Hardev Singh Vs. U.O.I.
J U D G M E N T
ANIL R. DAVE, J.
by the Judgment and Order dated 26.4.2010 passed by the Principal Bench of the
Armed Forces Tribunal, New Delhi in T.A. No. 541 of 2010 (O.A. No. 29 of 2010),
the appellant has filed this appeal under Section 30 of the Armed forces
Tribunal Act, 2007.
appellant was commissioned as an Officer in Indian Army on 17.6.1973. Over a
period of time, he rose to the rank of Major General and retired on 30.4.2010. During
his service tenure, he performed his duties well and he had also carried out
several special assignments and he was suitably honoured by Indian Army. Being aggrieved
by the aforestated order passed by the Tribunal, he has filed this appeal, as
according to him, he was wrongly denied promotion to the rank of Lieutenant General.
facts giving rise to the present litigation in a nutshell are as under: Grievance
of the appellant is that he was not promoted to the rank of Lieutenant General.
According to him, the policy with regard to promotion had been changed after Special
Selection Board (hereinafter referred to as the `SSB') had been constituted for
considering cases of officers of 1973 batch for promotion to the rank of
Lieutenant General. After the SSB started the process of selecting officers for
promotion to the rank of Lieutenant General, the Government had promulgated a new
policy dated 31.12.2008 with regard to promotion. Formerly, the policy with
regard to promotion was based on `value-judgment' and on that basis the SSB was
to consider overall profile of all the concerned officers. According to the said
Policy, confidential remarks, war operation report, course report, honours and
awards and disciplinary background of each officer was to be considered while
taking a final decision with regard to giving promotion to him to the rank of
Lieutenant General. The said policy was changed with effect from 1st January, 2009.
Instead of the aforestated `value judgment', a new policy described as `quantification
method' has been adopted for giving promotion to the rank of Lieutenant General.
According to the new policy, while considering cases for promotion, 92% weightage
is to be given to confidential reports, 3% to courses, honours and awards and 5%
weightage is to be given to value judgment.
learned counsel for the appellant submitted that the new policy was adopted at
the time when the appellant and other officers of 1973 batch became due for promotion
to the rank of Lieutenant General. According to him, the SSB had already
started the procedure for considering officers of 1973 batch during calendar
year 2008 and, therefore, the policy could not have been changed. According to
him, this was not permissible in law because once the SSB was constituted in
2008 and had started procedure for considering the officers of 1973 batch for their
promotion to the rank of Lieutenant General, new policy, even if framed could
not have been implemented but the same could have been implemented only for the
officers of 1974 batch. The learned counsel relied upon the judgments delivered
in the cases of P. Mahendran & Ors. v. State of Karnataka & ors.
[(1990) 1 SCC 411]; Maharashtra State Road Transport Corpn. & ors. v. Rajendra
Bhimrao Mandve & Ors. [(2001) 10 SCC 51]; K. Manjusree v. State of Andhra
Pradesh and another [(2008) 3 SCC 512] so as to substantiate his submissions.
also submitted that every year, the SSB used to consider officers of a
particular batch for promotion to the rank of Lieutenant General. In the calendar
year 2006, 1971 batch officers were considered for promotion to the rank of
Lieutenant General; in 2007, officers of 1972 batch were considered for
promotion to the said rank but in 2008, officers of 1973 batch were not
considered. The officers of 1973 batch were considered in 2009. Had the officers
of 1973 batch been considered in calendar year 2008, they could have been considered
as per the old policy.
also submitted that though the appellant was awarded `Kirti Chakra', the said
fact was not given due weightage while considering the appellant's case for his
the appellant had not been promoted, the appellant had filed non-statutory and statutory
complaints but the said complaints were not properly considered and were
disposed of without assigning any reason. In the circumstances, the appellant was
constrained to approach the Armed Forces Tribunal, Jaipur Bench, by filing an Original
Application. The said application was thereafter transferred to the Armed
Forces Tribunal, Principal Bench, New Delhi. The said application was rejected by
the judgment dated 26th April, 2010, which has been challenged in this appeal.
to the learned counsel, if the earlier policy based on `value judgment' had
been followed by considering overall profile of the appellant, the appellant
would have been selected for promotion to the rank of Lieutenant General. According
to him, the appellant, who was an outstanding officer, ought to have been
promoted to the rank of Lieutenant General.
