State of Punjab & ANR Vs. British
India Corporation Ltd.  INSC 39 (15 February 1963)
15/02/1963 GUPTA, K.C. DAS GUPTA, K.C. DAS
AYYANGAR, N. RAJAGOPALA
CITATION: 1963 AIR 1459 1964 SCR (2) 114
R 1968 SC 919 (11) RF 1977 SC2425 (5)
Property Tax--Exemption--"Used for the
purpose of a factory" and "Rent "--Meaning of--Punjab Urban
Immovable Property Tax Act, 1940 (Pb. 17 of 1940), ss. 3, 4--Punjab Urban
Immovable Property Tax Rules ,1941 ,r. 18.
The property involved in the first appeal was
a set of rooms used for indoor games by the mill employees, one big hall used
as the Gurkha Guards Club, a set of rooms used as Officers' Club and a set of
rooms used as residential quarters by workers of the mills. The property
involved in the second appeal consisted of 200 quarters which had been allotted
to the workers of the factory for their occupation.
The question was whether these properties
were exempted from taxation under s. 4 of the Punjab Urban Immovable Property
Tax Act, 1940 115 or not. The assessing Authority held that these properties
were liable to taxation. Appeals against the orders of the Authority were
rejected by the Deputy Excise and Taxation Commissioner. The respondents moved
the High Court under Art. 226 of the Constitution for getting the orders
The High Court held in both cases that the
petitioners were entitled to exemption prayed for and quashed the orders of
assessment. The State of Punjab came to this Courts against the order of the
Held, that no tax was leviable under the
Punjab Urban Immovable Property Tax Act. 1940, in respect of the buildings in
the two appeals and the High Court had rightly quashed the orders of
assessment. In the first appeal, the buildings were allotted for the use of
workmen and that was a purpose which was necessary for the efficiency of
In the second appeal also, the allotment of
200 quarters was necessary for the welfare and efficiency of workmen. Hence it
must be held that the buildings were being used for the purposes of a factory.
Just as the use of a building for a purpose which maintains the efficiency of
the machines is a user for the purpose of a factory, so also is the user of a
building for the purpose of providing something which is necessary for
maintaining the efficiency of workers. Where a building is used for a purpose
which the Factory Law requires must be fulfilled in order that the factory may
function, that user is also for the purpose of a factory.
Held, also, that the word "rent" in
cl. (ii) of r. 18 (4) of the Punjab Urban Immovable Tax Rules, 1941, means
payment to a landlord by a tenant for the demised property and does not include
payments made by licensees.
London Co-operative Society Ltd. v. Southern
Essex Assessment Committee,  1 K. B. 53, referred to.
CIVIL APPELLATE JURISDICTION : Civil Appeal
No. 639 of 1961.
From the judgment dated August 4, 1960 of the
Punjab High Court at Chandigarh in Letters Patent Appeal No. 186 of 1957.
AND Civil Appeal No. 287 of 1962.
116 From the judgment and order dated
September 7, 1960, of the Punjab High Court at Chandigarh, in Civil Writ No.
216 of 1958.
S. M. Sikri, Advocate-General of Punjab, N.
S. Bindra and P. D. Menon, for the appellants.
Bhagirath Das and B. P. Maheshwari, for
respondent (In C. A. No. 639/61).
A. V. Viswanatha Sastri, O. P. Malhotra, O.
C. Mathur, J. B. Dadachanji and Ravinder Narain, for the respondent (in C. A.
1963. February 15. The judgment of the Court
was delivered by DAS GUPTA J.-These two appeals raise the question whether
certain buildings belonging to the Respondent the British India Corporation
Ltd., in one appeal and the respondent Shri Gopal Paper Mills Ltd., in the
other appeal, are liable to taxation under the Punjab Urban immovable Property
Tax Act, 1940. The buildings in both these cases are situated in the rating
area shown in the Schedule to the Act and would consequently be liable to
taxation under s. 3 of the Act unless the exemption provided in s. 4 of the Act
is available. That section provides that the tax shall not be levied in respect
of the properties mentioned in cls. (a) to (g) thereof. Clause (g) mentions
"such buildings and lands used for the purpose of a factory as may be
prescribed." "Prescribed" has been defined as 'prescribed by the
rules made under the Act.' Rule 18 of the Punjab Urban Immovable Property Tax
Rules, that were framed by the Punjab Government in 1941, prescribed buildings
'and lands for the purpose of cl. (g) of s. 4.
