Sankatha Singh Vs. State of U.P 
INSC 23 (25 January 1962)
25/01/1962 DAYAL, RAGHUBAR DAYAL, RAGHUBAR
CITATION: 1962 AIR 1208 1962 SCR Supl. (2)
RF 1971 SC1606 (22) RF 1979 SC 87 (20) R 1981
SC 736 (5)
Criminal Procedure-Appellate Court's power to
re-hear appeal after having dismissed it earlier- Code of Criminal Procedure,
1898 (Act V of 1898), ss.367, 369, 424.
The question for decision was whether a
criminal appellate court could order the re- hearing of an appeal which it had
earlier dismissed, when neither the appellants nor their counsel appeared,
holding that it had perused the record of the case and saw no reason for
interference with the trial court's order.
^ Held, that the appellate court's omission
to write a detailed judgment in a criminal appeal in which neither the
appellant nor his counsel appeared might not be in compliance with the
provisions of s.367 of the Code of Criminal Procedure and might be liable to be
set aside by a superior court, but will not give that court itself power to set
it aside and re-hear the appeal.
At the re-hearing of the appeal the successor
of the appellate court was competent to consider, on an objection being raised
by the other party, whether the appeal was validly up for hearing before him.
Section 369 read with s. 424 of the Code of
Criminal Procedure specifically prohibits the altering or reviewing of its
order by a court.
Inherent powers of the court cannot be
exercised to do what the Code specifically prohibits the court from doing.
CRIMINAL APPELLATE JURISDICTION : Criminal
Appeal No. 145 of 1959.
Appeal by special leave from the judgment and
order dated March 19,1959, of the Allahabad High Court in Criminal Revision No.
1299 of 1957.
S. P. Sinha and P. C. Agarwala, for the
G. C. Mathur and C. P. Lal, for the
1962. January 25. The Judgment of the Court
was delivered by 818 RAGHUBAR DAYAL, J.-Sankatha Singh and others appeal
against the order of the Allahabad High Court dismissing their application for
revision of the order of the Sessions Judge, Gyanp ur, holding the order of his
predecessor for the rehearing of an appeal which had been dismissed earlier to
be ultra vires and without jurisdiction and directing the Magistrate to take
immediate steps to execute the order passed by it, according to law.
The appellants were convicted by the
Magistrate, I Class, Gyanpur, of offences under ss. 452 and 323 read with s.34,
I.P.C. Kharpattu, one of the appellants, was also convicted of an offence under
s. 324, I.P.C. They appealed against their conviction. The appeal was fixed for
hearing on November 30, 1956. On that date, neither the appellants nor their
counsel appeared in Court and the learned Sessions Judge dismissed the appeal.
The relevant portion of his order is:
"The appellants have been absent, and
their learned counsel has also not appeared to argue the appeal on behalf of
the appellants. I have perused the judgment of the learned Magistrate and seen
the record. I find no ground for any interference. The appeal is accordingly
dismissed." On December 17, 1956, an application was presented by the
appellants praying that the case be restored to its original number so that
justice be done to them. In explaining their absence from Court on the date of
hearing, it was said that they reached the Court somewhat late due to the Ekka,
by which they were travelling, over-turning accidentally on the way and, as a
result, their getting injuries. This application was allowed, on July 2, 1957,
by the learned Sessions Judge, Sri Tej Pal Singh, who had dismissed the appeal.
His reasons for allowing the application appear, from his order, 819 to be that
the application, supported by an affidavit, showed that there was sufficient cause
for the non-appearance of the appellants-accused at the time of the hearing of
the appeal, that s. 423 of the Code of Criminal Procedure (hereinafter called
the Code) enjoined the appellate Court to dispose of the appeal on merits after
hearing the appellant or his pleader and the Public Prosecutor, that no notice
was ever issued to the appellants as required by s. 422 of the Code, that s.
367 of the Code laid down what a judgment should contain and that his judgment
of November 30, 1956, amounted to no judgment as it did not contain some of
those salient points, that the judgment was without jurisdiction as the case
was not really considered and no independent judgment was arrived at and that
it was necessary that the appeal be re-heard in the ends of justice.
