[Civil Appeal No.1191
of 2012 arising out of SLP (C) No. 15174 of 2011]
Joshna Gouda Versus Brundaban
Gouda & Anr.
J U D G M E N T
appeal arises out of a judgment dated 18.2.2011 of the High Court of Orissa in
Writ Appeal No.114 of 2011.
factual background of the litigation is as follows:-
A. Election to the post
of Sarpanch of Kulagada Gram Panchayat in the District of Ganjam, Orissa were held
in the year 2007. The appellant, the first respondent and two others filed
their nominations. The scrutiny of the nominations took place on 16th January,
2007. The returning officer held all the four nominations valid.
B. Subsequently, except
the appellant and the first respondent, the other two candidates withdrew from
contest. Election took place on 17th February, 2007, wherein the appellant
herein was declared elected.
C. The first respondent,
filed an Election Petition under Section 31 read with Section 34 of the Gram Panchayat
Act, 1964 (for the sake of convenience it is called "the Act"), on
the ground that the appellant herein was not eligible to contest the election
in view of Section 11(b) of the Act which declares that no member of `Gram
Sasan' (a defined expression under Section 2(h) of the Act I) shall be eligible
to contest for the post of Sarpanch if he has not attained the age of 21 years.
It is the specific case of the first respondent that the appellant herein was
born on 20.06.1986 and had not attained the age of 21 years by the relevant date.
The 1st respondent, therefore, sought two reliefs in the election petition that
the election of the appellant herein be set aside and also that the 1st
respondent be declared to have been duly elected. The appellant contested the
election petition. By the judgment dated 29.11.2008 the election petition was allowed.
Aggrieved by the decision of the trial Court, the appellant herein carried the I
"Gram Sasan" means a Grama Sasan established under Section 4'. matter
in an appeal under Section 38(4) of the Act to the District Court, Ganjam. The appeal
was dismissed by a judgment dated 14th September, 2009.
D. Aggrieved by the
same, the appellant herein carried the matter by way of a Writ Petition (Civil)
No. 14356 of 2009 to the High Court of Orissa which was also dismissed by a Judgment
dated 18.2.2011, and the same was challenged in an Intra Court appeal in appeal
No. 114 of 2011 without any success. By the Judgment under appeal, the writ
appeal was dismissed.
is argued by learned counsel for the appellant that the judgment under appeal
cannot be sustained as there is no legally admissible evidence on record to enable
the Courts below to reach the conclusion that the appellant was born on 20th
is recorded in the judgment rendered in the writ petition:- "The trial
court held that the date of birth of the petitioner was 20.6.1986 mainly on the
basis of School Admission Register, Ext.5, the relevant entry of which is Ext.5/A,
the Admission Form Ext.6 and the Transfer Certificate of the petitioner Ext.7,
P.W.2, one Asst. Teacher of Basudev High School, Dhaugaon produced the School
Admission Register and proved, it which was marked as Ext.5."
question of admissibility of the exhibits 5, 5A and 7 was raised in the writ
petition but rejected on the ground that the said documents were admitted in
evidence without any objection before the Trial Court. However, 3 the learned judge
opined that mere proof of the above-mentioned exhibits does not mean that the
content of the said exhibits was also proved. "Of course, only because those
documents were admitted without objection, it cannot be said that the contents
thereof were also admitted. It was the duty of the opp.party to prove the
contents of those documents particularly, the date of birth of the petitioner
entered in Ext.5 and the transfer certificate Ext.7."
at para 7, it was held:: "In the present case the entry as per Ex.5/A was made
on the basis of transfer certificate Ext.7 and the application made by Maheswar
Gouda, cousin brother of petitioner's father. The trial court held that
Maheswar Gouda, being the cousin brother of petitioner's father had special
means of knowledge of the date of birth of the petitioner. Admittedly, said
Maheswar Gouda has not been examined".
the learned judge did not record any conclusive finding regarding the probative
value of the contents of exhibits 5, 5A or exhibit 7, but went on to examine
the evidence adduced by the appellant herein and found that the said material does
not lend support to the case of the appellant herein and therefore the entry E.5/A
made in Ext. 5 is true. A strange procedure indeed! Only matched by the strange
decision of the appellant to adduce evidence. "But father of the petitioner
has been examined as O.P.W. No.3. As per the affidavit evidence the date of
birth of the petitioner was incorrectly recorded in the school register and school
certificate by the teachers, which appears improbable. Furthermore, it transpires
from the evidence of the petitioner herself, that when she took admission in
Panchayat U.P. School she was 10 years old. She took admission in the said
school on 10.1.96. If 10 years is deducted from that date it would come to 9.7.1986.
