Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934
45IB. Maintenance of percentage of assets
(1) Every non-banking financial company shall invest and continue to invest in India in unencumbered approved securities, valued at a price not exceeding the current market price of such securities, an amount which, at the close of business on any day, shall not be less than five per cent or such higher percentage not exceeding twenty five per cent, as the bank may, from time to time and by notification in the Official Gazette, specify, of the deposits outstanding at the close of business on the last working day of the second preceding quarter:
PROVIDED that the bank may specify different percentages of investment in respect of different classes of non-banking financial companies.
(2) For the purpose of ensuring compliance with the provisions of this section, the bank may require every non-banking financial company to furnish a return to it in such form, in such manner and for such period as may be specified by the bank.
(3) If the amount invested by a non-banking financial company at the close of business on any day falls below the rate specified under sub-section (1), such company shall be liable to pay to the bank, in respect of such shortfall, a penal interest at a rate of three per cent per annum above the bank rate on such amount by which the amount actually invested falls short of the specified percentage, and where the shortfall continues in the subsequent quarters, the rate of penal interest shall be five per cent per annum above the bank rate on such shortfall for each subsequent quarter.
(4)(a) The penal interest payable under sub-section (3) shall be payable within a period of fourteen days from the date on which a notice issued by the bank demanding payment of the same is served on the non-banking financial company and, in the event of a failure of the non-banking financial company to pay the same within such period, penalty may be levied by a direction of the principal civil court having jurisdiction in the area where an office of the defaulting non-banking financial company is situated and such direction shall be made only upon an application made in this behalf to the court by the bank; and
(b) when the court makes a direction under clause (a), it shall issue a certificate specifying the sum payable by the non-banking financial company and every such certificate shall be enforceable in the same manner as if it were a decree made by the court in a suit.
(5) Notwithstanding anything contained in this section, if the bank is satisfied that the defaulting non-banking financial company had sufficient cause for its failure to comply with the provisions of sub-section (1), it may not demand the payment of the penal interest.
Explanation: For the purposes of this section,-
(i) "approved securities" means securities of any State Government or of the Central Government and such bonds, both the principal whereof and the interest whereon shall have been fully and unconditionally guaranteed by any such government;
(ii) "unencumbered approved securities" includes the approved securities lodged by the non-banking financial company with another institution for an advance or any other arrangement to the extent to which such securities have not been drawn against or availed of or encumbered in any manner;
(iii) "quarter" means the period of three months, ending on the last day of March, June, September or December.