Yasin Vs. State (N.C.T. of Delhi) & Ors.  INSC 1332 (30 July 2009)
SUPREME COURT OF INDIA CRIMINAL APPELLATE JURISDICTION CRIMINAL APPEAL NO.1228
Yasin .. Appellant Versus State (NCT of Delhi) & Others .. Respondents
This appeal is directed against the judgment of the Division Bench
of the Delhi High Court passed in Criminal Writ Petition No.917 of 1999 on
The appellant Mohd. Yasin had filed a writ petition before the
Delhi High Court seeking directions to handover the investigation to the
Central Bureau of Investigation into the death of his elder brother Yunus alias
Anees who died on 4.8.1999 in police custody of the police station Okhla
Industrial Area, New Delhi. The 2 appellant further prayed for a direction to
the station house officer of the police station Okhla Industrial Area to
register a case under section 302 IPC against the delinquent officer(s).
The High Court in the impugned order after perusing the report of
the Sub-Divisional Magistrate and the report of the Board of Doctors who
conducted postmortem examination of the deceased and came to the conclusion
that the death of the appellant's brother was caused due to cardiac arrhythmias
and the petition was disposed of.
The appellant being aggrieved by the impugned judgment of the High
Court has preferred this appeal.
Brief facts which are necessary to dispose of this appeal are
recapitulated as under:
intervening night at about 1.00 am on 4/5.8.1999, the appellant received a
telephonic call from one Afroz who is a friend of the deceased Yunus, the elder
brother of the appellant, and was told that on 4.8.1999 the police took Yunus
to the police station 3 Okhla Industrial Area and that he also accompanied
Yunus to the police station. He also told that Yunus was hospitalized at the
ESI Hospital. The appellant who was at Mumbai immediately came to Delhi and
learnt that his brother Yunus had died while he was in police custody.
It is also submitted that respondent no.5 Sub- Inspector of Police
Mukesh Walia had approached Afroz, a friend of Yunus and threatened to
implicate him in a false case under the Narcotic Drugs & Psychotropic
Substances Act, 1985 unless he helped the police in nabbing Yunus. Under the
said threat and coercion, Afroz went to the village of Yunus and thereafter the
police arrested Yunus. It is also incorporated in the appeal that the inquiry
was also conducted by the Sub- Divisional Magistrate, Kalkaji, South District, New
Delhi under section 176 Cr.P.C. The statements of the police officials who went
to arrest Yunus were recorded by the Sub-Divisional Magistrate on 5.8.1999.
It is further stated in the appeal that Yunus was in good health
and he died in the police custody indicating that he did not die of natural
death. The postmortem 4 examination was conducted on the body of the deceased
Yunus at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) on 6.8.1999 and
thereafter his dead body was handed over to the appellant in the presence of
other relatives of the appellant. At that time, the appellant noticed injuries
on the face and head of the deceased. It is stated that the clothes of the
deceased Yunus were sent to the Central Forensic Science Laboratory (CFSL), New
Delhi. In the report of the CFSL, blood of group A+ was detected on the shirt
of the deceased Yunus. It is pertinent to mention that the doctors opined that
the cause of death of Yunus was due to ventricular arrhythmias consequent to
old compromised heart in a person having hypertrophied heart (460 gms.)
myocardial fibrosis; atherosclerosis of coronaries and that a person having
heart weight of 460 gms. myocardial fibrosis and coronary atherosclerosis has
high risk of sudden death with or without provocation.
In the instant case, the police apprehended Yunus at 1.30 pm on
4.8.1999 and he was taken to the ESI 5 Hospital at 3.10 pm on the same day
where he was declared brought dead.
The appellant relied on the directions given by this court in D.K.
Basu v. State of West Bengal (1997) 1 SCC 416 and submitted that the
respondents had violated these directions. In Basu's case, the court observed
that "the custodial death is perhaps one of the worst crime in a civilized
society governed by the rule of law. The rights inherent in Articles 21 and
22(1) of the Constitution require to be jealously and scrupulously protected.
Expression of life or personal liberty in Article 21 includes right to live
with human dignity and thus it would include within itself a guarantee against
torture and assault by the States or by its functionaries".