So, the evidence of the petitioner almost allies with the case of opp. party No.1
that the date of birth of the petitioner was 20.6.1986."
the learned judge elaborately discussed the evidence of the appellant herein
and concluded that:- " It would not improve the case of the petitioner as
Division Bench noted the objection to the admissibility in evidence of the
exhibits 5, 5A and 7 in the following words:- "The ground of attack of the
impugned order is that the learned Single Judge having held that the documents relied
upon by respondent No.1, namely Exts.5,5/A and 7, which are the only documents
from the side of respondent no.1 to establish the date of birth of the
appellant are not admissible in evidence under section 35 of the Evidence Act,
the learned Single Judge erred in further probing into the matter and
dismissing the writ petition. The aforesaid documents on the basis of which the
respondent no.1 sought to establish that the appellant was not qualified to
file nomination having been found inadmissible, the only alternative was to
allow the writ petition."
Division Bench did not record any clear finding either on the admissibility or
the probative value of the content of the above-mentioned exhibits but suddenly
switched over to the examination of the evidence of the appellant.
A to H are documents produced by the appellant herein in support of her claim that
her actual date of birth is 7.7.1985 but not 20.6.1986, as contended by the
first respondent. Exts. A and H are voters lists of the year 2007 and 2008
respectively. The Division Bench observed that both the documents were prepared
later in point of time to the filing of the nomination papers in the election
in question and also they do not reflect the date of birth of the appellant herein.
Similarly, Ext. D is a horoscope alleged to be that of the appellant herein.
The Division Bench
opined that the said document was rightly not relied upon. Ext. E is a
certificate of date of birth issued under the provisions of the Registration of
Births and Deaths Act showing the date of birth of the appellant as 7.7.1985
but such an entry came to be made pursuant to an application made by the
appellant herein subsequent to the nominations in the election in question. The
High Court refused to place any reliance on the said document on the ground
that it was issued by an executive magistrate, who according to the High Court
did not have the jurisdiction to issue the same.
do not propose to examine the correctness of the reasoning adopted by the High
Court for refusing to place any reliance on the above- mentioned documents
produced by the appellant herein in her bid to prove her actual date of birth
as 7.7.1985. For the purpose of the present appeal, we will proceed on the
basis that the High Court rightly refused to believe those documents and, therefore,
the appellant herein failed to prove her date of birth to be 7.7.1985. But that
does not automatically lead to the conclusion that the assertion of the
respondent No.1 that the actual date of birth of the appellant herein is
20.6.1986 is proved.
Even according to the
High Court, the content of the Exs. 5, 5/A and 7 has no probative value. Ex. 5
was proved by PW.2, an assistant teacher of the Basudev High School. Ex. 6 and
7 were proved by PW.2, the headmaster of Basudev High School. It appears from
the record that PW.2 stated that Exhibit 5/A entry showing the date of birth of
the appellant herein as 20.6.1986 was made on the basis of Ex. 7 which is a
transfer certificate issued by the headmaster of Panchayat Upper Primary School
where the appellant herein studied before joining Basudev High School. Ext.6 is
an application dated 11.7.1998 for admission of the appellant in Basudev High
School made by one Maheswar Gouda, who is said to be a cousin of the
appellant's father. The said Maheswar Gouda was admittedly not examined.
