State of Madhya Pradesh & Ors Vs.
Shardul Singh  INSC 144 (2 December 1959)
Constitution of India, Art. 311(1) --If the
Authority empowered to dismiss should itself initiate or conduct the
enquiry-Article 309, proviso, -"Conditions of service", meaning of.
The Superintendent of Police initiated a
departmental inquiry against the respondent, who was a Sub-Inspector, with
respect to certain charges, found him guilty, and forwarded the report to the
Inspector-General of Police, who was the authority competent to dismiss him,
for necessary action. The Inspector-General sent a copy of the report to the
respondent, called upon him to show cause against the proposed punishment of
dismissal, considered his explanation, and passed an order dismissing him. The
procedure followed was in accordance with Regulations 228 and 229 of the
Central Provinces and Berar Police Regulations framed under s. 241 of the
Government of India Act, 1935, corresponding to Art. 309 of the Constitution.
On the question whether the Regulations were
ultra vires because, under Art. 311, the authority empowered to dismiss (in
this case the Inspector-General) must have himself initiated,or conducted the
inquiry preceding the dismissal,
HELD : Under the proviso to Art. 309, power
is conferred on the President of India and the Governor of a State to make
rules Regulating the conditions of service of persons appointed to the civil
service of the Union or the State, as the-case may be, until provision in that
behalf is made by an Act of the appropriate Legislature. 'Conditions of
service' means all those conditions which regulate the holding of a post by a
person right from the time of his appointment till his retirement and even
beyond, in matters like pension etc., and includes rules relating to the
dismissal of an officer. Article 311 (1) confers an additional right on the
civil servant, namely, that no person holding a civil post shall be dismissed
or removed by an authority subordinate to that by which he was appointed.
But for that Article rules could have been
framed even in respect to these matters under Art. 309. Article 311(l) however,
does not, in terms, provide that the relevant disciplinary inquiry should also
be initiated or conducted by the authority mentioned in the Article. Therefore,
-rules could be framed under Art. 309 with respect to conditions of service
other than those in Art. 311(l) and hence, the Regulations were not ultra vires
the Constitution. [306 B-E] Pradyat Kumar Bose V. The Hon'ble the Chief Justice
of Calcutta High Court,  2 S.C.R. 1331 and P. Balakotaiah v. Union of
India,  S.C.R. 1052, followed.
North West Frontier Province v. Suraj Narain
Anand, (1948) L.R. 75 I.A. 343, applied.
CIVIL APPELLATE JURISDICTION : Civil Appeal
No. 2554 of 1966.
303 Appeal from the judgment and order dated
November 4, 1965 ,of the Madhya Pradesh High Court in Misc. Petition No. 646 of
I.N. Shroff, for the appellants.
A.K. Sen, M. M. Kshatriya and G. S.
Chatterjee, for the respondent.
The Judgment of the Court was delivered by
Hegde J. _ Scope of Art. 311(l) of the Constitution comes up for consideration
in this appeal by certificate. The High Court of Madhya Pradesh has opined that
the power of dismissal and removal referred to in Art. 3 1 1 ( 1 ) implies that
the authorities mentioned in that Article must alone initiate and conduct the
disciplinary proceeding culminating in the dismissal or removal of a delinquent
The respondent herein was a Sub-Inspector of
Police in the State of Madhya Pradesh. A departmental enquiry was initiated
against him on the basis of certain charges, by the Superintendent of Police,
Surguja, on June 24, 1962.
After holding the enquiry as prescribed by
the Central Provinces and Bihar Police Regulations, the Superintendent of
Police submitted his report to the Inspector-General of Police, Madhya Pradesh
through Deputy Inspector-General of Police, Raipur. On the basis of the enquiry
held by him, -the Superintendent of Police concluded that the respondent was
guilty of the charges levelled against him. He recommended his dismissal. After
receiving the report of the Superintendent of Police, the Inspector General
sent a copy of the same to the respondent and called upon him to show cause why
he should not be dismissed from service. The respondent submitted his
explanation. After considering the same, the Inspector General of Police
dismissed the respondent from service on November 30, 1963. The respondent's
appeal to the Government against the order dismissing him was rejected.
Thereafter the respondent moved the High Court under Art. 226 of the
Constitution to quash the order dismissing him by issuing a writ of certiorari.
The dismissal order was challenged on various grounds. The High Court rejected
all but one of them. It came to the conclusion that the Superintendent of
Police, Surguja was not competent to initiate or conduct the enquiry held
against the respondent as he had been appointed by the Inspector-General of
Police. It was of the view that the enquiry in the case was without the
authority of law and against the, mandate of Art. 3 1 1 ( 1 ). It accordingly
allowed the writ petition and quashed the impugn%-,,-' order. The
Superintendent of Police, Surg ja initiated and conducted the enquiry against
the respondent on the basis of Regulations 228 and 229 of the Central Provinces
and Bihar Police Regulations. These 'Regulations are evidently framed on the
basis of S. 241 of the Government of India Act, 1935,a Provision which.
permitted the State Governments to make rules regulating the recruitment and
conditions of service of persons appointed to State service. Regulation 228
"In every case of dismissal, reduction
in rank, grade or pay, or withholding of increment for, a period in excess of
one year, a formal proceeding must be recorded, by the District Superintendent
in the prescribed form, setting forth (a) the charge;
(b) the evidence on which the charge is
(c) the defence of the, accused;
(d) the statements of his witnesses (if any).