The instant case pertains to the custodial death.
court examines such cases with extreme care and cautions. Despite the fact that
the matter has been examined by the High Court, this court also issued notice
to the respondents and examined the matter de novo.
to the notice of this court, T.N. Mohan, DCP (HQ) in the office of Commissioner
of Police, I.P. Estate, 6 New Delhi filed an affidavit. In the affidavit, it is
mentioned that the deceased was a proclaimed offender and a bad character of
the police station Okhla Industrial Area, Phase-I and was wanted by police in
as many as nine cases, the details of which are as under:
No.783/97 under Sections 407/379/411/120 IPC, PS Okhla Industrial Area.
No.798/97 under Sections 407/379/411/120 IPC, PS Okhla Industrial Area.
No.804/97 under Sections 407/379/411/120 IPC, PS Okhla Industrial Area.
No.805/97 under Sections 407/379/411/120 IPC, PS Okhla Industrial Area.
No.828/97 under Sections 407/379/411/120 IPC, PS Okhla Industrial Area.
No.818/98 under Sections 407/379/411/120 IPC, PS Okhla Industrial Area.
No.855/97 under Section 380 IPC, PS Okhla Industrial Area.
No.947/98 under Section 380 IPC, PS Okhla Industrial Area.
No.33/99 under Sections 380/411 IPC, PS Okhla Industrial Area.
It is mentioned in the counter affidavit that after receiving the
information, it was decided to send a police party from Delhi to the district
Gurgaon for the arrest of Mohd. Yunus @ Anees and in this connection a team was
constituted and the necessary permission to go out of Delhi was obtained from
the Additional Deputy Commissioner of Police, South Delhi. After taking
required necessary permission, the police went to Gurgaon. It is submitted
that, apart from being involved in a large number of criminal cases, Mohd.
Yunus @ Anees was a proclaimed offender, bad character of Bundle `A" and a
desperate criminal. Mohd. Yunus was arrested at about 1.30 pm on 4.8.1999 with
the help of Afroz. Mohd. Yunus struggled to set himself free and while running
away he fell down and sustained two bruises. The dimensions of the injuries are
Abraded bruise of 1.4 x 1 cm over (L) side face below eye 1 cm.
Abraded bruise 3 x 2 cm over front part of chin below lip."
Yunus was however, overpowered and apprehended. When the van crossed
Haryana-Delhi Border, he complained of uneasiness and discomfort, therefore, he
was immediately rushed to the nearest ESI Hospital where he was declared
In the counter affidavit, it is mentioned that despite the
admitted position that the deceased Mohd. Yunus had a past history of heart
ailments, the appellant has deliberately suppressed this information from the
court and on the contrary it was asserted that the deceased was completely hale
and hearty. It is further submitted that the appellant has made a statement
before the Sub- Divisional Magistrate wherein in no uncertain terms he stated
got heart attack about eight months back and bye-pass surgery was performed. At
that time, I was at Mumbai. This bye-pass surgery was arranged by Afroz. This
was told to me over telephone, in Mumbai, by Afroz seven to eight months
It is mentioned in the counter affidavit that directions issued by
this court in D.K. Basu (supra) have been followed in true spirits. It is also
mentioned that 9 according to the opinion of doctors, a normal heart weighs
around 240-300 grams whereas the heart of the deceased was 460 grams and had
the high risk of sudden death with or without provocation. Such a grossly
enlarged and overweight heart does not happen in a day or two but it will take
at least 5 to 10 years which in itself indicates a long heart ailment which is
supported both by the medical evidence as well as the categorical statement of
the appellant himself.
It is also stated that the distance between the place of arrest
and the ESI hospital is 96 kms. One and half hour driving time is absolutely
normal, therefore, the allegation that the delay of one and half hour shows
that the deceased was first taken to some place where he was tortured and
injuries inflicted due to which he died, is not only false but preposterous.
We have heard the learned counsel for the parties at length and
perused all relevant documents in detail.
Yunus died in the police custody. The Sub- Divisional Magistrate has made a
inquiry report, it is mentioned that he reached at 10 the All India Institute
of Medial Sciences (AIIMS) mortuary around 11.30 pm in the night of 4.8.1999
and inspected the dead body of the deceased Yunus @ Anees.
Station House Officer, Police Station Okhla Industrial Area was also present.
Two superficial injuries were found on the dead body. According to the Board of
Doctors, both the said injuries were simple in nature.
It was submitted that immediately after the incident, on 5.8.1999
at 10.00 am, the information was sent to the Chairman, National Human Rights
Commission and the copies of the same were sent to the District Magistrate,
Delhi and the Deputy Commissioner (South) regarding the custodial death. On the
same day a Board of Doctors was constituted for the postmortem, which comprised
the following doctors:
Murti, Associate Professor, Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, All
India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS).
