Tatyaba Kankate & ANR. Vs. Taramati Harishchandra Dhatrak  INSC 488
(8 July 2010)
APPELLATE JURISDICTION CIVIL APPEAL No. 6509 OF 2005 Laxman Tatyaba Kankate
& Anr. ...Appellants Versus Smt. Taramati Harishchandra Dhatrak
Judge, Senior Division, Shrirampur, District Ahmednagar (for short `the Trial
Court'), in a suit for specific performance and in the alternative for recovery
of Rs. 10,000/-, vide his judgment and decree dated 25th July, 1995 partially
decreed the suit of the plaintiff (respondent herein), dismissing her claim for
specific performance, ordered refund of earnest money with interest at the rate
of 6% per annum pendente lite and future, with proportionate cost.
Against this decree, the respondent filed an appeal before the District Judge,
Ahmednagar (hereinafter referred to as `the First Appellate Court'), who, vide
his judgment and decree, dated 28th November, 2000, decreed the suit in its
entirety. The Court granted decree for specific performance in respect of the
land in question and upon grant of permission by the competent authority, as
contemplated under Section 12 (c) of the Maharashtra Re-settlement of Project
Displaced Persons Act, 1976, (hereinafter referred to as `the Re-settlement
Act') and also by the Society, as contemplated under Section 47(2) of the
Maharashtra Cooperative Societies Act, 1960, (for short `the Societies Act'),
the appellants were entitled to specific performance upon payment of the
balance sale consideration of Rs. 30,000/-. It also directed the appellants to
submit an application seeking permission from the competent authority and
execute a registered sale deed in favour of the respondent herein.
legality and correctness of the aforesaid decree was challenged by the
appellants before the High Court of 2 Judicature at Bombay at its Aurangabad
Bench in Second Appeal No. 96 of 2001 which came to be dismissed vide judgment
dated 17th July, 2001. Aggrieved from the aforesaid concurrent decrees passed
by the Courts, the present appeal under Article 136 of the Constitution of
India has been preferred by the appellants.
necessary facts are that, according to the respondent, an agreement to sell
dated 08.01.1991 was entered into between the parties in terms whereof the
appellants had agreed to sell the land admeasuring 1H. 60 R. in Village Pimpri
Lokai, Taluka Shrirampur, District Ahmednagar in Block No. 220, the boundaries
of which were stated in the plaint. A sum of Rs. 10,000/- was paid at that time
and it was agreed that upon obtaining the permission from the competent
authority, the demarcation of the land would be effected and the possession of
the suit land would be given.
appellants were expected to execute the sale deed in favour of the respondent,
as the respondent was always ready and willing to perform her part of the
contract. Though the appellants assured that they would execute the sale 3 deed
in favour of the respondent, they failed to do so. A notice dated 05.06.1992
was served upon the appellants but no sale deed was executed.
Thereafter, according to the respondent, the appellants also started causing
obstruction in the peaceful possession of the respondent and one of such
incidents occurred on 11.07.1992, which compelled the respondent to file the
suit for specific performance, and in the alternative, for the refund of
earnest money along with damages. One Vitthal Laxman Kankate also applied to
the Court, vide Exh. 23, to be impleaded as a party, as he claimed right and
interest in the said land. This application was allowed.
suit was contested by the appellants who took various legal objections
including, that the suit was bad for non- joinder of the necessary parties and,
thus, was not maintainable. On merits, it was stated that no agreement, as
alleged, was executed between the parties and the entire case, as pleaded by
the respondent, was false. It was also averred that defendant No. 2 in the suit
(appellant No. 2 in 4 the present appeal) had also filed a suit wherein
injunction was granted in favour of the said party.
1. A plea
was also taken that the agreement to sell was not a registered document, as
such, the same could not be acted upon. The appellants also took the stand that
there was rapid increase in the market value of the land and, therefore, they
could not have agreed to sell the property at the price indicated in the
agreement. However, it was really not in dispute that the plaintiff and the
defendants were acquainted to each other. The learned Trial Court, on the basis
of the record before it, noticed that the appellants claimed that they wanted
to obtain a loan for a sum of Rs. 2,000/- from the respondent and had agreed to
sign certain papers by way of security, that the respondent, on the pretext,
got certain blank papers signed from the appellant as well as his son and that
there was no intention to sell the property in question.
