Earnest John White Vs. Mrs. Kathleen
Olive White & Ors  INSC 17 (10 March 1958)
BHAGWATI, NATWARLAL H.
CITATION: 1958 AIR 441 1958 SCR 1410
Divorce-Adultery-Standard of Proof-Principle-Direct
evidence if imperative-Finding of fact when can be interfered withDivorce Act
(IV of 1869), ss. 14 and 7.
The appellant sued his wife for dissolution
of marriage on the ground of her adultery.
On the evidence the trial court found that it
was not possible to hold that adultery had been committed, though it found that
one of the letters contained "a large substratum of truth". The High
Court in appeal concurred with the decision. On appeal to the Supreme Court it
was contended for the appellant that the finding of the courts below was
vitiated because certain pieces of evidence had been misread, and some others
ignored. As a matter of legitimate and proper inference the Court should not
have arrived at any other conclusion, but that the wife was guilty of adultery
with respondent NO. 2. The evidence showed that the wife went to Patna and stayed in a hotel with respondent NO. 2 under an assumed name, that they
occupied the same room in the hotel, that the conduct of the respondent indicated
a guilty inclination, and that so far as the wife was concerned, her conduct
was entirely consistent with her guilt :
Held, that, the nature of the evidence
adduced was such as would satisfy the requirements of s. 14 of the Divorce Act,
and that the finding of the Courts below that an inference of adultery could
not be drawn there from must be set aside.
Although it is not usual for the Supreme
Court to interfere 1411 on questions of fact, where, however, the courts below
ignore or misconstrue important pieces of evidence in arriving at their
finding, and this Court is of the opinion that no tribunal could have come to
such a finding oil the evidence taken as a whole, such finding was liable to be
interfered with by this Court.
Held, further, that the words "satisfied
on the evidence" in s. 14 Of the Divorce Act, 1869, imply that it is the
duty of the (Court to pronounce a decree only when it is satisfied that the
case lhas been proved beyond reasonable doubt as to the commission of a matrimonial
The evidence must be clear and satisfactory
beyond mere balance of probabilities. It is not necessary and rarely possible,
to prove the issue by any direct evidence.
The rule laid down in Preston Jones v.
Preston Jones,  A.C. 391, lays down the principle that should be followed
by tile courts under s. 7 Of the Divorce Act.
State of Madras v. A. vaidanatha Iyer, A.I.R.
1958 S.C. 61, Purvez Ardeshir Poonawala v. The State of Bombay, Cr. A. 122 Of
1954, decided on December 20, 1957, Stephen Seneviratne v. The A.I.R. 1936 P.C.
289, Mordaunt v. Moncrieffe, (1874) 30 649 and Gower v. Gower  1 All.
E.R. 804, referred to.
Loveden v. Loveden, (1810) 161 F. R. 648 ;
(1810) 2 Hag.
Con. 1,3, referred to.
Preston Jones v. Preston Jones,  A.C.
391, relied upon.
CIVIL APPELLATE JURISDICTION: Civil AppeAl
No. 19 of 1956.
Appeal from the judgment and decree dated
July 21, 1954, of' the Patna High Court in Letters Patent Appeal No. 24 of
1951, arising out of the judgment and decree dated May 15, 1951, of the said
High Court in Matrimonial Suit No. 2 of 1950.
M. C. Setalvad, Attorney-General for India,
N. C. Chatterjee and P. K. Chatterjee, for the appellant. Both the Courts below
have failed to draw the proper inference of the commission of adultery, which
should legitimately have been drawn from the facts proved. Both the Single
Judge and the Appeal Court failed to take into consideration some pieces of
evidence and certain other pieces of evidence which were equally important had
been misread and misconstrued and as a matter of legitimate and proper
inference the lower courts should not have arrived at any other 179 1412
conclusion but that the wife was guilty of adultery and in such case the
interference with the finding of facts below by the Supreme Court will be
State of Madras v. A. Vaidanatha Iyer, A. I.
R. 1958 S. C. 61 and Stephen Seneviratne v. The King, A. I. R. 1936 P. C. N.C.
Chatterjee continued. The judgment of the High Court suffers from certain
serious infirmities and this Court should not act on the rigid principle that
finding of fact should not be interfered with in the final court of appeal.
Sir William Scott's dictum in Loveden v.
