Copyright Act, 1957
52. Certain acts not to be infringement of copyright –
(1) The following acts shall not constitute an infringement of copyright namely-
a. A fair dealing with a literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work [not being a computer programme(Note: Ins. by Act 38 of 1994, S.17 (w.e.f. a date to be notified)) ] for the purposes of –
i. [(Note: Subs. by Act 38 of 1994, S.17 (w.e.f. a date to be notified)) private use, including research:]
ii. criticism or review, whether of that work or of any other work.
aa. [(Note: Ins. by Act 38 of 1994, S.17 (w.e.f. a date to be notified)) The making of copies or adaptation of a computer programme by the lawful possessor of a copy of such computer programme, from such copy-
i. in order to utilize the computer programme for the purposes for which it was supplied, or
ii. to make back up copies purely as a temporary protection against loss, destruction or damage in order only to utilize the computer programme for the purpose for which it was supplied;]
a. A fair dealing with a literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work for the purpose of reporting current events-
i. in a newspaper, magazine or similar periodical, or
ii. by [(Note: Subs. for "radio-diffusion" by Act 23 of 1983, S.2 (w.e.f. 9-8-1984)) broadcast] or in a cinematograph film or by means of photographs,
[(Note: Ins. by Act 23 of 1983, S.18 (w.e.f. 9-8-1984)) Explanation – The publication of a compilation of address or speeches delivered in public is not a fair dealing of such work within the meaning of this clause.]
a. The reproduction of a literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work for the purpose of judicial proceeding or for the purpose a report of a judicial proceedings;
b. The reproduction or publication of a literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work in any work prepared by the Secretariat of a Legislature, or, where the Legislature consists of two Houses, by the Secretariat of either House of the Legislature, exclusively for the use of the members of that Legislature;
c. The reproduction of any literary, dramatic or musical work in a certified copy made or supplied in accordance with any law for the time being in force;
d. The reading or recitation in public of any reasonable extract form a published literary or dramatic work;
e. The publication in a collection, mainly composed on non copyright matter, bona fide intended for the use of educational institutions and so described in the title and in any advertisement issued by or on behalf of the publisher, of short passages from published literary or dramatic works, not themselves published for the use of educational institutions, in which copyright subsists;
Provided that not more than two such passages from works by the same author are published by the same publisher during any period of five years.
Explanation – In the case of a work of joint authorship, references in this clause to passages from works shall include references to passages from works by any one or more of the authors of those passages or by any one or more those authors in collaboration with any other person;
f. he reproduction of a literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work-
(i) by a teacher or a pupil in the course of instruction, or
(ii) as part of the questions to be answered in an examination, or
(iii) in answers to such questions
i. The performance, in the course of the activities of an educational institutions, of a literary, dramatic or musical work by the staff and students of the institution, or of a cinematograph film or a [(Note: Subs. by Act 38 of 1994, S.2 (xii) (w.e.f. a date to be notified)) sound recording], if the audience is limited to such staff and students, the parents and guardians of the students and persons directly connected with activities of the institution [(Note: Ins. by Act 38 of 1994, S.17 (w.e.f. a date to be notified)) or the communication to such an audience of a cinematograph film or sound recording];
j. [(Note: Subs. by Act 38 of 1994, S.17 (w.e.f. a date to be notified)) The making of sound recordings in respect of any literary, dramaticor musical work, if-
i. sound recordings of that work have been made by or with the license or consent of the owner of the right in the work
ii. the person making the sound recordings has given a notice of his intentions to make the sound recordings, has provided copies of all covers or labels with which the sound recordings are to be sold, and has paid in the prescribed manner to the owner of rights in the work royalties in respect of all such sound recordings to be made by him, at the rate fixed by the Copyright Board in this behalf.
i. no alterations shall be made which have not been made previously by or with the consent of the owner of rights, or which are not reasonably necessary for the adaptation of the work for the purpose of making the sound recordings.
ii. the sound recordings shall not be issued in any form of packaging or with any label which is likely to mislead or confuse the public as to their identity.
iii. no such sound recording shall be made until the expiration of two calendar years after the end of the year in which the first sound recording of the work was made, and
iv. the person making such sound recordings shall allow the owner of rights or his duly authorized agent or representative to inspect all records and books of accounts relating to such sound recording.