1. On the
pleadings of the parties, the Trial Court framed the 5 following issues and
gave findings thereon :
Issues Findings 1 Does the plaintiff prove that the Proved defendant agreed to
sell the field for Rs. 40,000/-? 2 Does the plaintiff prove that the amount
Proved Rs. 10,000/- was paid as earnest money? 3 Does the plaintiff prove that
amount of Proved Rs. 30,000/- was agreed to be paid at the time of execution of
sale deed? 4 Does the plaintiff prove that the sale deed Proved was to be
executed within 1 month from the permission of the Competent Authority? 5 Does
the defendant prove that the Not proved plaintiff paid Rs. 2,000/- only as loan
and the signature were obtained on blank stamp paper by way of security? 6 Does
the plaintiff prove that she was Proved ready and willing to perform her part
of contract? 7 Whether the plaintiff is entitled for a Not proved decree of
Specific Performance? 8 Whether the suit is bad for non-joinder of Does not
necessary party? survive 9 What relief and order? as per final order Additional
issues 6 1 Whether the agreement is binding on Yes the defendant No. 2.
plaintiff prove that by way of Yes alternate relief, she is entitled to refund
of earnest money with damages?"
learned Trial Court decided all the material issues in favour of the respondent
and, while upholding the agreement in favour of the respondent, it also
returned a finding in favour of the respondent that she was always ready and
willing to perform her part of the contract and had paid a sum of Rs. 10,000/-
as earnest money. It may be noticed, that the stand taken by the appellants,
that the signatures were obtained on blank papers, was answered by the Court in
the negative. Despite these facts, the learned Trial Court, as already noticed,
partially decreed the suit and directed the appellants to pay a sum of Rs.
10,000/- with interest at the rate of 6% per annum and without any additional
amount of damages, as prayed by the respondent. The learned First Appellate
Court, while setting aside the decree passed by the Trial Court only for
payment of money, passed the decree for specific performance while 7 otherwise
affirming the conclusions arrived at by the Trial Court. The First Appellate
Court returned the findings in favour of the respondent and held as under :
the sale is permissible with the prior permission of the government.
Admittedly, the respondent No. 1 has agreed to obtain permission from the
government prior to sale transaction.
there would not be legal bar while granting a relief of specific performance.
The authority cited by the learned counsel for appellant is directly in point.
The facts of the said authority and the facts of the present case are identical
the reasons on account of which the learned trial court was not pleased to
grant a relief of specific performance cannot be accepted. After having come to
conclusion that there is no bar of section 12 of the Re-settlement Act, the
another reason on account of which the learned trial court was not pleased to
grant the said relief, is proper or not is to be considered. The learned trial
court has observed that in view of provisions of the Section 48(e) of the
Societies Act, the agreement for sale is void one, and hence it can't be
enforced. According to learned trial court there was charge on the suit land in
favour of the society i.e. since the respondent no. 1 has taken the loan
amount. The learned trial court has relief on the entry in the record of
rights, while coming to conclusion that there was charge of the society of the
suit land in view of the loan transaction, and the appellant was aware of it in
view of her admission that she had seen the entry. Consequently, the learned
trial court has come to conclusion that there is a bar while granting relief of
specific performance u/s 48 (e) of the Co.op. societies Act. In my opinion, in
view of the authority reported in the case of Narayan vs. Macchindra, 1994 Mh.
L.J.558 it can't 8 be said that there would be any legal bar while enforcing
the agreement Exh.45. .................
x x x x x
x x x x x .................. Therefore, there would not be any legal impediment
while granting a relief of specific performance subject to certain conditions
i.e. prior permission of the state government and permission from the society
of village Pimprilokai, taluka Newasa. There are no reasons on record so as to
prevent the appellant from claiming a relief of specific performance. The
respondents were not able to show as to why discretion should not be grant a
relief of specific performance. Since the agreement for sale, Exh. 45, is
lawful one, it can be safely enforced. Consequently, the finding in respect of
point No. 2 is answered in the affirmative.
of the findings in respect of point Nos. 1 and 2, it logically follows that the
judgment and decree of the learned trial court have to be set aside, and suit
filed by appellant is decreed, which is for a relief of specific performance
however subject to certain conditions i.e. regarding prior permission of the
state government of society of village Pimprilokai. In case, both authorities
are not pleased to grant permission then appellant would be entitled to claim
refund of the earnest amount from respondents which is to the tune of Rs. 10,000/-."
findings and the conclusions of fact and law arrived at by the Courts were
affirmed by the High Court which sustained the decree passed by the First
learned counsel appearing for the appellants 9 vehemently argued that the
decree for specific performance could not have been passed by the Courts
against the appellants, as the property was mortgaged to the cooperative
society, and the property being under the charge of the society, no title could
be passed in favour of the respondent. Secondly, it was contended that the
Courts have failed to appreciate the evidence in its correct perspective and
the judgment under appeal is liable to be set aside. Lastly, it was contended
that during the pendency of the proceedings, the value of the land has
increased tremendously and it would be unjust and unfair to pass a decree for
specific performance in favour of the respondent.
