356K. Powers to take measures for preventing or containing 1[oil or noxious liquid substance] pollution.-
(1) Where any person fails to comply, or fails to comply in part, with any notice served on him under section 356J, the Central Government may, whether or not such person is convicted of an offence under this Part by reason of his having so failed to comply, cause such action to be taken as it may deem necessary for-
(i) carrying out the directives given in the notice issued under section 356J; and
(ii) containing the pollution already caused or preventing the pollution threatened to be caused, of coastal waters or, as the case may be, of any part of the coast of India by 2[oil or noxious liquid substance] escaped or threatening to escape from the tanker, a ship other than a tanker, a mobile off-shore installation or off-shore installation of any other type.
(2) Subject to the provisions of Part XB, any expenditure or liability incurred by the Central Government in, or by reason of, the exercise of powers under sub-section (1) in relation to any tanker, ship other than a tanker, mobile off-share installation or off-shore installation of any other type in respect of which a notice had been issued under section 356J, or its cargo of 1[oil or noxious liquid substance] that had escaped or was discharged into the sea, shall be a debt due to the Central Government by the person or persons on whom the notice was served and may be recovered from that person, or as the case may be, from all or any of those persons and shall be a charge upon all or any tanker, ship other than a tanker, mobile off-shore installation or off-shore installation of any other type owned by that person or persons which may be detained by the Central Government until the amount is paid: Provided that provisions of Part XB of this Act shall not apply to measures taken in respect of any off-shore installation which is not a ship within the meaning of this Act except that in the event of pollution damage caused by any such off-shore installation the person who is liable for the damage may claim exoneration from any liability if he proves that such damage-
(a) resulted from an act of war, hostilities, civil war, insurrection or a natural phenomenon of an exceptional, inevitable and irresistible character; or
(b) was wholly caused by an act or omission done with intent to cause that damage by any other person; or
(c) was wholly caused by the negligence or other wrongful act of any government or other authority responsible for the maintenance of lights or other nevigational aids in exercise of its functions in that behalf.