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The Indian Succession Act, 1925

Chapter XVI.- Of Ademption of Legacies

152. Ademption explained.-

If anything which has been specifically bequeathed does not belong to the testator at the time of his death, or has been converted into property of a different kind, the legacy is a deemed; that is, it cannot take effect, by reason of the subject-matter having been withdrawn from the operation of the will.

Illustrations

(i) A bequeaths to B-

"the diamond ring presented to me by C":

"my gold chain":

"a certain bale of wool":

"a certain piece of cloth":

"all my household goods which shall be in or about my dwelling-house in M.

Street in Calcutta, at the time of mydeath."

A in his life time,-

sells or gives away the ring:

converts the chain into a cup:

converts the wool into cloth: makes the cloth into a garment:

takes another house into which he removes all his goods.

Each of these legacies is adeemed.

(ii) A bequeaths to B-

"the sum of 1,000 rupees, in a certain chest":

"all the horses in my stable".

At the death of A, no money is found in the chest, and no horses in the stable.

The legacies are adeemed.

(iii) A bequeaths to B certain bales of goods. A takes the goods with him on a voyage.

The ship and goods are lost at sea, and A is drowned. The legacy is adeemed.

153. Non-ademption of demonstrative legacy.-

A demonstrative legacy is not adeemed by reason that the property on which it is charged by the will does not exist at the time of the death of the testator, or has been converted into property of a different kind, but it shall in such case be paid out of the general assets of the testator.

154. Ademption of specific bequest of right to receive something from third party.-

Where the thing specifically bequeathed is the right to receive something of value from a third party, and the testator himself receives it, the bequest is adeemed.

Illustrations

(i) A bequeaths to B-

"the debt which C owes me":

"2,000 rupees which I have in the hands of D":

"the money due to me on the bond of E":

"my mortgage on the Rampur factory", All these debts are extinguished in A's lifetime, some with and some without his consent.

All the legacies are adeemed.

(ii) A bequeaths to B his interest in certain policies of life assurance. A in his lifetime receives the amount of the policies.

The legacy is adeemed.

155. Ademptionpro tanto by testator's receipt of part of entire thing specifically bequeathed.-

The receipt by the testator of a part of an entire thing specifically bequeathed shall operate as an ademption of the legacy to the extent of the sum so received.

Illustration

A bequeaths to B "the debt due to me by C". The debt amounts to 10,000 rupees. C pays to A 5,000 rupees the one-half of the debt. The legacy is revoked by ademption, so far as regards the 5,000 rupees received by A.

156. Ademptionpro tanto by testator's receipt of portion of entire fund of which portion has been specically bequeathed.-

If a portion of an entire fund or stock is specifically bequeathed, the receipt by the testator of a portion of the fund or stock shall operate as an ademption only to the extent of the amount so received; and the residue of the fund or stock shall be applicable to the discharge of the specific legacy.

Illustration

A bequeaths to B one-half of the sum of 10,000 rupees due to him from W. A in his lifetime receives 6,000 rupees, part of the 10,000 rupees. The 4,000 rupees which are due from W to A at the time of his death belong to B under the specific bequest.

157. Order of payment where portion of fund specifically bequeathed to one legatee, and legacy charged on same fund to another, and, testator having received portion of that fund, remainder insufficient to pay both legacies.-

Where a portion of a fund is specifically bequeathed to one legatee, and a legacy charged on the same fund is bequeathed to another legatee, then, if the testator receives a portion of that fund, and the remainder of the fund is insufficient to pay both the specific and the demonstrative legacy, the specific legacy shall be paid first, and the residue (if any) of the fund shall be applied so far as it will extend in payment of the demonstrative legacy, and the rest of the demonstrative legacy shall be paid out of the general assets of the testator.

Illustration

A bequeaths to B 1,000 rupees, part of the debt of 2,000 rupees due to him from W. He also bequeaths to C 1,000 rupees to be paid out of the debt due to him from W. A afterwards receives 1[500] rupees, part of that debt, and dies leaving only 1,500 rupees due to him from W. Of these 1,500 rupees, 1,000 rupees belong to B, and 500 rupees are to be paid to C. C is also to receive 500 rupees out of the general assets of the testator.

158. Ademption where stock, specifically bequeathed, does not exist at testator's death.-

Where stock which has been specifically bequeathed does not exist at the testator's death, the legacy is adeemed.

Illustration

A bequeaths to B-

"my capital stock of 1,000£ in East India Stock":

"my promissory notes of the Central Government for 10,000 rupees in their 4 per cent. loan."

