Singh Vs. Union of India  INSC 436 (25 August 1994)
Jagdish Saran (J) Verma, Jagdish Saran (J) Ramaswamy, K.
1995 AIR 423 1994 SCC (6) 98 JT 1994 (5) 298 1994 SCALE (3)845
Judgment of the Court was delivered by VERMA, J.- The appellant N.K. Singh
belongs to the Indian Police Service and is an officer of the 1961 batch
allocated to the State cadre of Orissa. The appellant was posted as IG, CID in Orissa
when he was brought on deputation to an equivalent post of Joint Director in
the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) in February, 1990. By a notification
dated 7-2-1990 issued by the Government of Orissa, the services of the
appellant were placed on deputation to the Ministry of Home Affairs in the
Government of India for a period of five years and by notification dated
26-2-1990 issued by the Government of India he was appointed Joint Director in
the CBI until further orders w.e.f. 12-2-1990.
appellant was working in this capacity 7 in the CBI and was in-charge of a
Special Investigation Group conducting some sensitive investigations. By an
order dated 21-3-1991 which was 102 served on the
appellant on 26-3-1991, the appellant was transferred from
the post of Joint Director, CBI to the Border Security Force (BSF) in an
equivalent post of IGP.
by his transfer from CBI to BSF, the appellant filed an application before the
Central Administrative Tribunal on 25-3-1991 challenging his transfer on certain
grounds. The Tribunal has dismissed that application by the impugned order
dated 5-4-1991. Hence this appeal by special leave.
There is no dispute that the impugned transfer from CBI to BSF, both of which
are Central Police Organisations, has no adverse consequence on the service
career and prospects of the appellant and the transfer of the appellant to BSF
was in an equivalent post of the rank of IGP. It has also been fairly stated by
learned counsel for the appellant that the appellant has not suffered any
setback in his service career by this transfer inasmuch as he was promoted in
due course in the BSF in the year 1992 to the rank of Additional Director
General of Police and then promoted further to the rank of Director General in
the Bureau of Police Research and Development Branch of the BSF in January
1994. The real grievance of the appellant ventilated by his learned counsel is
that the appellant has been eased out of the sensitive post in CBI as in-charge
of the Special Investigation Group investigating into the St. Kitts' affair
wherein there are allegations of forgery of some documents and of involvement
in that forgery of some persons having political patronage, because of his
impeccable reputation as an officer beyond approach. On this basis the transfer
of the appellant from CBI to BSF is challenged on the ground of mala fides
attributed mainly to the then Prime Minister of India, Respondent 2, Shri Chandrashekhar. It is further urged
that the appellant's transfer from the CBI is prejudicial to public interest
since it is with a view to scuttle the sensitive investigation. The incidental
reference to Respondent 3, Dr Subramanyam Swami, the then Union Law Minister is
not material and, therefore, does not merit any further reference. It must be
placed on record that on behalf of the respondents, the calibre and high
reputation of the appellant were not disputed but the allegation of mala fides
was strongly refuted as also the alleged ulterior motive for the transfer while
contending that the transfer of the appellant from CBI to BSF was due to
exigencies of administration and not for the purpose of removing the appellant
from the post he held in the CBI. Respondent 2 while vehemently denying the
allegation of mala fides has asserted that the appellant's transfer was a
necessary incident of his service and the reasons in the instant case are not
Central Administrative Tribunal has rejected the appellant's application
without even requiring counter- affidavits to be filed by the respondents. This
indeed was an unusual course to adopt when the appellant had alleged mala fides
on the basis of certain facts. For this reason, in this appeal, the parties
were required to file their affidavits and both sides were heard at length with
reference to the averments made in their affidavits.
There are two aspects of transfer of a public servant holding a sensitive and
important post. One aspect relates to the private rights of the 103 public
servant as an individual pertaining only to his service career. The other is
concerned with prejudice to public interest irrespective of the individual
element of prejudice to public interest can be involved only in transfers from
sensitive and important public offices and not in all transfers. Mere suspicion
or likelihood of some prejudice to public interest is not enough and there must
be strong unimpeachable evidence to prove definite substantial prejudice to
public interest to make it a vitiating factor in an appropriate case unless it
is justified on the ground of larger public interest and exigencies of
administration. Such cases would be rare and this factor as a vitiating element
must be accepted with great caution and circumspection.
the instant case, Shri Jethmalani has attempted to integrate the two aspects to
widen the range of attack, even though the case pleaded is only of mala fides.
However, we have considered both the aspects since certain facts pleaded to
urge mala fides may relate to public interest as well.
