan Welfare were also
included to accommodate a wider Zone of selection. In the Board's proceedings
dated 22.2.1975 one post was reserved for the Superintendents of the Food
production branch in the Board of Revenue.
426 (Revenue) dated 24.2.1975 it was mentioned that the facility of inclusion
in this list is available to the staff employed in the office of the Board of
Revenue specifying the different branches which were so eligible. For the first
time, the staff of the Urban land Ceiling and urban Land Taxes branch was also
No. 299 (Revenue) dated 10.2.1977 some more offices were brought within the
purview of the scheme.
total number of deputationist was increased to 10 and the allocation was as
follows:- 3 - Departments of the Secretariat;
Board of Revenue (Land Revenue) 4 - Other City Offices.
sets out in detail the reasons for such allocation. It also sets out that there
will be difficulties in preparing a common list of Superintendents in the order
of seniority amongst different Section Officers of the Secretariat and the
Superintendents of other offices and, therefore, they have prescribed the
quota. It is necessary to note that under this G.O.Ms. in 1977 itself the Land
Revenue branch of the Board of Revenue was given a specific allocation of three
posts while the other City offices were, between them, given an allocation of 4
allocation was revised by G.O.Ms. No. 145 (Revenue) dated 29.1.1990 which is
under challenge before us. The reason why a fresh G.O.Ms. was required to be
issued was that the Government decided to increase the number of posts from 10
to 16 for the City list because of the overall expansion in the posts of Tehsildars.
This G.O.Ms. retains the classification which was in existence right from 1977
under the G.O.Ms. of 10.2.1977. But the departments of the Secretariat the
original allocation of 3 posts has been increased now to 5 posts. In the
erstwhile Board of Revenue (Land Revenue) branch which originally had 3 posts
under the G.O.Ms. of 1977 these posts have now been increased to 5. In view of
the abolition of the Board of Revenue. these 5 posts have gone to the office of
the Special Commissioner and commissioner of Land Revenue Administration which
has replaced the Land Revenue branch of the Board of Revenue.
5 posts have gone to the office of the special Commissioner and Commissioner of
Land Revenue Administration which has replaced the Land Revenue branch of the
Board of Revenue. The other city offices have now been allotted 6 seats instead
of 4 seats.
their affidavit which was filed by the appellants before the Tamil Nadu
Administrative Tribunal the appellants have explained in detail the ration of
such allocation. They have pointed out that the Special Commissioner and the
Commissioner of Land Revenue Administration, occupies a special place in this programme
because it is this department (originally the land Revenue branch of the Board
of Revenue) which handles the overall control of the entire Revenue Department.
Training as Deputy Tehsildars/ Tehsildars is of special relevance for the
efficient functioning of this department. The appellants have also pointed out
that the avenues for promotion in the office of the special Commissioner and
Commissioner of land Revenue Administration are more limited than the avenues
of promotion in all other departments. In their affidavit they have set out in
detail the avenues of promotion available in each of the offices which are
governed by the scheme in order to substantiate this submission.
contention of the Superintendents working in the Directorate of Urban Land
Ceiling and Urban Land Tax appears to be that they also originally formed a
part of the Board of Revenue and , therefore, they should not be clubbed with
the other city offices under this G.O.Ms. They should be clubbed with the
superintendents in the office of the Special Commissioner and Commissioner of
Land Revenue Administration. They are forgetting that even under G.O.Ms. of
1977 the separate allocation of 3 seats was only for the Land Revenue Branch of
the Board of Revenue and not for all the branches of the Board of Revenue. In
1977 they had been clubbed along with other city offices for the allocation of
seats. if the reasoning of the respondents is to be accepted other offices
which also formed a part of the original Board of Revenues would also have to
be similarly treated. There is no justification at all for any grievance in
this connection because right from the beginning of the scheme.
been clearly provided that the original Land Revenue Administration, ad a
special nexus with the functioning of the office of the Tehsildar/Deputy Tehsildar;
and the training they would obtain on deputation would be directly relevant for
the purpose of improving their efficiency in the parent department. it is also
clear that at no point of time there was any allocation made in proportion to
the number f Superintendents in any office. The allocation was made for the
purpose of ensuring, first of all, that the Superintendents in the office of
the Board of Revenue, Land Revenue branch got a reasonable allocation for
deputation in order to improve their efficiency; and secondly to give to
Superintendents working in other offices, and in the Secretariat, an additional
avenue of promotion. The allocation has also been made on the basis of the
prospects of promotion available in various offices in the city. The allocation
has been in force since 1977 and it has stood the test of time.
tribunal itself came to the conclusion that combining all the departments and
having a common seniority list was neither justified nor feasible. But it has
given directions for a different kind of allocation and a different scheme.
These directions pertain to policy matters. The Tribunal ought not to have
directed the Government to change its policy. The Government has a right to
frame a policy to ensure efficiency and proper administration and to provide
suitable channels of promotion to officers working in different departments and
offices. In Indian Railway Service of Mechanical Engineers Association and Ors.
vs. Indian Railway Traffic Service Association and Anr. (1993 Supp. 4 SCC 473),
this Court reiterated that the correctness of a policy should not be questioned
by the Tribunal. The appellants in their affidavit before the Tribunal have
given in detail the history of these provisions and the justification for these
provisions in the interests of efficiency and proper administration. The
Tribunal cannot substitute its own views for the views of the Government or
direct a new policy based on the Tribunal' view of how the allocation should be
made. The three groups which have been formed as far back as in 1977 for the
purposes of allocation consist of officers performing different functions and
having different prospects and different avenues of promotion. They cannot be
equated for the purpose of Article 14 or 16. In the case of Govind Dattatray Kelkar
& Ors. vs. Chief Controller of Imports & Exports & Ors. (1967 
SCR 29), this Court held that the concept of equality in the matter of
promotion can be predicated only when promotees are drawn from the same source.
if the preferential treatment of one source in relation to the other is based
on the difference between the two sources, the recruitment can be justified as
legitimate classification. This reasoning directly applies in the present case.
Therefore, the scheme does not violate Articles 14 or 16, nor is it arbitrary.
The quota which should be fixed or the allocation which should be made for the
purpose of deputing officers to the Tamil Nadu Revenue Subordinate Service is
basically in the domain of the executive. Unless there is a clear violation of
any provision of the Constitution, the Tribunal ought not to have given
directions for formulating a new policy and a different quota.
impugned order of the Tribunal is, therefor, set aside and the applications
filed before the Tribunal are dismissed. The appeals are allowed accordingly