Loveden, (1810) 161 E. R. 648, as to " the guarded discretion of a reasonable
and just man" does not mean there should be satisfactory evidence of the
commission of a matrimonial offence. Lord Mac Dermott has pointed out in
Preston Jones v. Preston Jones, L. R.  A.C. 391, that if a judge is
satisfied beyond reasonable doubt as to the commission of the matrimonial
offence relied on by the petitioner as ground for divorce, he must surely be
"satisfied" within the meaning of the enactment, and no less so in
cases of adultery where the circumstances are such as to involve the paternity
of a child. To succeed on an issue of adultery it is not necessary to prove the
direct fact of, or even an act of adultery in time and place ; for if it were
so, in many few cases would that proof be attainable. It has been pointed out
in a number of cases that rarely the parties are surprised in a direct act of
adultery and such evidence will have to be disbelieved. Rydon on Divorce, 6th
Edn., P. 115;
Douglas v. Douglas,  P. 85:  2
All E.R. 748. In nearly every case the fact of adultery is inferred from
circumstances which lead to it by fair inference as a necessary conclusion.
Unless it is so held there will absolutely be no protection to marital rights.
Allen,  p.248, approving Loveden v.
Counsel then cited Davis v. Davis,  P.
125:  1 All E. R. 40. In that case Bucknill, L. J., and Somervell, L. J.,
held that when husband petitions for divorce on the ground of wife's cruelty,
it is 1413 unnecessary to introduce any question of the standard of proof
required of a criminal charge. Denning, L. J., emphasised that a suit for
divorce is a civil and not a criminal proceeding. The same standard of proof as
that required in criminal cases is not needed. The stringency of proof required
in a criminal court is not necessarily called for in divorce suit. Lord
Merriman's dictum quoting Churchman v. Churchman,  P. 44, that the same
strict proof is required in the case of matrimonial offence as is required in
connection with criminal offence has been too widely expressed and should be
read in the light of later judgments.
Recent judgment of the Court of Appeal
(Bucknill, L. T., and Denning, L. J.,) lays down the correct law in Gower v.
Gower,  1 All E.R. 804, that the
correct approach has been laid down by Denning, L. J., who observed that the
court should not be irrevocably committed to the view that a charge of adultery
must, be regarded a criminal charge, to be proved beyond all reasonable doubt.
All that the statute requires is that the court must be satisfied on the
evidence that the case of the petitioner has been proved and it is submitted
that Denning, L. J., has enunciated the correct principle and the statute lays
down a standard and puts adultery on the same footing as cruelty, desertion or unsoundness
N. C. Chatterjee cited also Mordaunt v.
Moncrieffe, (1874) 30 L.T. 649.
S. P. Varma, for the respondent. The burden
of proof is on the person alleging adultery and there is always a presumption
of innocence. In any event on a petition for divorce some strict proof is
required of adultery as is required in a criminal case before a person is found
Ginesi v. Ginesi,  P. 179:  1 All
Applying the dictum of Lord Merriman in
Churchman v. Churchman, [19451 P. 44, the trial court was not satisfied of the
guilt beyond all reasonable doubt. It is for the trial judge to decide an issue
of fact ; unless he has misdirected himself his finding should not be
R. Patnaik, for co-respondent No. 1.
Submitted that 1414 the evidence in the case falls far short of the standard of
1958. March 10. Tile Judgment of the Court
was delivered by KAPUR J.-This is an appeal with a certificate under s. 56 of
the Divorce Act (IV of 1869) (hereinafter called the Act) against a judgment
and decree dated July 21, 1954, of the High Court of Patna dismissing the
husband's suit. The husband who is the appellant sued his wife who is
respondent No. I for dissolution of marriage on the ground of her adultery with
two co-respondents now respondents Nos. 2 and
3. The suit was tried in the High Court by
Shearer J., who dismissed the suit and this decree was on appeal confirmed by
the Appeal Court. The question as to the legality of the certificate granted
was raised but in the view that we have taken it is not necessary to decide
The husband was married to the wife at
Kharagpur on February 3, 1,943, and there is no issue of the marriage. The
parties thereafter resided at "Rose Villa" at Samastipur and respondent
No. 2 was residing with his mother in an adjoining house called " Sunny
Nook". The husband alleged various acts of adultery between the wife and
the other two respondents. As regards allegations of' adultery of the wife with
respondent No. 3, the High Court has found against the husband and these
findings have not been challenged before us. The allegations of adultery
between the wife and respondent No. 2 were also held not proved. In appeal
before us the husband has confined his case to the acts of adultery alleged to
have been committed at the Central Hotel, Patna where the wife and respondent
No. 2 are alleged to have resided together between July 25, 1950 and July 28,
1950, under the assumed names of Mr. and Mrs. Charles Chaplin. The wife pleaded
that she came to Patna solely with the object of having her tooth extracted and
returned to Samastipur the same day and that she had to come alone as in spite
of her request the husband refused to accompany her.