Ram Jethmalani, learned counsel for the appellant did not dispute that the
scope of judicial review in matters of transfer of a government servant to an
equivalent post without any adverse consequence on the service or career
prospects is very limited being confined only to the grounds of mala fides and
violation of any specific provision or guideline regulating such transfers
amounting to arbitrariness. In reply, the learned Additional Solicitor General
and the learned counsel for Respondent 2 did not dispute the above principle,
but they urged that no such ground is made out; and there is no foundation to
indicate any prejudice to public interest.
substance, the appellant's case, as projected by Shri Jethmalani, combining the
two aspects is that the then Prime Minister, Respondent 2, Shri Chandrashekhar
was annoyed with the appellant because he felt embarrassed by the investigation
made by the appellant of his complaint of phone tapping; Shri Chandrashekhar
was also interested in the so-called Godman Nek Chand Gandhi alias Chandraswami
against whom allegation of forgery of some documents relating to the St. Kitts'
affair was being investigated by the appellant; and, therefore, to avoid any
further embarrassment to Chandraswami as well as to wreak vengeance for the
embarrassment in the phone tapping incident caused to him by the appellant, he
had directed the transfer of the appellant from the CBI to the BSF. There is no
allegation that the appellant was replaced in this investigation by a pliable
or less competent officer who may have facilitated the alleged ulterior
Jethmalani submits that the present case falls within the narrow scope of
judicial review permitted in such cases since the transfer of the appellant was
prejudicial to public interest being made for the ulterior purpose of scuttling
the sensitive investigation of which the appellant was incharge in the CBI. It
is urged that promotion of public interest must govern the exercise of all
public power and its negation vitiates the action taken. This is the gravamen
of the charge levelled against the then Prime Minister, 104 Shri Chandrashekhar
(Respondent 2) and constitutes the substance of the plea of mala fides. The
question is, whether the ground is made out.
Transfer of a public servant from a significant post can be prejudicial to
public interest only if the transfer was avoidable and the successor is not
suitable for the post. Suitability is a matter for objective assessment by the
hierarchical superiors in administration. To introduce and rely on the element
of prejudice to public interest as a vitiating factor of the transfer of a
public servant, it must be first pleaded and proved that the replacement was by
a person not suitable for the important post and the transfer was avoidable.
Unless this is pleaded and proved at the threshold, no further inquiry into
this aspect is necessary and its absence is sufficient to exclude this factor
from consideration as a vitiating element in the impugned transfer.
Accordingly, this aspect requires consideration at the outset.
is significant that there is no allegation by the appellant that his successor
in the CBI was a pliable officer or that he was in any manner inferior to the
appellant or unsuitable for discharging the duties of the sensitive office in
the CBI. In fact there is not even a mention made at any stage of the
appellant's successor in the CBI or his credentials or even a whisper against
him of any kind. He has neither been named nor impleaded as a party. It is,
therefore, not a case where the inferior quality of the successor-in-office
would by itself support the appellant's contention that the object of transfer
was to scuttle the sensitive investigation which was being conducted by the CBI
under the supervision of the appellant.
though we have looked into the particulars relating to the progress of that
investigation by the CBI after the appellant's transfer only for the purpose of
satisfying ourselves that public interest has not been jeopardised, yet the
facts of the present case and the context of absence of any allegation of the
unsuitability of the successor-in- office are sufficient to require no further
consideration of this aspect in the present context. In the present case, we
must proceed on the assumption that the appellant's successor in the CBI was
also a capable, competent and upright officer like him and, therefore, the
appellant's transfer from the CBI to the BSF was not prejudicial to public
interest. There is nothing else in the present case which requires any further examination
of the public element for testing the legality of the impugned transfer.
The remaining scrutiny must now be confined to the private rights of the
appellant based on the pleas of mala fides and contravention of the Tenure
Rules regulating the period of deputation in the Central Police Organisations.
Jethmalani has contended that according to the Tenure Rules, the appellant was
entitled to continue on deputation in a Central Police Organisation ordinarily
for a period of five years; and he having been posted on deputation in the CBI
because of his background of experience in the investigative field, he should
have been continued in the CBI for the entire period of five years.
this basis, the appellant claims that his transfer, with 105 the background of
annoyance of the then Prime Minister, Shri Chandrashekhar, was at least against
the spirit of the Tenure Rules and supports the allegation of mala fides.