The Assessing Authority rejected the claims
for exemption made by the respondents and assessed 117 the buildings for the
purpose of taxation. The appeals to the Deputy Excise and Taxation Commissioner
were unsuccessful. The respondents then moved the Punjab High Court under Art.
226 of the Constitution praying that the order of the Taxation Commissioner be
-quashed. In both the cases the High Court held that the petitioners were
entitled to the exemption prayed for and quashed the orders of assessment. The
question in these appeals therefore is whether the High Court was right in its
view that the buildings of the respondents come within the class which has been
prescribed for exemption by Rule 18 of the Punjab Urban Immovable Property Tax
Rules, 1941. The relevant portion of this Rule, which has been altered from
time to time, stood thus in 1956 when the assessment order was made :" 18.
(1) Under the provisions of clause (g) of sub-section (1) of s. 4 of the Act,
all buildings and lands used for the purpose of a factory, which are owned by
the proprietors of such factory, shall be exempt from the tax, if a
manufacturing process involving the use of power is being and has been carried
on therein for a continuous period of six months, or in the case of a seasonal
factory since the commencement of the working season.
(4) The exemption provided by sub-rules (1)
and (2) shall not extend to(i)godowns outside the factory compound;
(ii)godowns, shops, quarters or other
buildings, whether situated within or without the factory compound, for which
rent is charged either from employees of the factory or from other persons; and
118 (iii) bungalows or houses intended for or occupied by the managerial or
superior staff whether situate within or without the factory compound."
There is a proviso to sub.rule (1) with which we are not concerned. We are also
not concerned with sub-rules (2) and (3) of Rule 18.
The effect of this Rule therefore is that
buildings belonging to the proprietors of the factory will get the benefit of
exemption from taxation under s. 4 of the Act provided three conditions are
satisfied : (1) the building must be used for the purpose of a factory; (2) the
factory must be one where a manufacturing process involving the use of power is
being and has been carried on for a continuous period of six months; and (3)
(a) no rent is being charged for the buildings; (b) it is not a godown outside
the factory compound, or (c) it is not a bungalow or house intended for or
occupied by the managerial or superior staff. In the present case there is no
dispute that the second condition was satisfied, viz., that the factory was one
in which manufacturing process involving the use of power was being and had
been carried on for a continuous period of six months. Admittedly, also the
building was not a godown outside the factory compound nor was it a bungalow or
house intended for or occupied by the managerial or superior staff. The
controversy is limited thus only to two questions. (1) Whether the building was
used for the purpose of a factory and (2) whether rent was being charged for
Before we examine the facts of the two cases
for solving the controversy we have to arrive at the correct interpretation of
the words "used for the purpose of a factory" and the word
"rent" in the Rule.
It is neither necessary nor desirable to
attempt to define what amounts to "'use for the purposes of 119 a
factory." That the legislature left this undefined is a good indication
that the intention of the legislature was to have the question decided, in any
case where controversy arises over it, on a consideration of the facts of the
It appears to us to be reasonable to think,
however, that two principles will be easy of application in the solution of
tile problem in the majority of cases. One is that where the building is used
for a purpose which the factory law requires must be fulfilled in order that
the factory may function, that will be user for the purpose of a factory.
The other is that where the user of the
building is such as is necessary for the efficiency of the machines or of the
workmen engaged in the factory the building should be held to be used for the
purpose of a factory.
The 5th Chapter of the factories Act contains
numerous provisions for the welfare of workmen employed in the factory. Section
42 requires that adequate and suitable facilities for washing shall be provided
and maintained for the use of the workers in every factory. It empowers the
State Government to prescribe standards of the facilities to be provided.