substance, the counsel submitted that the entire procedure followed by the SSB
was incorrect and the appellant and the officers of 1973 batch ought to have
been assessed as per old policy and in that event, the appellant would have
been found fit for promotion and, therefore, it was submitted that the
appellant deserved promotion to the rank of Lieutenant General. It was further submitted
that the appellant retired on 30.4.2010 but had he been promoted to the rank of
Lieutenant General, he would not have been made to retire. Finally, he submitted
that the appeal deserves to be allowed and relief sought for in the appeal be
the other hand, Mr. P.P. Tripathi, learned Additional Solicitor General submitted
that the judgment delivered by the Tribunal is just and proper. He submitted
that Indian Army is having a pyramidal organisation and it has framed its promotion
policy accordingly. Till 15th December, 2004, promotions up to the rank of Major
were given on the basis of seniority whereas promotions from the rank of Major
to Lieutenant General and onwards were strictly on merit and they were given
promotion on the basis of recommendations of a Selection Board. However, as per
the new policy, at present promotions upto the rank of Lieutenant Colonel are
by time scale and thereafter the promotions to higher ranks are given on the recommendation
of the Selection Board.
submitted that the averments of the appellant to the effect that the policy with
regard to promotions was changed after commencement of selection process of the
officers of 1973 batch for their promotion to the rank of Lieutenant General is
incorrect. He submitted that the old policy, which was prevalent up to 31st December,
2008, was never applied in case of the appellant and other officers of 1973
batch for their promotion to the rank of Lieutenant General. He submitted that
first meeting of the SSB for considering cases of the appellant and other
officers of 1973 batch was convened on 9th January, 2009. He denied that the
SSB had ever convened its meeting prior to 2009 for the aforestated purpose. It
was clarified that only the process of collecting relevant data had been
started in 2008 because for the purpose of considering cases of all officers of
1973 batch, certain record was to made available to the SSB in a particular form
and the process being lengthy, needful was done by the ministerial staff for
collecting the data in 2008, but the said data was considered by the SSB only
after 1st January, 2009 i.e. when the new policy had been implemented.
far as `Kirti Chakra' is concerned, it was submitted that the appellant was
awarded `Kirti Chakra' in 1985 when he was working in the rank of Major. The said
fact cannot be considered for ever. While giving promotions to the higher
ranks, the aforestated fact was duly considered by the Selection Board earlier.
The said fact was considered while considering the appellant's case for giving
him four promotions i.e. upto Major General. The award/ honour cannot be considered
for ever as per normal promotion policy. As per the new policy, marks for
awards are allotted only for two times after receipt of the award/honour. In the
circumstances, in the case of the appellant, award of `Kirti Chakra' had
rightly not been considered by the SSB when it had convened its meeting in
case of the appellant was considered twice by the SSB along with other officers
of 1973 batch. His case was considered when the SSB convened its meeting on 9th
January, 2009 and his case was again considered, by way of a second chance, by the
SSB in December, 2009 but the appellant was not empanelled for promotion on
both the occasions for the reasons that there were many other more meritorious officers
and, therefore, the appellant could not be promoted to the rank of Lieutenant
learned counsel for the respondents also denied that the appellant was having
`outstanding' grade. He submitted that most of the time the appellant was considered
`above average' and the said fact was duly considered by the SSB. He further
submitted that the appellant had not levelled any allegations with regard to mala
fides and, therefore, the recommendations made by the SSB cannot be faulted
with. The averments and allegations with regard to pressure exerted by officers
so as to grant `8' instead of `9' points were also baseless.
learned counsel also relied upon judgments delivered by this Court in the cases
of Union of India & Ors v. Lt. Gen. Rajendra Singh Kadyan and Another, [(2000)
6 SCC 698]; Lakhwinder Singh v. Union of India and Ors. [(2008) 7 SCC 648] so as
to substantiate his submissions. He further submitted that the appellant had a right
to be considered for promotion but he had no right to be promoted as observed
by this Court in the case of Union of India & Ors. v. S.L. Dutta and
Anothers. [(1991) 1 SCC 505] and Roshan Lal Tandon v. Union of India [ AIR 1967
the aforestated reasons and for the reasons recorded by the Tribunal, the
learned counsel submitted that the appeal deserves to be dismissed with costs.
heard the learned counsel and also perused the relevant material placed before
cannot be disputed that no employee has a right to get promotion; so the
appellant had no right to get promotion to the rank of Lieutenant General but he
had a right to be considered for promotion to the rank of Lieutenant General and
if as per the prevailing policy, he was eligible to be promoted to the said
rank, he ought to have been considered. In the instant case, there is no
dispute to the fact that the appellant's case was duly considered by the SSB for
his promotion to the rank of Lieutenant General.
main grievance ventilated in the appeal is with regard to change of promotion
policy. The case of the appellant is to the effect that after starting the
selection process, the respondents could not have changed the policy. According
to the appellant, the policy was changed with effect from 1st January, 2009, whereas
the selection process for promoting the appellant along with other officers of
1973 batch started in December, 2008. According to him relevant material was
prepared and placed before the SSB and in fact it convened its meeting and started
doing the needful in December, 2008 and, therefore, it was not open to the respondents
to change the policy after having started the process for selection. The
appellant had also relied upon the judgments delivered by this Court to
substantiate his case to the effect that after initiating the selection process,
the authorities and the SSB should not have given effect to the new policy.