the detailed counter-affidavit filed by Shri Chandrashekhar, Respondent 2,
there is a categorical denial of the allegations made against him. He has
asserted that even though he was unhappy with the manner in which the appellant
handled the investigation into his complaint of tapping of his telephone but
that had nothing to do with his transfer from the CBI to the BSF which was made
in the ordinary course and according to the exigencies of administration. It is
also contended that the appellant's transfer was an ordinary incident of his
service which had no adverse effect on his service career. The appellant was
transferred to the BSF in an equivalent post and since then he has also earned
two promotions in the BSF which came to him in due course. It is further urged
that the Tenure Rules which provide ordinarily a tenure of five years on
deputation in the Central Police Organisations do not contemplate the entire
period of five years in one Central Police Organisation alone and, therefore,
the BSF also being a Central Police Organisation, there was no infraction even
of the Tenure Rules.
for the effect of the transfer personally on the appellant, it is undisputed
that there was no adverse effect thereof on the appellant's service career. The
transfer of the appellant from the CBI to the BSF was on an equivalent post and
the appellant was given two promotions thereafter in due course as and when the
promotions became due to him.
was also no infraction of any rules or professed guidelines as a result of the
appellant's transfer from the CBI to the BSF.
Rule 8 of the Tenure Rules for IPS Officers to which reference has been made by
Shri Jethmalani provides that IPS officers appointed to the posts of Inspector
General of Police directly from their respective cadres will have a tenure of
five years. This has to be read along with Rule 1 thereof which says that IPS
officers with a minimum service of seven years would ordinarily be considered
for induction in the Central Police Organisations and in the event of their not
being found suitable they would be repatriated to their State cadres. A
harmonious construction of the provisions in these rules indicates that the
ordinary tenure on deputation of five years of IPS officers appointed to the
posts of Inspector General of Police from their respective cadres in the Central
Police Organisations to which they are posted has to be not necessarily in any
one Central Police Organisation but in all, in one or more Central Police Organisations
to which they are posted. It is, therefore, clear that the officers found
suitable for being continued on deputation in the Central Police Organisations
have an ordinary tenure of five years not necessarily in one Central Police Organisation
but in all, in the Central Police Organisations to which they are posted. These
may be more than one also. The emphasis is on the total period of deputation in
Central Police Organisations being five years and not on the entire deputation
continuing only in one Central Police Organisation.
Admittedly, CBI and BSF are both Central Police Organisations and, therefore,
there is full compliance of the Tenure Rules if the appellant has a total
tenure of at least five years in the Central Police Organisations to which he
is posted during the period of deputation. This need not be in the CBI alone.
Obviously, this is the manner in which the Tenure Rules have been construed and
understood in their application to the officers on deputation. A letter MHA
U.O. No. 1-21021/21/90-Pers. III dated 14-6- 1991 of the Ministry of Home
Affairs contained in the record produced by the learned Additional Solicitor
General at the hearing before us relating to the appellant, reads as under :
: Appointment of Shri N.K. Singh, IPS (Ori : 61) as IG in BSF ..............
may please refer to their U.0. No. 11/5028/91-Pers/BSF dated 29-5-1991 on the
N.K. Singh, IPS came on central deputation as Joint Director, CBI w.e.f. 12-2-
1990 and transferred to BSF as IG w.e.f. 2-4- 1991. As such, his normal term of
5 years will expire on 31-5-1995." There is thus no infraction
of the Tenure Rules in any manner by the transfer of the appellant from the CBI
to the BSF.
From the relevant record produced by the learned Additional Solicitor General,
it is also clear that the proposal for transfer of the appellant from the CBI
to the BSF as Inspector General of Police emanated in the ordinary course from
the Ministry of Home Affairs and was occasioned by the urgent need to fill the
post of Inspector General in the BSF with a suitable officer consequent upon
the promotion of the seniormost Inspector General in the BSF as Additional
Director General, BSF; and the appellant was considered a suitable officer for
appointment to that post.
proposal of the Ministry of Home Affairs was approved in due course by the
higher authorities including the Prime Minister.
Jethmalani rightly urged that the record is bound to show that nothing unusual
was done and the inference of mala fides should be drawn by reading in between
the lines and taking into account the attendant circumstances. We have referred
to the record only to mention that there is nothing therein to suggest that the
transfer was unusual.
other suspicious circumstance is made out to permit the contrary inference. No
roving inquiry into the matter is called for or justified within the scope of
judicial review of a transfer scrutinised with reference to the private rights
of an individual. There is thus no basis to accept the appellant's contention
that his transfer was occasioned by mala fides of the then Prime Minister on
account of his annoyance with the appellant for the reasons stated or that it
was in any manner contrary to the requirements of the Tenure Rules.