Section 43 empowers the State Government to make rules in respect of any
factory or class or description of factories requiring the provision "of
suitable places for keeping clothing not worn during working hours and for the
drying of wet clothing." Section 46 empowers the State Government to make
rules requiring that in any specified factory wherein more than two hundred and
fifty workers arc ordinarily employed, a canteen or canteens shall be provided
and maintained by the occupier for the use of the workers.
Section 47 requires that in every factory
employing more than one hundred and fifty workers "adequate and suitable
shelters or rest rooms and a suitable lunch room, with provision for drinking
water, where workers can cat meals brought by them shall be provided and
maintained for the use of the workers.' 120 Section 48 requires the provision
and maintenance of a "'suitable room or rooms for the use of children
under the age of six years of such women" employed in the factory if more
than fifty women are employed ordinarily. Section 92 makes the contravention.
of any of the provisions of the Factory Act or of any Rule made there under or
any order in writing given there under punishable with imprisonment or fine.
It is obvious therefore that in . order, that
a factory may function in accordance with law buildings or parts of buildings
have to be provided by the owner for the use of the workmen for the purposes
mentioned in the several sections mentioned above. Such use of these buildings
must therefore be held to be "'use for the purpose of a factory."
Advances in scientific knowledge as to how the industrial efficiency can be
improved have made it clear that even other facilities and amenities,. other than
those required by the factory legislation, conduce in a great measure to a rise
in the efficiency of the industrial worker and that some of these arc indeed
necessary to the maintenance of a proper standard of efficiency. Many
enlightened employers of labour, taking a long view of things have therefore
invested considerable sums; of money for the provision of such facilities and
amenities even though not required by law and have raised buildings for that
purpose' In our opinion, the use of buildings for the provision of such
facilities and amenities which are necessary to the maintenance of a proper
standard of efficiency of the factory workers must also be held to be
"'Use for the purpose of a factory." The learned Advocate-General,
who appeared for the State of Punjab, readily agreed that when a building is
provided for the use of the machinery in order that the machinery may function
efficiently or that it may not deteriorate, the building is being used
"'for the purpose of a factory". He is reluctant 121 however to apply
a similar rule to a building used for the purposes of maintaining the
efficiency of the men ;go-work the machinery. We are unable to see any
reasonable "ground for this differentiation. just as the use of a building
for a purpose which maintains the efficiency of themachines is a user for the
purpose of a factory, so also, we are convinced, is the user of a building for
the purpose of providing something which is necessary for maintaining the
efficiency of the workers.
A large number of cases were cited at the Bar
to show how the English courts have understood the words "industrial
purpose" or "purpose other than the manufacturing process or
handicraft carried on in the factory" in connection with the Rating and
Valuation (Apportionment) Act, and the Factory Act 1901. No useful purpose will
be served by discussing all these cases as the schemes of those Acts are
largely different from our Act. We shall refer only, however, to the decision
in London Co-operative Society Ltd., v.
Southern Essex Assessment Committee (1), to
indicate the tendency of the English courts in more recent times to attach
importance to what is necessary for the welfare and efficiency of the workers
in deciding the question.
There was a place of refreshments for persons
employed in a laundry which was, qualified as a factory and workshop and
therefore was an "'industrial hereditament". The question was whether
this refreshment place was ,solely used for some purPose other than the
manufacturing process or handicraft, carried on in the laundry". The Kings
Bench answered this question in the negative. Viscount Caldecote, C. J. said
that applying the up-to-date considerations in the equipment and layout of a
factory, the Canteen was not a place which was "solely used for some
purpose other than the manufacturing process or handicraft carried on in the (1)
 1 K.B. 53, 122 laundry." His Lordship observed that these
considerations might assist in the determination of the character of parts . of
a factory like--a lavatory, or a room where surgical first aid is provided or a
cloakroom or a number of other parts of the here ditament. Tucker J. agreed
with this conclusion and observed :((The element which, to MY mind., is
decisive is that the facts stated show that the canteen was necessary and
essential for the welfare and efficiency of the workers engaged in the
admittedly industrial part of the under.
taking." For applying the two principles
mentioned above to the facts of these two appeals we have to ascertain to what use
the property in question has been put. In the first appeal ( In which the
British India Corporation Ltd. is the respondent) we are concerned -with four
units : (1) A set of rooms used for indoor games by the mill employees; (2) One
big hall used as the Gurkha Guards Club; (3) A set of rooms used as officers
Club, and (4) A set of rooms used as residential quarters by workers of the
In our opinion, the allotment of these
buildings for the use of the workmen was made for a purpose which was necessary
to the efficiency of the workmen.