1. At the
very outset, we may notice that all the three Courts have returned all the
findings of fact in favour of the present respondent. Such findings are based
upon proper appreciation of evidence and no legal infirmity can be traced in
them. It is hardly permissible for this Court to go into such questions of
facts alone, in exercise of its jurisdiction under Article 136 of the
Constitution of India.
the judgment of the learned Trial Court, it is apparent that the appellants had
not placed any such argument or specific plea before that Court. In fact, as is
evident from the afore reproduced issues, no such issue was either claimed or
framed, in this regard. It is rightly contended by the learned counsel
appearing for the respondent that the appellants had not adduced any evidence
that the property in question had been mortgaged or was under the charge of the
society. Be that as it may, the provisions of clause (d) of Section 48 of the
Societies Act, places a restriction upon alienation of the whole or any part of
the land or interest in the property unless and until the whole amount borrowed
by the member of the society has been repaid with interest. In other words, the
restriction is conditional and once the loan of the society has been cleared,
the society obviously cannot have any objection to transfer the said property.
No effort was made by the appellants to bring on record any evidence to show as
to what was the extent of money currently due to the society, if at all, and
for what amount the property had been mortgaged in favour of the society. In
the 11 absence of any specific evidence in that regard, the Court will have to
draw an adverse inference against the appellants for not producing before the
Court the best available evidence. In any case, the appellants cannot take
advantage of their own wrong. Coming to the other submission, that the land
could not be transferred in favour of the respondent in view of the restriction
contained in Section 12 (1) (c) and Section 12 (2) of the Re-settlement Act,
the bare reading of these provisions show that the Government can grant
permission for transfer of the property, subject to such conditions, as it may
deem fit and proper.
1. In the
present case, the appellants have neither claimed any issue nor led any
evidence before the Court to substantiate even this plea. Furthermore, the
learned First Appellate Court while relying upon the judgment of this Court in
the case of Nathulal v. Phoolchand [AIR 1970 SC 546], had dealt with both these
contentions rightly and in accordance with the law. We see no reason as to how
a presumption can be raised against the respondent on face of the fact that 12
the appellants chose not to lead any evidence on either of these aspects. These
contentions raised on behalf of the appellants are, therefore, without any
substance. The learned counsel appearing for the appellants drew our attention
to Section 13 (1) (c) of the Specific Relief Act, 1963 (for
short `the Act'), which clearly postulates that where a person contracts to
sell immovable property with an imperfect title and the property is encumbered
for an amount not exceeding the purchase money, the purchaser has the right to
compel the seller to redeem the mortgage and obtain a valid discharge and then
specifically perform the contract in its favour. Even from this point of view,
the right of the present respondent is fully protected.
will also be useful to refer to the provisions of Section 20 of the Act which
vests the Court with a wide discretion either to decree the suit for specific
performance or to decline the same. Reference in this regard can also be made
to the case of Bal Krishna v. Bhagwan Das [(2008) 12 SCC 145], where this Court
held as under :
"13. ........The compliance with the requirement of Section 16(c) is
mandatory and in the absence of proof of the same that the plaintiff has been
ready and willing to perform his part of the contract suit cannot succeed. The
first requirement is that he must aver in plaint and thereafter prove those
averments made in the plaint. The plaintiff's readiness and willingness must be
in accordance with the terms of the agreement. The readiness and willingness of
the plaintiff to perform the essential part of the contract would be required
to be demonstrated by him from the institution of the suit till it is
culminated into decree of the court.
14. It is
also settled by various decisions of this Court that by virtue of Section 20 of
the Act, the relief for specific performance lies in the discretion of the
court and the court is not bound to grant such relief merely because it is
lawful to do so. The exercise of the discretion to order specific performance
would require the court to satisfy itself that the circumstances are such that
it is equitable to grant decree for specific performance of the contract. While
exercising the discretion, the court would take into consideration the
circumstances of the case, the conduct of parties, and their respective
interests under the contract. No specific performance of a contract, though it
is not vitiated by fraud or misrepresentation, can be granted if it would give
an unfair advantage to the plaintiff and where the performance of the contract
would involve some hardship on the defendant, which he did not foresee. In
other words, the court's discretion to grant specific performance is not
exercised if the contract is not equal and fair, although the contract is not
view was taken by this Court in the case of Mohammadia Cooperative Building
Society Ltd. v. Lakshmi Srinivasa Cooperative Building Society Ltd. & Ors.