1415 Respondent No. 2 pleaded that he came to
Patna with his mother " in connection with seeking employment under the
Superintendent Of Police, Anti-Smuggling Department, also in connection with
mother's tooth trouble and for house hold shopping ". He also pleaded that
he stayed with his mother in the same room under his own name and not under an
The trial judge found that the wife and
respondent No. 2 and the latter's mother stayed in two rooms in the Hotel Nos.
9 & 10 from July 25, 1950 to July 28, 1950. He accepted the, testimony of
the Manager of the Hotel, Cardoza P. W. 3 and also of the sweeper Kira Ram P.
W. 4. He found that the Wife and respondent No. 2 were seen by Kira Rain in
room No. 10 and also that the party, i.e., the wife, respondent No. 2 and the
latter's mother were served morning tea in one room which they had together but
he did not infer any acts of adultery from this conduct. The document Ex. 8
dated November 22, 1950, but actually written earlier was held by the learned
Judge to contain " a large substratum of truth ". The Appeal Court
(S. K. Das C. J. and Ramaswami J.) agreed with the findings of the trial judge
but they also were unable to draw the inference of the commission of adultery
front the evidence. In appeal it was contended that the findings of the courts
below. were vitiated because certain pieces of' evidence had been misread, some
ignored and as a matter of legitimate and proper inference the court should not
have arrived at any other conclusion but that the wife was guilty of adultery
with respondent No. 2.
This Court will not ordinarily interfere with
findings of fact given by the trial judge and the Appeal Court but if in giving
the findings the Courts ignore certain important pieces of evidence and other
pieces of evidence which are equally important are shown to have been misread
and misconstrued and this Court comes to the conclusion that on the evidence
taken as a whole no tribunal could properly as a matter of legitimate inference
arrive at the conclusion that it has, interference by this Court will be called
(See 1416 State of Madras v. A. Vaidanatha
Iyer Purvez Ardeshir Poonawala v. The State of Bombay(2); Stephen Seneviratne
v. The King (3).
The Central Hotel, Patna, which is alleged to
be the scene of adultery by the wife bad only 10 rooms, which were all single,
but whenever necessary additional beds were put in.
At the relevant time M. C. Cardoza P. W. 3
was employed as its Manager, Kira Ram P. W. 4 as a sweeper, Abdul Aziz P. W. 5
and Usman Mian P. W. 6 as bearers. Kira Ram identified the wife as the lady who
had stayed at the hotel with respondent No. 2 but the other hotel servants
although they were shown the photograph of the wife and also saw her in court
were unable to recognize her as the person who stayed with respondent No. 2.
But they did identify him as the gentleman who had stayed in the hotel along
with two ladies.
Examined by counsel Kira Ram stated:
Q. " (Pointing out to the wife) I ask
you, do you know this lady? A. Yes. Q. Did they ever visit your hotel? A.
Yes. Q. How long ago? A. About 9 or 10 months
ago. Q. How long did they stay there? A. About 4 or 5 days. Q. What room did
they occupy? A. Room No. 10 ".
He was unable to say as to the number of beds
in room No. 10 nor is there any other evidence in regard to this. He also
Q. " During their stay for these 4 or 5
days in your hotel, did you go to clean their bath room ? A. Yes. Q. Did you
see them in that room whenever you went ? A. Yes, whenever I used to go to
sweep the room I found Memsaheb and Saheb there." (Questioned by the Court
the witness said:
Q. "Can you remember was there any other
Memsaheb with these two? A. There was another Memsaheb who lived in room No. 9.
Q. What was she like young Memsaheb or what ?
A. She was not very old, but she was old." (1) A. T. R. 1958 S.C. 61, 64.
(2) Cr. A. I 22 Of 1954, decided on December
(3) A.I.R. 1936 P.C. 289, 299.
1417 And this obviously refers to respondent
No. 2's mother. The evidence of Kira Ram therefore shows that the wife and
respondent No. 2 occupied one room, room No. 10. No question was put to this
witness as to his hours of duty nor was the manager Cardoza asked anything
about it but another witness Abdul Aziz bearer P.W. 5, was asked about it as
Q. " What are the hours of work of the
sweeper ? A. He comes at 7 a.m. and he leaves in the evening.He sometimes goes
away at about 11 and 11-30 a.m.or 12 noon".