The property assessed in the other appeal (in
which Shri Gopal Paper Mills Ltd., is the respondent) consists of 200 quarters
which have been allotted to workers of the factory for their occupation. The
provision of such quarters is clearly necessary to the welfare and efficiency
of the workmen and it must be held that in this case also the buildings were
being used for the purpose of a factory.
123 The next question is : what is the
meaning of "rent" in cl. (ii) of Rule 18 (4). In its wider sense rent
means any payment made for the use of land or buildings and thus includes the
payment by a licensee in respect of the use and occupation of any land or
building. In its narrower sense it means payment made by tenant to landlord for
property demised to him. Did the rule-making authority when providing that the
exemption provided by sub.rules 1 and 2 of Rule 18 shall not extend to quarters
and other buildings for which "rent" is charged, used the word in its
wider sense or in its narrower sense? In seeking an answer to this question it
is legitimate to examine the use of the word "rent" in the Act for
which these rules were made. At the time the rules were first made in 1941 the
Act used the word "rent" only in two sections. First, in s. 5, where
in providing how the annual value of land or building shall be as certained the
legislature said that it shall be ascertained "by estimating the gross
annual rent at which such land or building ..................... might
reasonably be expected to let from year to year. It is absolutely clear that
here the word "rent" is used in its strict and narrower sense of
payment by tenant to landlord for demised property. The other section where the
word "rent" occurs is s. 14, where in providing for recovery of tax
in arrears the legislature said : .......... it shall be lawful for the
prescribed authority to serve upon any person paying rent ............... to
the person from whom the arrears are due, a notice stating the amount of such
arrears of tax and requiring all future payments of rent by the person paying
the rent to be made direct to the prescribed authority and also providing that
such notice shall operate to transfer to the Prescribed authority the right to
recover, receive and give a discharge for such rent". While the section
itself leaves it doubtful whether the word "rent" has been used in
the narrower or the wider 124 sense, the marginal note describes the
subject-matter ,of the section thus : "Recovery of tax from tenants."
If this note is taken into consideration it becomes clear that in this section
also the word "rent" was used in its narrower sense to mean payment
made by tenant to landlord for demised property.
When in 1941 the rule-making authority set
about framing the Rules, it had before it this clear use of the word
"rent" in its narrower sense in s. 5 and the marginal note in s. 14
which was some indication that there also the word "rent" was used in
the narrower sense. In the absence of anything to indicate the contrary, it
would be reasonable to think that the rule-making authority would not depart
from the meaning in which it had reason to believe that the legislature had
used the word, and that it used the word in cl. (ii) of Rule 18 (4) in the same
narrower sense of payment by tenant to landlord for demised property.
Our conclusion therefore is that the word
"rent" in cl. (ii) of Rule 18 (4) means payment to a landlord by a
tenant for the demised property and does not include payments made by
In coming to this conclusion we have not
overlooked the fact that there is scope for an argument that in cls. (d) and
(e) of s. 4 of the Act as they stand after the amendments in 1954 and 1957,
respectively, the word "rent" has been used in the wider sense.
Assuming that this is so, such use of the word in 1954 and 1957 cannot be
-taken into account for the purpose of interpretation, as the Rule under
consideration was framed long before these dates.
Coming now to the facts of the two cases
before us, we find that admittedly, in both the cases. the property that has
been assessed was allowed to be 125 used by the employees on leave and license.
Whatever payment was received from them was not therefore "rent"
within the meaning of cl. (ii).
Our conclusion therefore is that no tax is
leviable under the Punjab Urban Immovable property Tax Act, 1940, in respect of
the buildings in these two appeals. The High Court therefore rightly quashed
the orders of assessment.
The appeals are accordingly dismissed with