The Carriage by Air Act, 1972
Carriage by Air Perormed by a Person Other Than The Contracting Carrier
39. The provisions of this Chapter shall apply when a person (hereinafter referred to as the contracting carrier) as a principal makes a contract of carriage under these rules with a passenger or consignor or with a person acting on behalf of the passenger or consignor, and another person (hereinafter referred to as the actual carrier) performs, by virtue of authority from the contracting carrier, the whole or part of the carriage, but is not with respect to such part, a successive carrier within the meaning of these rules. Such authority shall be presumed in the absence of proof to the contrary.
40. If an actual carrier performs the whole or part of carriage which, according to the contract referred to in rule 39, is governed by these rules, both the contracting carrier and the actual carrier shall, except as otherwise provided in this Chapter, be subject to the provisions of these rules, the former for the whole of the carriage contemplated in the contract, the latter solely for the carriage which it performs.
41.(1) The acts and omissions of the actual carrier and of its servants and agents acting within the scope of their employment shall, in relation to the carriage performed by the actual carrier, be deemed to be also those of the contracting carrier.
(2) The acts and omissions of the contracting carrier and of its servants and agents acting within the scope of their employment shall, in relation to the carriage performed by the actual carrier, be deemed to be also those of the actual carrier. Nevertheless, no such act or omission shall subject the actual carrier to liability exceeding the amounts referred to in rules 21, 22, 23 and 24. Any special agreement under which the contracting carrier assumes obligations not imposed by the provisions of these rules or any waiver of rights or defences conferred by the provisions of these rules or any special declaration of interest in delivery at destination contemplated in rule 22 shall not affect the actual carrier unless agreed to by it.
42. Any complaint to be made or instruction to be given under the provisions of these rules to the carrier shall have the same effect whether addressed to the contracting carrier or to the actual carrier. Nevertheless, instructions referred to in rule 12 shall only be effective if addressed to the contracting carrier.
43. In relation to the carriage performed by the actual carrier, any servant or agent of that carrier or of the contracting carrier shall, if they prove that they acted within the scope of their employment, be entitled to avail themselves of the conditions and limits of liability which are applicable under the provisions of these rules to the carrier whose servant or agent they are, unless it is proved that they acted in a manner that prevents the limits of liability from being invoked in accordance with the provisions of these rules.
44. In relation to the carriage performed by the actual carrier, the aggregate of the amounts recoverable from that carrier and the contracting carrier, and from their servants and agents acting within the scope of their employment, shall not exceed the highest amount which shall be awarded against either the contracting carrier or the actual carrier under the provisions of these rules, but none of the persons mentioned shall be liable for a sum in excess of the limit applicable to that person.
45. In relation to the carriage performed by the actual carrier, an action for damages may be brought, at the option of the complainant, against that carrier or the contracting carrier, or against both together or separately. If the action is brought against only one of these carriers, that carrier shall have the right to require the other carrier to be joined in the proceedings, the procedure and effects being governed by the law of the court seized of the case.
46. Any action for damages contemplated in rule 45 must be brought, at the option of the complainant, in the territory of one of the State Parties, either before a court in which an action may be brought against the contracting carrier, as provided under rule 33, or before the court having jurisdiction at the place where the actual carrier has its domicile or its principal place of business.
47. Any contractual provision tending to relieve the contracting carrier or the actual carrier of liability under this Chapter or to fix a lower limit than that which is applicable according to this Chapter shall be null and void, but the nullity of any such provision does not involve the nullity of the whole contract, which shall remain subject to the provisions of this Chapter.
48. Except as provided in rule 45, nothing in this Chapter shall affect the rights and obligations of the carriers between themselves, including any right of recourse or indemnification.