(e) the finding of the District
Superintendent, with the reasons on which it is based;
(f) the District Superintendent's final order
or re- commendation, as the case -may be." Regulation 229 prescribes that
in cases where the District Superintendent is not empowered to pass a final
order, he should forward his proposals for the dismissal, removal or compulsory
retirement of an officer of and above the rank of Sub-Inspector to the proper
authority through the District Magistrate, except in cases where an officer is
not serving in a district.
There is no dispute that the Superintendent
of Police had complied with the requirements of Regs. 228 and 229. The question
for consideration is whether the power conferred on the Superintendent of
Police under Regs. 228 and 229 is ultra vires Art. 3 11(1).
Art. 311(1) provides that no person who is a
member of Civil Service of the Union or of an All India Service or Civil
Service of a State or holds civil post under the Union or State shall be
dismissed or removed by an authority subordinate to that by which he was
appointed. This Article does not in terms require that the authority empowered
under that provision to dismiss or remove an official, should itself initiate
or conduct the enquiry preceding the dismissal or removal of the officer or
even that that enquiry should be done at its instance. The only right
guaranteed to a civil servant tinder that provision is that he shall not be
dismissed or removed by an authority subordinate to that by which he was appointed.
But it is said on behalf of the respondent that that guarantee include,, within
itself the guarantee that the relevant 'disciplinary enquiry should be
initiated and con- 305 ducted by the authorities mentioned in the Article. The
High Court has accepted this contention. We have now to see whether the view
taken by the High Court is correct.
Art. 310(l) of the Constitution declares that
every person who is a member of civil service of a State or holds any civil
post in a State holds office during the pleasure of the Governor of a State.
But the pleasure doctrine embodied therein is subject to the other provisions
in the Constitution. Two, other Articles in the Constitution which cut down the
width of the power given under Art. 310(l) are Arts. '309 and 311. Art. 309
provides that subject to the provisions of the Constitution, Acts of the
appropriate Legislature may regulate the recruitment, and conditions of service
of persons appointed, to public services and posts in connection with the
affairs of the Union or of any State.
Proviso to that Article says :
"Provided that it shall be competent for
the President or such person as he may direct in the case of services and posts
in collection with the affairs of the Union, and for the Governor of a State or
such person as he may direct in the case of services and posts in connection
with the affairs of the State to make rules regulating the recruitment, and the
conditions of service of persons appointed, to such services and posts until
provision in that behalf is made by or under an Act of the appropriate
Legislature under this article, and any rules so made shall have effect subject
to the provisions of any such Act." One of the powers conferred under this
proviso is to make rules regulating the conditions of service of persons
appointed to civil services of the Union or the State as the case may be. The
expression "conditions of service" is an expression of wide import.
As pointed by this Court in, Pradyat Kumar Bose v. The Hon'ble the Chief Justice
of Calcutta High Court (1), the dismissal of an official is a matter which
falls within "conditions of service of public servants. The Judicial
Committee of the Privy Council in North West Frontier Province v. Suraj Narain
Anand (2) took the view that a right of dismissal is a condition of service
within the meaning of the words under s. 243 of the Government of India Act,
Lord Thankerton speaking for the Board
observed therein "apart from consideration whether the context indicates a
special significance to the expression conditions of service? their Lordships
are unable in the absence of any such special significance, to regard
provisions (1)  2 S.C.R. 1331.
(2)  L.R. 75 I.A. 343.
306 which prescribe the circumstances under
which the employer is to be entitled to terminate the service as otherwise than
conditions of the service, whether these provisions are contractual or
statutory; they are therefore of opinion that the natural meaning of the
expression would include such provisions." In P. Balakataiali v. 7he Union
of India and Ors.(1) this Court proceeded on the basis that a rule providing
for the termination of the service of a railway official can be made in
exercise of the powers conferred on the Government by ss. 241(2), 247 and
263(3) of the Government of India Act, 1935.
The expression 'conditions of service' means
all those conditions which regulate the holding of a post by a person right
from the time of his appointment till his retirement and even beyond it in
matters like pension etc. But for the incorporation of Art. 311 in the
Constitution even in respect of matters provided therein, rules could have been
framed under Art. 309. The provisions in Art. 311 confer additional rights on
the civil servants. Hence we are unable to agree, with the High Court that the
guarantee given under Art. 311(l) includes within itself a further guarantee
that the disciplinary proceedings resulting in dismissal or removal of a civil
servant should also be initiated and conducted by the authorities mentioned in
In the result this appeal is allowed, the
judgment of the High Court is set aside and the writ petition dismissed. In the
circumstances of the case we make no order as to costs-.
Y.P. Appeal allowed.
(1)  S.C.R. 1052.