Similarly no questions were put to Kira Ram
about the state of habillement of the wife and respondent No. 2 and the witness
never deposed about this fact. The learned trial Judge erroneously thought that
when Kira Ram spoke of the wife and respondent No. 2 lie " speaks as if '
they' were fully dressed and not en deshabille " and the Appeal Court took
this finding to be " as if this witness's evidence showed that both of
them were fully dressed". The Appeal Court also seems to have misdirected
itself in regard to the duty hours. It said " the sweeper concedes that he
was on duty from 6 a.m. to 11 a.m. " There is also evidence which has not
been rejected that morning tea was served to all the three, i.e., the wife,
respondent No. 2 and the mother of the latter in the same room. The statement
of Kira Ram that the wife and respondent No. 2 occupied the same room receives
corroboration from Ex. 6 the hotel bill and receipt dated July 29, 1950 for
room No. 10 in the name of Mr. and Mrs. Charles Chaplin. This document even
though contemporaneous with the events under consideration and strongly
corroborative of Kira Ram's evidence and of the statement of Cardoza that when
Mr. and Mrs. Charles Chaplin "stayed in the hotel, they stayed in their
own room " does not seem to have been brought to the notice of either of
the Courts below. Because of the infirmities pointed out above the import of
the testimony of Kira Ram which has in the main been accepted by both the
Courts below has been missed and its necessary consequences ignored.
1418 Then there is the evidence as to
disappearance of the entry in the Hotel Visitor's Book which was in the
handwriting of respondent No. 2. This entry was in the assumed name of Mr.
and Mrs. Charles Chaplin from Hong Kong but
when he (respondent No. 2) was asked to fill in the Foreigner's form the entry
was changed from Hong Kong to Samastipur. The entry itself could not be
produced in Court because as deposed by Cardoza, respondent No. 2 came to the
hotel and by managing to send the hotel servant away from the room where the
Visitor's Book was kept, he tore off the pages containing this entry. This fact
receives support from the complaint which Cardoza made to the police on
December 5, 1950, and the entry in regard to this complaint made in the Station
House Diary of the same date. Both these documents have been produced as Exs.
1/1 and 1/2. The significance of this piece of evidence lies in the fact that
it was done after the husband started collecting evidence of adultery and after
lie and his sister had inspected the entry which according, to his statement
was in the handwriting of respondent No. 2.
The reason of the wife's visit to Patna was
After her tooth was extracted she did not
,ice her -Dentist again even though he had asked her to (lo so. Her version is
that she returned to Samastipur the same evening which the Courts below have
not accepted. Thus it shows that she stayed on at the Central Hotel, Patna for
four days with respondent No. 2 without any reason being given by her and so
far as the hotel bill and receipt Ex. 6 goes, the hotel charges for her stay
were paid by " Charles Chaplin ", i.e., respondent No. 2 and not by
her. This fact has again escaped the notice of both the Courts below. And this
is more in consonance with guilt than innocence of the wife.
There are then the statements of J. A. Baker
P.W. 8 and T.H. O'Conior P.W. 9 to the effect that in September 1950, at the
house of O'Connor respondent No. 2 in the presence of these two witnesses
boasted of his having had a good time with the wife and that she was a
remarkable lady ". Respondent No. 2 1419 had also love letters purporting
to be from the wife, parts of which he read out to these witnesses. They
repeated the story to the husband which set him thinking. Shearer J. held this
part of the evidence to be true and the Appeal Court also accepted it but
construed it as showing that there was no adulterous connection at that time,
i.e., in September or it had ended at the instance of the wife. Even as it is
this finding is not destructive of the husband's case as to adultery at Patna
in the month of July; on the other hand it supports adulterous relations.
The presence of the mother of respondent No.
2 might have been a shield against the commission of adultery at Patna but the
document Ex. 8 which has been accepted by the Courts below to have a substratum
of truth just strips it away.
This document is indicative of the mother's
attitude towards the wife. The following extract from this document is relevant
as showing that she wanted the wife for her son:
" How nice it would have been if you had
married my son -David'. On another occasion while having tea along with her she
begged me to leave my husband and go away with her son who was ruining his life
and health and could not settle down to a job as he could not bear to see me
married to another man." The presence of the mother would thus be no
impediment to adulterous relations between the two. The wife in the witness box
wholly denied the episode of the Central Hotel including her stay there, which
has deprived the Courts of her explanation. We are, therefore unable to get any
assistance from her or as a matter of that from respondent No. 2 as to what
happened in the hotel at Patna.