Provided further that if on a complaint brought before the Copyright Board to the effect that the owner of rights has not been paid in full for any sound recordings purporting to be made in pursuance of this clause, the Copyright Board is prima facie, satisfied that the complaint is genuine. It may pass an order ex parte directing the person making the sound recording to cease from making further copies and, after holding such inquiry as it considers necessary, make such further orders as it may deem fit, including an order for payment of royalty.
k. the causing of a recording to be heard in public by utilizing it, -
i. in an enclosed room or shall meant for the common use of residents in any residential premises (not being a hotel or similar commercial establishment) as part of the amenities provided exclusively or mainly for residents therein, or
ii. as part of the activities of a club or similar organization which is not established or conducted for profit.
l. the performance of a literary, dramatic or musical work by an amateur club or society, if the performance is given to a non paying audience, or for the benefit of a religious institution.
m. the reproduction in a newspaper, magazine or other periodical of an article on current economic, political, social or religious topics, unless the author of such article has expressly reserved to himself the right of such reproduction.
n. The publication in a newspaper, magazine or other periodical of a report of a lecture delivered in public
o. The making of not more than three copies of a book (including a pamphlet, sheet of music, map, chart or plant) by or under the direction of the person in charge of a public library for the use of the library if such book is not available for sale in India.
p. The reproduction, for the purpose of research or private study or with a view to publication, of an unpublished literary, dramatic or musical work kept in a library, museum or other institution to which the public has access.
Provided that where the identity of the author of such work, or, in the case of a work of joint authorship, of any of the authors is known to the library, museum or other institution, as the case may be, the provisions of this clause shall apply only if such reproduction is made at a time more than fifty years from the date of the death of the author or, in the case of a work of joint authorship, from the death of the author whose identify is known or, if the identify of more authors than one is known from the death of such of those authors who dies last.
q. The reproduction or publication of-
i. any matter which has been published in any Gazette except an Act if a Legislature.
ii. any Act of a Legislature subject to the condition that such Act is reproduced or published together with any commentary thereon or nay other original matter.
iii. The report of any committee, commission, council, board or other like body appointed by the Government if such report has been laid on the Table of Legislature, unless the reproduction or publication of such report is prohibited by the Government.
iv. Any judgment or order of a court, tribunal or other judicial authority, unless the reproduction or publication of such judgment or order is prohibited by the court, the tribunal or other judicial authority, as the case may be
l. the production or publication of a translation in any Indian language of an Act of a Legislature and of any rules or orders made thereunder-
i. if no translation of such Act or rules or orders in that language has previously been produced or published by the Government, or
ii. where a translation of such Act or rules or orders in that language has been produced or published by the Government if the translation is not available for sale to the public
Provided that such translation contains a statement at a prominent place to the effect that the translation has not been authorized or accepted as authentic by the Government.
l. [(Note: subs. by Act 38 of 1994, S.17 (w.e.f. a date to be notified)) the making or publishing of a painting, drawing, engraving or photograph of a work of architecture or the display of a work of architecture.]
m. The making or publishing of a painting, drawing, engraving or photograph of a sculpture, or other artistic work falling under sub clause (iii) of clause (e) of Section 2, if such work is permanently situate in a public place or any premises to which the public has access.
n. The inclusion in a cinematograph film of-
i. any artistic work permanently situate in a public place or any premises to which the public has access, or
ii. any other artistic work, if such inclusion is only by way of background or is otherwise incidental to the principal matters represented in the film,
l. the use by the author of an artistic work where the author of such work is not the owner of the copyright therein, of any mould, cast, sketch, plan, model or study made by him for the purpose of the work.
Provided that he does not thereby repeat or imitate the main design of the work
m. (Note: Omitted by Act 38 of 1994, S.17 (w.e.f. a date to be notified))
n. the reconstruction of a building or structure in accordance with the architectural drawings or plans by references to which the building or structure was originally constructed.
Provided that the original construction was made with the consent or license of the owner of the copyright in such drawings and plans,
o. in relation to a literary, dramatic or musical work recorded or reproduced in any cinematograph film, the exhibition of such film after the expiration of the term of copyright therein.
Provided that provisions of sub clause (ii) of clause (a), sub clause (I) of clause (b) and clauses (d), (f), (g), (m), and (p) shall not apply as respects any act unless that act is accompanied by an acknowledge –
i. identifying the work by its title or other description, and
ii. unless the work is anonymous or the author of the work has previously agreed or required that no acknowledgement of his name should be made, also identifying the author.
l. [(Note: Ins. by Act 38 of 1994, S.17 (w.e.f. a date to be notified)) the making of an ephemeral recording, by a broadcasting organization using its own facilities for its own broadcast by a broadcasting organization of a work which it has the right to broadcast, and the retention of such recording for archival purpose on the ground of its exceptional documentary character.
(za) the performance of a literary, dramatic or musical work or the communication to the public of such work or of a sound recording in the course of any bona fide religious ceremony or an official ceremony held by the Central Government or the State Government or any local authority.
Explanation - For the purpose of this clause, religious ceremony includes a marriage procession and other social festivities associated with a marriage.]
(2) The provision of sub section (I) shall apply to the doing of any act in relation to the translation of a literary, dramatic or musical work or the adaptation of a literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work as they apply in relation to the work itself.