Sri Tripathi, who succeeded Sri Tej Pal Singh
as Sessions Judge, and before whom the appeal was put up for re-hearing, was of
the opinion that the appellate Court had no power to review or restore an
appeal which had been disposed of and that therefore the order of his
predecessor dated July 2, 1957, was ultra vires and passed without
Against this order, the appellants went in
revision to the High Court. The learned Judge of the High Court agreed with the
views of Sri Tripathi and accordingly, dismissed the revision application.
The sole point for determination in this
appeal is whether Sri Tej Pal Singh could set aside his first order dated
November 30, 1956, dismissing the appeal, when neither the appellants nor their
counsel appeared and could order the re- hearing of the appeal. We are of
opinion that he could not do so and that therefore the view taken by the High
Court is correct.
820 A criminal appeal cannot be dismissed for
the default of the appellants or their counsel. The Court has either to adjourn
the hearing of the appeal to enable them to appear, or should consider the
appeal on merits and pass the final order. Sri Tej Pal Singh was aware of this
as his order itself indicates. He did not dismiss the appeal for default. He
himself perused the judgment of the Magistrate and the record and did consider
the merits, as he says in his order: 'I find no ground for any interference'.
The mere fact that he had not expressed his reasons for coming to that opinion
does not mean that he had not considered the material on record before coming
to the conclusion that there was no case for interference. His omission to
write a detailed judgment in the circumstances may be not in compliance with
the provisions of s. 367 of the Code and may be liable to be set aside by a
superior Court, but will not give him any power to set it aside himself, and
re-hear the appeal.
Section 369, read with s. 424, of the Code,
makes it clear that the appellate Court is not to alter or review the judgment
once signed, except for the purpose of correcting a clerical error.
Sri Tej Pal Singh was in error when he
thought that s. 423 of the Code enjoined the appellate Court to dispose of the
appeal after hearing the appellant or his pleader and the Public Prosecutor. He
omitted to notice the words 'if he appears' after the expression 'and hearing
the appellant or his pleaders. If none of these appears at the hearing, the
appellate Court can proceed with the disposal of the appeal on merits.
Of course, a notice to the appellant or his
counsel of the date of hearing is an essential precedent for the hearing of the
appeal, in view of s. 422 of the Code, Sri Tej Pal Singh states, in his order
dated July 2, 1957:
821 "It will also appear that the
conditions of s.422, Cr. P. C. were also not fulfilled, as no notice was ever
issued to the appellant." He again missed noticing that a notice of the
hearing of the appeal has to be given either to the appellant or to his pleader
and need not be given to both. He does not say in his order that no notice of
the date of hearing had been given to the appellants' counsel. The practice,
usually, is to give notice of the date of hearing of the appeal to the counsel
who informs the appellant, and not to the appellant personally. The application
for restoration indicates that the appellant knew of the date of hearing.
It has been urged for the appellants that Sri
Tej Pal Sigh could order the re-hearing of the appeal in the exercise of the
inherent powers which every Court possesses in order to further the ends of
justice and that Sri Tripathi was not justified in any case to sit in judgment
over the order of Sri Tej Pal Singh, an order passed within jurisdiction, even
though it be erroneous.
Assuming that Sri Tej Pal Singh, as Sessions
Judge, could exercise inherent powers, we are of opinion that he could not pass
the order of the re-hearing of the appeal in the exercise of such powers when
s. 369, read with s. 424, of the Code, specifically prohibits the altering or
reviewing of its order by a Court. Inherent powers cannot be exercised to do
what the Code specifically prohibits the Court from doing. Sri Tripathi was
competent to consider when the other party raised the objection whether the
appeal was validly up for re-hearing before him. He considered the question and
decided it rightly.
It is also urged for the appellants that Sri
Tej Pal Singh, had the jurisdiction to pas orders on the application presented
by the appellants on December 17,1956, praying for the re-hearing of the appeal
and that therefore his order could not 822 be said to have been absolutely
without jurisdiction. We do not agree. He certainly had jurisdiction to dispose
of the application presented to him, but when s. 369, of the Code definitely
prohibited the Court's reviewing or altering its judgment, he had no
jurisdiction to consider the point raised and to set aside the order dismissing
the appeal and order its re- hearing.
We therefore see no force in this appeal and
accordingly dismiss it.