There is also material to indicate that there was need of a competent IPS
officer in the BSF for being appointed to the post of Inspector General of
Police as a result of the seniormost IGP of the BSF being promoted and 107
appointed to the post of Additional Director General, BSF.
record shows, that was the reason for moving the appellant from the CBI to the
BSF to fill the vacancy created in the BSF of a senior IGP therein. These facts
reflected in the relevant record negative the plea of mala fide urged by the
appellant, even assuming that the appellant honestly believes in the
correctness of his stand.
appellant's transfer cannot, therefore, be held to have been made by the then
Prime Minister to wreak his vengeance upon the appellant. This impression of
the appellant, even if honestly held, is not supported by any acceptable
is not necessary to refer to the several decisions cited by Shri Jethmalani
since the grounds for judicial review of a transfer and the limits thereof are
settled and not in dispute. One decision on which particular emphasis was laid
by Shri Jethmalani may however be referred. That decision is R. v. Commissioner
of Police of the Metropolis, ex p Blackburn which is clearly distinguishable. That relates to the performance of a
duty and holds that a police officer owed a duty to the public to enforce the
law which he could be compelled to perform and that his discretion in the
matter was not absolute. In the facts of this case and the reasons for which we
have reached the conclusion that the appellant's transfer from the CBI to the
BSF is not vitiated, we do not find this decision of any assistance.
may observe that we do not approve of the manner in which the Tribunal
proceeded to decide the case.
of mala fides having been made by the appellant on affidavit, it is difficult
to fathom how the Tribunal rejected them without even requiring a
counter-affidavit to rebut them. The Tribunal's perception that the allegations
made on affidavit by the appellant even without any rebuttal do not constitute
the plea of mala fide, is obviously incorrect. The Tribunal also did not
appreciate the true extent of scrutiny into such a matter and the grounds on
which a transfer is judicially reviewable. The conclusion we have reached in
the present case is for the reasons given by us and not those which impelled
the Tribunal to reject the appellant's claim.
are impressed by the track record of the appellant and the uninhibited
acknowledgement and acclaim of his calibre and credentials even by the
respondents in spite of the serious unsubstantiated accusations made by the
appellant against them. The future (sic further) promotions earned by the
appellant in due course are recognition of his merit and the assurance that his
needless excursion into the arena of litigation to challenge a mere transfer
not detrimental to his career prospects has fortunately not had any adverse
influence against him.
However, acceptance of the appellant's claim would imply that no other officer
in the CBI is competent and fit to conduct the sensitive investigation and his
successor would stand automatically discredited without any such allegation
being made or hearing given to him. That indeed 1 (1968) 2 QB 118: (1968) 1 All
ER 763: (1968) 2 WLR 893, CA 108 is a tall order and impermissible in this
proceeding where the other officers are not even participants. The tendency of
anyone to consider himself indispensable is undemocratic and unhealthy.
Assessment of worth must be left to the bona fide decision of the superiors in
service and their honest assessment accepted as a part of service discipline.
of a government servant in a transferable service is a necessary incident of
the service career. Assessment of the quality of men is to be made by the
superiors taking into account several factors including suitability of the
person for a particular post and exigencies of administration. Several
imponderables requiring formation of a subjective opinion in that sphere may be
involved, at times. The only realistic approach is to leave it to the wisdom of
that hierarchical superiors to make that decision.
the decision is vitiated by mala fides or infraction of any professed norm or
principle governing the transfer, which alone can be scrutinised judicially,
there are no judicially manageable standards for scrutinising all transfers and
the courts lack the necessary expertise for personnel management of all
government departments. This must be left, in public interest, to the
departmental heads subject to the limited judicial scrutiny indicated.
The private rights of the appellant being unaffected by the transfer, he would
have been well advised to leave the matter to those in public life who felt
aggrieved by his transfer to fight their own battle in the forum available to
them. The appellant belongs to a disciplined force and as a senior officer
would be making several transfers himself.
likely many of his men, like him, may be genuinely aggrieved by their
transfers. If even a few of them follow his example and challenge the transfer
in courts, the appellant would be spending his time defending his actions
instead of doing the work for which he holds the office.
in courts of a transfer when the career prospects remain unaffected and there
is no detriment to the government servant must be eschewed and interference by
courts should be rare, only when a judicially manageable and permissible ground
is made out. This litigation was ill- advised.
do hope that this would be a passing phase in the service career of the
appellant and his crusader's zeal would be confined to the sphere of his
official activity for improving the image and quality of public service of the
police force, in which he holds a high office. By achieving that purpose, he
would render much greater public service.
observations are apposite in the present context.
The appeal is dismissed for the reasons given by us.