A sells the stock and the notes. The legacies are adeemed.

159. Ademptionpro tanto where stock, specifically bequeathed, exists in part only at testator's death.-

Where stock which has been specifically bequeathed exists only in part at the testator's death, the legacy is adeemed so far as regards that part of the stock which has ceased to exist.

Illustration

A bequeaths to B his 10,000 rupees in the 51/2 per cent. loan of the Central Government. A sells one-half of his 10,000 rupees in the loan in question. One-half of the legacy is adeemed.

1. Subs. by Act 10 of 1927, s. 2 and the First Schedule, for "5,000".

160. Non-ademption of specific bequest of goods described as connected with certain place, by reason of removal.-

A specific bequest of goods under a description connecting them with a certain place is not adeemed by reason that they have been removed from such place from anytemporary cause, or by fraud, or without the knowledge or sanction of the testator.

Illustrations

(i) A bequeaths to B "all my households goods which shall be in or about my dwelling-house in Calcutta at the time of my death". The goods are removed from the house to save them from fire. A dies before they arc brought back.

(ii) A bequeaths to B "all my household goods which shall be in or about my dwelling-house in Calcutta at the time of my death". During A's absence upon a journey, the whole of the goods are removed from the house. A dies without having sanctioned their removal.

Neither of these legacies is adeemed.

161. When removal of thing bequeathed does not constitute ademption.-

The removal of thething bequeathed from the place in which it is stated in the will to be situated does not constitute an ademption, where the place is only referred to in order to complete the descriptionof what the testator meant to bequeath.

Illustrations

(i) A bequeaths to B "all the bills, bonds and other securities for money belonging to me now lying in my lodgings in Calcutta". At the time of his death these effects had been removed from his lodgings in Calcutta.

(ii) A bequeaths to B all his furniture then in his house in Calcutta. The testator has a house at Calcutta and another at Chinsurah, in which he lives alternately, being possessed ofone set of furniture only which he removes with himself to each house. At the time of his death the furniture isin the house at Chinsurah.

(iii) A bequeaths to B all his goods on board a certain ship then lying in the river Hughli. The goods are removed by A's directions to a warehouse, in which they remain at the time of A's death. No one of these legacies is revoked by ademption.

162. When thing bequeathed is a valuable to be received by testator from third person; and testator himself, or his representative, receives it.-

Where the thing bequeathed is not the right to receive something of value from a third person, but the money or other commodity which may be received from the third person by the testator himself or by his representatives, the receipt of such sum of money or other commodity by the testator shall not constitute an ademption; but if he mixes it up with the general mass of his property, the legacy is adeemed, Illustration A bequeaths to B whatever sum may be received from his claim on C. A receives the whole of his claim on C, and sets it apart from the general mass of his property. The legacy is not adeemed.

163. Change by operation of law of subject of specific bequest between date of will and testator's death.-

Where a thing specifically bequeathed undergoes a change between the date of the will and the testator's death, and the change takes place by operation of law, or in the course of execution of the provisions of any legal instrument under which the thing bequeathed was held, the legacy is not adeemed by reason of such change.

Illustrations

A bequeaths to B "all the money which I have in the 51/2 per cent. loan of the. Central Government". The securities for the 51/2 per cent. loan are converted during A's lifetime into 5 per cent. stock. A bequeaths to B the sum of 2,000 f invested in Consols in the names of trustees for A. The sum of 2,000 transferred by the trustees into A's own name.

A bequeaths to B the sum of 10,000 rupees in promissory notes of the Central government which he has power under his marriage settlement to dispose of by will. Afterwards, in A's lifetime, the hind is converted into Consols by virtue of an authority contained in the settlement. No one of these legacies has been adeemed.

164. Change of subject without testator's knowledge.-

Where a thing specifically bequeathed undergoes a change between the date of the will and the testator's death, and the change takes place without the knowledge or sanction of the testator, the legacy is not adeemed. Illustration A bequeaths to B "all my 3 per cent. Consols". The Consols are, without A's knowledge, sold by his agent, and the proceeds converted into East India Stock. This legacy is not adeemed.

165. Stock specifically bequeathed lent to third party on condition that it be replaced.-

Where stock which has been specifically bequeathed is lent to a third party on condition that it shall be replaced, and it is replaced accordingly, the legacy is not adeemed.

166. Stock specifically bequeathed sold but replaced, and belonging to testator at his death.-

Where stock specifically bequeathed is sold, and an equal quantity of the same stock is afterwards purchased and belongs to the testator at his death, the legacy is not adeemed.



Indian Succession Act, 1925 Back




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