perusal of the contents of the counter affidavit filed and submissions made on behalf
of the respondents by the learned Additional Solicitor General, it is clear that
the first meeting of the SSB to consider the cases of the appellant and other officers
for promotion to the rank of Lieutenant General was convened on 9th January,
2009, and not prior thereto. The counsel had however, stated that the
ministerial staff of the respondents had collected relevant data in 2008 because
relevant material for considering cases of all the concerned officers was to be
placed before the SSB when its meeting was to be convened. For the said reason,
necessary exercise for collecting the data and putting it in a proper form was
done in 2008 but, in fact, the said data was considered by the SSB only when it
convened its meeting in January, 2009, i.e. after the new policy had come into
above facts would make it clear that the cases of the appellant and others were
never considered by the SSB in 2008 or prior to 1st January, 2009. It means
that the cases were considered as per the new policy and, therefore, all
submissions made on behalf of the appellant that the policy was changed after
the process of selection had been started are not correct and, therefore, they are
to be discarded.
grievance made by the appellant with regard to non-consideration of award of `Kirti
Chakra' is also not having any substance for the reason that as per the new
policy, the grant of such an award/honour is to be considered only twice. In
1985, when the appellant was in the rank of Major, he was awarded `Kirti Chakra'
and the said fact was duly considered till he got promotion to the rank of
Major General. As per the new policy, this honour, which he had secured in 1985
could not have been considered again and, therefore, it was rightly not taken
into account. We also find substance in the policy that if a person has performed
his duty excellently at a particular stage in his career, then that performance
of excellence cannot be considered for the entire life. When an officer has to
get his promotion strictly on merits, his performance should be commendable throughout
and especially during last few years. The case of the appellant was considered in
2009 for his promotion to the rank of Lieutenant General and, therefore, the
achievements of the appellant in 1985 could not have been ordinarily considered
by the SSB. In the circumstances, the submissions relating to not considering `Kirti
Chakra' award would not help the appellant.
appellant has tried to evaluate his qualities and competence. Though, he believed
himself to be an `outstanding' officer, it is stated that most of the time he was
considered `above average'. He was hardly considered as an `outstanding'
officer. We are in complete agreement with the view expressed by this court in
the case of Air Vice Marshal S.L. Chhabra, VSM (Retd.) v. U.O.I. [1993 Supp (4)
SCC 441] wherein it has been held in para 13 that: "According to us, neither
the High Court nor this Court can moderate, the appraisal and the grading of the
appellant for a particular year. While exercising the power of judicial review,
a Court shall not venture to assess and appraise the merit or the grading of an
officer. If the Appraisal Report of the year 1987 giving the appellant `5.3'
stands, then according to the criteria fixed, the case of the appellant could
not have been considered for extension."The entire relevant service record
of the appellant was placed before the SSB on two different occasions, in January,
2009 and in December, 2009. On both the occasions, the appellant failed to get himself
empanelled in the list of selected officers for the reason that there were better
officers available for limited number of posts available in the higher rank.
absence of any allegation with regard to mala fides, we would not like to look
into the assessment of the SSB in relation to the appellant's performance.
our opinion, it is always open to an employer to change its policy in relation
to giving promotion to the employees. This court would normally not interfere
in such policy decisions.
would like to quote the decision of this Court in the case of Virender S. Hooda
& Ors. v. State of Haryana and Anr. 15[(1999) 3 SCC 696] where this Court had
held in para 4 of the judgment that: "........When a policy has been
declared by the State as to the manner of filling up the post and that policy is
declared in terms of rules and instructions issued to the Public Service
Commission from time to time and so long as these instructions are not contrary
to the rules, the respondents ought to follow the same."Similarly, in the case
of Balco Employees' Union (Regd.) v. Union of India and Others [(2002) 2 SCC
333], it has been held that a court cannot strike down a policy decision taken by
the Government merely because it feels that another policy would have been
fairer or wiser or more scientific or logical. It is not within the domain of
the court to weigh the pros and cons of the policy or to test the degree of its
beneficial or equitable disposition.
the aforestated reasons, we are of the view that no injustice had been caused
to the appellant as his case was duly considered for promotion to the rank of
Lieutenant General by the SSB twice but as other officers were found better than
the appellant, he could not be 16promoted. In the circumstances, we do not find
any substance in the appeal and, therefore, the appeal deserves to be
appeal is dismissed with no order as to costs.
(Dr. MUKUNDAKAM SHARMA)
(ANIL R. DAVE)