[(2008) 7 SCC 310], where the Court reiterated the principle that 14
jurisdiction of the Court to grant specific performance is discretionary and
role of the plaintiff is one of the most important factor to be taken into
consideration. We may also notice that in the case of P.V. Joseph's son Mathew
v. N. Kuruvila's Son [AIR 1987 SC 2328], this Court further cautioned that
while exercising discretionary jurisdiction in terms of Section 20 of the Act,
the Court should meticulously consider all facts and circumstances of the case.
The Court is expected to take care to see that the process of the Court is not
used as an instrument of oppression giving an unfair advantage to the plaintiff
as opposed to the defendant in the suit.
discretion of the Court has to be exercised as per the settled judicial
principles. All the aforesaid principles are squarely satisfied in the present
case and it is the appellants before us who have taken advantage of the
pendency of the proceedings. They have used the sum of Rs. 10,000/-, which was
given as earnest money for all this period, as well as, have enjoyed the fruits
of the property. The present case 15 does not fall within the ambit of any of
the aforesaid cases specified under Section 20 (2) of the Act. In the present
case, it is not only lawful but even equity and facts of the case demand that a
decree for specific performance should be granted in favour of the respondent.
Besides all this, the respondent before us has agreed to pay much higher
consideration than what was payable in terms of the agreement to sell between
onus to prove that the respondent had obtained signatures of the appellants on
blank papers on the pretext of advancing a loan of Rs. 2,000/- was entirely
upon the appellants. No evidence, much less cogent documentary or oral
evidence, was led by the appellants to discharge this onus. The averment has
rightly been disbelieved and the plea was rightly rejected by the concerned
Courts in the judgment under appeal. The appellants led no evidence and nothing
was brought to our notice, even during the course of the hearing, to show that
this plea could be accepted. It is a settled principle of law that before the
First Appellate Court, the party may be able to support the decree but cannot
16 challenge the findings without filing the cross objections. As it appears
from the record, the present appellants have neither filed cross objections nor
their appeal challenging the findings recorded by the learned Trial Court. In
fact, the entire conduct of the present appellants shows that they have not
only failed to prove their claim before the Courts of competent jurisdiction
but have even not raised proper pleas in their pleadings.
1. It was
contended on behalf of the appellants that there has been considerable increase
in the price of the land in question. Though that may be true, it cannot be a
ground for denying the decree of specific performance to the respondent. The
learned First Appellate Court, by a well reasoned judgment, has granted the
relief of specific performance instead of only granting refund of money, as
given by the Trial Court. The judgment of the First Appellate Court has been
upheld by the High Court and we see no reason whatsoever to interfere with the
concurrent findings of facts and law as stated in the judgment under appeal.
the learned counsel appearing for the respondent 17 volunteered and after
taking instructions stated that they would be willing to pay a sum of Rs.
1,50,000/- instead of Rs. 40,000/- as the total sale consideration. We find
this offer of the respondent to be very fair.
have already held that the defence taken up by the appellants in the suit was totally
unbelievable. There is no reason or ground as to why the relief of specific
performance should be declined to the respondent. She satisfied all the
requirements of Section 20 of the Act. Even then, if we examine this case
purely from the point of view of equity, the offer now made by the respondent
substantially balances the equities between the parties and the very argument
raised on behalf of the appellants that there has been increase in the price of
the land in question loses its significance. Now, no prejudice will be caused
to the appellants in any manner whatsoever.
the reasons afore recorded, we see no legal or other infirmity in the judgment
under appeal. While dismissing the present appeal, we direct that the
respondent will abide by 18 her offer and would pay a total sale consideration
of Rs. 1,50,000/- and upon payment of Rs. 1,50,000/- - Rs. 10,000/- = Rs.
1,40,000/- and complying with the conditions stated in the judgment dated 28th
November, 2000 of the First Appellate Court, the sale deed shall be registered
in favour of the respondent in terms of the decree passed by the First
Appellate Court subject to the above modifications.
However, in the facts and circumstances of the case, we leave the parties to
bear their own costs.
................................J. [ DR. B.S. CHAUHAN ]
..............................J. [ SWATANTER KUMAR ]
July 8, 2010.