By the judgment under
appeal, the Division Bench rightly held - "........it was the duty of the
opposite party (the first respondent herein) to prove the contents of those documents,
particularly the date of birth of the petitioner (the appellant herein) entered
in Ext.5 and the transfer certificate Ext.7" [emphasis supplied] Having
held so, the Division Bench reached the conclusion - "the evidence of the
petitioner (the appellant herein) almost allies with the case of the opposite party
No.1 (the first respondent) that the date of birth of the petitioner was
have already examined the evidence of the appellant herein. There is nothing in
the said evidence to indicate that the date of birth of the appellant was 20th June,
1986. At the worst, the said evidence failed to establish that the appellant's
date of birth was 7.7.1985.
election of the appellant was challenged on the ground that the appellant was not
eligible to contest the election on the ground that the 7 appellant was not 21
years of age on the relevant date because according to the election petition,
the appellant was born on 20.6.1986. The burden to proof the fact that the
appellant was born on 20.6.1986 rests squarely on the first respondent. Section
101 of the Indian Evidence Act makes it abundantly clear. "S.101. Burden
of proof - Whoever desires any Court to give judgment as to any legal right or
liability dependent on the existence of facts which he asserts, must prove that
those facts exists. When a person is bound to prove the existence of any fact,
it is said that the burden of proof lies on that person."
was held in Robins Vs. National Trust & Co. Ltd., 1927 A.C. 515 - "To
assert that a man who is alive was born requires no proof. The onus is not on the
person making an assertion, because it is self-evident that he had been born. But
to assert that he had been born on a certain date, if the date is material, requires
proof; the onus is on the person making the assertion." Since the first
respondent failed to discharge the burden cast upon him, the election petition must
the learned counsel for the first respondent, Shri Debasis Misra, very vehemently
submitted that facts admitted need not be proved and the appellant had admitted
the fact that the appellant, on her own admission, was 10 years old when she took
admission in the Panchayat Upper Primary School on 10.1.1996. Learned counsel
relied upon para 7 of the judgment under appeal (which is already extracted in para
8 of this judgment but for the sake of convenience, we reproduce the same): ".........it
transpires from the evidence of the petitioner herself, that when she took admission
in Panchayat U.P. School she was 10 years old. She took admission in the said
school on 10.1.96. If 10 years is deducted from that date it would come to
counsel for the appellant, on the other hand, submitted that such a conclusion
came to be recorded on incorrect reading of the evidence of the appellant. A
copy of the deposition made by the appellant is placed before us. In the cross
examination, the appellant stated as follows: "When I was five years of
old, I joined in the school for the Ist time when I took admission in Dhougan
U.P. school, I was ten yeas of old. I left that school in the year 1998. My
father Apurba Gouda is an educated man. I can not recollect who had taken me to
Dhougan School for admission.
One outsider brought
my T.C. from the Dhougan U.P. School and get me admitted in Dhougan High
School. I cannot say his name. I was thirteen years of old, when I took
admission in Dhougan High School in Class VIII." It can be seen from the above-extracted
portion of the evidence of the appellant that the appellant stated that she was
13 year old when she took admission in the High School (obviously Basudev High School)
and the admission, as we have already noticed from the evidence of PW.2, was on
11.7.1998. Deducting 13 years from that date would place the year of birth of
the appellant in 1985.
It is not clear as to
the material on the basis of which the Division Bench recorded that the
admission of the appellant in the Panchayat Upper Primary School was on 10.1.1996.
We assume for the sake of argument that there is some basis on record for the
finding that the appellant took admission in the Upper Primary School on
10.1.1996. On her own admission she was 10 years old on that date. Then there is
an inconsistency in her evidence regarding her age with reference to her admission
into the Upper Primary School and Basudev High School. In such a case, her
statement that she was 10 year old on 10.1.1996, in our opinion, cannot be
treated as an admission that her date of birth is 20th June, 1986. An admission
must be clear and unambiguous in order that such an admission should relieve
the opponent of the burden of proof of the fact said to have been admitted.
all the above mentioned reasons, we are of the opinion that the judgment under
appeal cannot be sustained and the same is set aside. In view of our conclusion,
the second question regarding the declaration in favour of the first respondent
does not survive.