Bhardwaj, Assistant Professor, Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, All India
Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS).
Alexander Khaka, Specialist for Medicines, Safdarjung Hospital.
The statements of the relatives of the deceased were recorded. The
statements of a large number of police official were also recorded. The Board
of Doctors in their final report observed as under:
the best of our knowledge and belief we are of considered opinion - Death in
this case was due to ventricular arrhythmias consequent to old compromised
heart in a person having hypertrophied heart (460 gms.) myocardial fibrosis and
atherosclerosis of coronaries. A person having heart weight of 460 gms.
fibrosis and coronary atherosclerosis have high risk of sudden death with or
The Sub-Divisional Magistrate after comprehensive inquiry arrived
at the following conclusion:
perusal of the entire evidence on record, along with the opinion of the experts
(Board of Doctors), the following points were come to the notice.
Anees @ Yunus
was a registered Bad Character of Bundle `A' (the register which is maintained
for the persons who are under constant and active surveillance) of police
station P.S. Okhla Industrial Area wanted in as many as 10 cases. He was
declared proclaimed offender by the court of law.
police team, who brought the deceased from district Gurgaon to Delhi after
arresting him were quite bonafide in their action and performed lawful duties
arresting the deceased. They had observed all the 12 norms/legal formalities
before proceeding out station duty.
of Anees @ Yunus had occurred in natural course as per the report of the panel
deceased was having a past history of heart ailment consequent to old
compromised heart in a person having hypertrophied heart (460 grams) myocardial
fibrosis atherosclerosis of coronaries.
admission of the deceased in ESI Hospital after he fell unconscious near
Badarpur border clearly indicates the sincere efforts of the police team who
got him admitted without any loss of time in the nearest possible hospital in
order to save his life.
only question is, how the injuries were inflicted on the body of the deceased
(Anees @ Yunus) needs explanation.
regard the panel of doctors who had conducted the postmortem was examined
separately and the police team and eye- witnesses. Afroz was also put to cross-
examination about the infliction of the injuries.
of injuries were explained by them that the accused put resistance at the time
of his arrest and in the process the injuries were inflicted which are not
willingly, were not sufficient to cause death.
light of above, I am of the considered opinion that Anees @ Yunus died due to
heart ailment which is explained by doctors in details and categorically opined
that the deceased had high risk of sudden death with or without provocation and
thus a natural death. I don't find any of the police officer of the team
individually or collectively responsible in the death of the deceased Anees @
Yunus and none of them is found guilty."
It is indeed unfortunate that the deceased died in the police
custody. We have carefully examined this case from every angle particularly
from the angle of his past criminal record. The police and/or investigating
agencies cannot torture any criminal despite his bad criminal record.
In our considered view, in this case, the respondents have not
violated the directions given by this court in D.K. Basu's case (supra).
The Board of three Doctors gave clear and categorical finding that
the cause of death was due to ventricular arrhythmias consequent to old
compromised heart in a person having hypertrophied heart (460 gms) myocardial
fibrosis and atherosclerosis of coronaries. A person having heart weight of 460
gms. myocardial fibrosis and coronary atherosclerosis has high risk of sudden
death with or without provocation.
The Board of Doctors further examined the injuries and came to the
conclusion that all injuries present over the body were antemortem, recent in
duration and were 14 caused by blunt force. All injuries were simple in nature
and were insufficient to cause death individually as well as collectively in
ordinary course of nature.
In the instant case, the deceased was arrested at 1.30 pm on
4.8.1999 and he was taken to the ESI hospital at 3.10 pm on the same day where
he was declared brought dead. The distance between the place from where the
accused was arrested and the ESI Hospital is about 96 kms., therefore, it seems
that from the point of arrest till the ESI hospital, the deceased was
travelling in the car all the time and on complaint of uneasiness he was taken
to the ESI hospital. We have carefully examined the matter in great detail and
with extreme care.
In view of the report of the Board of Doctors and the
Sub-Divisional Magistrate inquiry, it is difficult to reach at any other
conclusion except that Mohd. Yunus had died because of his serious heart
In the facts and circumstances of the case, no interference is
called for. This appeal is accordingly dismissed.
........................................J. (Dalveer Bhandari)
.........................................J. (Dr. Mukundakam
July 30, 2009.