The appellant contends that the only
conclusion to be arrived at upon the evidence taken as a whole is that the wife
was guilty of adultery with respondent No. 2. In other words the evidence was
in quality and quantity such that it satisfies the requirements of s. 14 of the
Act which provides:
S. 14 "In case the Court is satisfied on
the 180 1420 evidence that the case of the petitioner has been
proved....................................................." The important
words requiring consideration are "satisfied on the evidence ". These
words imply that the duty of the Court is to pronounce a decree if satisfied
that the case for the petitioner has been proved but dismiss the petition if
riot so satisfied. In s. 4 of the English Act, Matrimonial Causes Act of 1937
the same words occur and it has been there held that the evidence must be clear
and satisfactory beyond the mere balance of probabilities and conclusive in the
sense that it will satisfy what Sir William Scott described in Loveden v.
Loveden (1), as " the guarded discretion of' a reasonable and just man
". Lord MacDermott referring to the description of Sir William Scott said'
in Preston Jones v. Preston Jones (2):
" The jurisdiction in divorce involves
the status of the parties and the public interest requires that the marriage
bond shall not be set aside lightly or without strict enquiry. The terms of the
statute recognise this plainly, and I think it would be quite out of keeping
with the anxious nature of its provisions to hold that the court might be
"satisfied " in respect of a ground for dissolution, with something
less than proof beyond reasonable doubt. I should, perhaps, add that I do not
base my conclusion as to the appropriate standard of proof on any analogy drawn
from the criminal law. I do not think it is possible to say, at any rate since
the decision of this House in Mordaunt v. Moncrieffe (3) that the two jurisdictions
are other than distinct. The true reason, as it seems to me, why both accept
the same general standard proof beyond reasonable doubt-lies not in any analogy
but in the gravity and public importance of the issue with which each is
concerned." The Act lays down in s. 7 that Courts in all suits and
proceedings under the Act shall act and give relief on principles and rules
which in the opinion of the (1) (1810) 161 E.R. 648, 649; (1810) 2 Hag. Con. 1,
(2)  A.C. 391, 417.
(3) (1874) 30 L.T. 649.
1421 Court are as nearly as may be
conformable to the principles and rules on which the Court for Divorce and
Matrimonial Causes in England for the time being acts and gives relief.
In our opinion the rule laid down by the
House of Lords would provide the principle and rule which Indian Courts should
apply to cases governed by the Act and the standard of proof in divorce cases
would therefore be such that if the judge is satisfied beyond reasonable doubt
as to the commission of the matrimonial offence he would be satisfied within
the meaning of s. 14 of the Act. The two jurisdictions, i.e., matrimonial and
criminal are distinct jurisdictions but the terms of s. 14 make it plain that
when the Court is to be satisfied on the evidence in respect of matrimonial
offences the guilt must be proved beyond reasonable doubt and it is on that
principle that the Courts in India would act and the reason for adopting this
standard of proof is the grave consequence which follows a finding of guilt in
Gower v. Gower (1) was pressed before us by
counsel for the appellant as to the approach that the court should have to a
matrimonial offence. But in view of the decision in Preston Jones Case (2) it
is unnecessary to discuss that case.
In a suit based on a matrimonial offence it
is not necessary and it is indeed rarely possible to prove the issue by any
direct evidence for in very few cases can such proof be obtainable. The
question to be decided in the present case therefore, is whether on the evidence
which has been led, the court can be satisfied beyond reasonable doubt that
adultery was committed by the wife with respondent No. 2 at Patna between July
25, 1950, and July 28, 1950. In our opinion the facts proved are quantitatively
and qualitatively sufficient to satisfy the test laid down by the House of
Lords in Preston Jones Case (2). The wife went to Patna and stayed with
respondent No. 2 under an assumed name. They occupied the same room, i.e., room
There was undoubtedly a guilty inclination
and passion indicated by the conduct of respondent No. 2 and there is no
contrary indication as to (1)  1 All E. R. 804.
(2) A.C. 391, 417.
1422 the inclination and conduct of the wife.
On the other hand her conduct as shown by the evidence is so entirely
consistent with her guilt as to justify the conclusion of her having committed
adultery with respondent No. 2 and therefore the finding of the Courts below as
to the guilt should be reversed.
We would, therefore, allow this appeal, set
aside the judgment and decree of the High Court and pass a decree nisi for
dissolution of marriage. As adultery has been proved respondent No. 2 shall pay
the costs in this Court and in the Courts below.