Sale of Goods
b) Where the property in the goods has not passed to the buyer
Right of with holding Delivery -- Where the property in the goods has not passed to the buyer, the unpaid seller has the right to withhold delivery of the goods, which is similar to and co-extensive with his rights of lien and stoppage in transit which he would have had if the property had passed.
Rights Against the Buyer Personally (Seller's Remedies Against buyer for Breach of Contract)-- Besides, the above rights against the goods, an unpaid seller has certain rights against the buyer personally. The seller enjoys the following rights in personam (also known as remedies for breach of contract).
Suit for Price -- When the property in the goods has passed to the buyer, and the buyer wrongfully neglects or refuses to pay the price, the seller is entitled to sue him for the price.
Where under a contract of sale the price is payable on a certain day irrespective of delivery or passing of property, and the buyer refuses or neglects to pay on that day, the seller may sue him for the price.
Suit for Damages for Non-Acceptance -- Where the buyer wrongfully neglects or refuses to pay for the goods, the seller may sue him for damages for non-acceptance.
Suit for Damages for Repudiation of contract before date of delivery Where the buyer repudiates the contract before the date of delivery, the seller may adopt any of the following two courses of action, viz.-
a) The seller may treat the contact as rescinded and sue the buyer for damages. This is also known as 'damages for anticipatory breach'. The damages will be assessed according to the prices prevailing on the date of breach.
b) The seller may treat the contract as subsisting and wait till the date of delivery. The contract remains open at the risk and for the benefit of both the parties. If the buyer subsequently chooses to perform there shall be no damages; otherwise he shall be liable to damages assessed according to the prices on the day stipulated for delivery.
Suit for Interest --The seller may recover interest or special damages whereby law interest or special damages may be recoverable.