Deepak Agro Solution Ltd Vs. Commissioner of Customs, Maharashtra  INSC 843 (8 May 2008)
S.B. SINHA & V.S. SIRPURKAR
1 REPORTABLE IN THE SUPREME COURT OF INDIA CIVIL APPELLATE JURISDICTION
CIVIL APPEAL NO. 5210 OF 2006 M/s. Deepak Agro Solution Ltd. ....Appellant
Versus Commissioner of Customs, Maharashtra ....
S.B. SINHA, J.
1. Whether "Brimstone 90" which contains about 90% of Sulphur and
10% of Bentonite by way of inert filler would come within the classification
under "Heading 25.03" of the Customs Tariff and the Central Excise
Tariff or "Heading 38.08" is the question involved in this appeal.
2. Appellant imported 200 MT of "Brimstone 90". The certificate of
analysis available on record shows the Sulphur content of the imported 2 goods
was 90.10 % , inert filler (Bentonite) at 9.60 % and, the moisture content was
3. "Brimstone 90" was classified under the Customs Tariff heading
25.03 by the Customs, Excise and Service Tax Appellate Tribunal in the case of
Deepak Fertilsers & Petrochmeicals Corporation Ltd. vs.
Commissioner of Customs, Nhava Sheva : 2002 (139) E.L.T. 328. The Tribunal
held :- "8. Elemental sulphur has vide use as a fertiliser.
Elemental sulphur has to be oxidised to sulphate before it can be absorbed by
the plant. The rate of oxidisation depends upon the surface area of the sulphur
particles. Rapid oxidisation is possible where the particle size is small. The
fine particles, however, create handling problems. They can also be blown away
by wind. They may float on the irritation to the eyes and lungs. They can also
be blown away by wind. They may float on the irrigation water. To enable the
sulphur to be applied in a safe manner it is mixed with other fertilisers such
as phosphate, etc., or with inert fillers such as bentonite clay. Such mixture
is applied to the plants. On application of water bentonite expands and
disintegrates the sulphur particles surrounding it. Over the years 10%
bentonite in the mixture has been established as appropriate.
9. The addition of bentonite clay does not alter the chemical properties of
the sulphur particles. Therefore even in admixture of the bentonite the sulphur
does not merit classification under any other tariff entry.
The sulphur component of such mixture also continues to fall under the term
Therefore such unrefined sulphur tracing its origin in refinery processing
natural gas, etc. of which it is a 3 by-product would continue to merit the
title 'unrefined sulphur' without or without mixture with bentonite."
4. Appellant filed the bills of entry on 31st May, 2004 classifying the
goods under "Heading 25.03" of the Customs Tariff. However, the
Deputy Commissioner of Customs by his order dated 7th July, 2004 opined that
the imported goods were classifiable under "Heading 38.08"
of the Customs Tariff.
5. Indisputably a Notification bearing No.21/02-Cus., dated 1st March, 2002
had been issued granting benefit of exemption in respect of "crude or
unrefined Sulphur" falling under heading 25.03. Consequent upon the said
decision of the Deputy Commissioner of Customs dated 7th July, 2004, the
benefits of the said exemption notification was not accorded to the appellant.
6. An appeal was preferred thereagainst before the Commissioner (Appeals).
The Commissioner (Appeals) by an order dated 20th August, 2004 allowed the same
relying on or on the basis of the said decision in Deepak Fertilisers and
Petrochemicals Corporation Ltd. (supra).
7. Respondent preferred an appeal thereagainst before the Customs, Excise
and Service Tax Appellate Tribunal. A Division Bench of the 4 Tribunal was of
the opinion that its earlier decision in Deepak Fertilisers and Petrochemicals
Corporation Ltd. (supra) was not correct. It referred the matter to a Larger
bench stating :- "3. We have considered the submissions and the claim
under Chapter 3808 canvassed by Revenue.
We cannot appreciate that a packaging of 25 kgs. Of the product as imported
would be included under Heading 38.08 when we find that Notes under Heading
2503 specifically excludes sulphur put up in forms of packing for reail sale as
fungicide etc. which fall in Heading 3808. The sulphur in this case is packed
in 25 kgs. Pack and there is no material for us to conclude that this packaging
is for retail sale and therefore classification under heading 3808 cannot be
approved. The order of lower authorities also did not bring out very clearly
how this packaging is considered by them to be fit for retail sale. We would
consider the Heading 3825 to be more appropriate after considering the Heading
and Chapter Notes on Fertiliser. However, as in the appellants' own case, the
sulphur imported was classified under Chapter 23 we would request the President
to constitute a Larger Bench to determine the question of classification of the
entity herein since the decision in appellants' own case is by a coordinate
Bench of two members. The question referred to this case would be classifiable
under Chapter 2503 as per importers or under Heading 3808 by Revenue or under
3825 as a product of Chemical Industries as viewed hereinabove."
The Larger Bench of the Tribunal, however, by its order dated 27th January,
2006 came to the conclusion that the said goods were classifiable under
"Heading 3808.19 (sic) 3808.90".
8. Mr. A.R. Madhav Rao, learned counsel appearing on behalf of the appellant
would submit that the Larger Bench of the Tribunal in arriving at the impugned
judgment failed and/or neglected to consider not only the manufacturing process
of "Brimstone 90", and the purpose for which the same is used but
also the technical materials produced before it.
9. Mr. T.S. Doabia, learned senior counsel appearing on behalf of the
respondent, however, would support the impugned judgment.
10. We may, at the outset, place on record the manufacturing process of the
product in question, as noticed by the Tribunal itself:- "2. The
manufacturing process and catalogue of Product was called as the goods were
claimed to be crude and unrefined Sulphur. However, invoice described the goods
as Brimstone 90 (Agricultural Sulphur). The product catalogue read as follows
:- `(a) The Brimstone 90 plant that entered service in Saudi Arabia for NEAIS
is based on Sandvik process system well known Roto form system.
According to Sandvik by consistent incorporation 8-10 % of Bentonite in the
Sulphur, the release qualities of the Sulphur in the soil are improved. In
addition to this process, product is consistently sized granules with low
flexibility and low dust content that are free flowing and easy to handle in
storage and application.
(b) Liquid Sulphur is trucked to the facility in the NEAIS tanker fleet.
From the Aramco Refinery, a DISTANCE OF SOME 130 Kms. and is combined with the
imported swelling agents at the plant. The specially developed Rotoform Process
involve mixing liquid sulphur and powdered 6 Bentonite with batch handling in
two mixing vessles overcoming the complications of processing the abrasive
Bentonie and allowing semi continuous production of the fertilizer.
(c) The elements of this Sulphur based fertilizer process system is that the
Liquid Sulpher arrives from the refinery at a temperature of 135o C and is
pumped to a mixing vessel of approximately 25 cubic meters volume which
contains a specially designed uniter Powered Bentonite, along with other
agents, is fed into the liquid Sulphur and a homogeneous mixture obtained by
intense stirring. The mixture is then pumped through a uniquely designed
filtration sytem into the Rotoform System. Which consists of a Rotoform feed
unit and a Sandvik steel belt cooler.
Pastilies are discharged at the end of the steel belt cooler into bags which
are then Palletised for shipping."
11. Section V deals with "Mineral Products". Chapter 25 deals with
Salt, Sulphur, Earths and Stone; Plastering Materials, Lime and Cement.
Chapter Note 1 to Chapter 25, whereupon reliance has been placed by the
Tribunal, reads as under :- "1. Except where their context or Note 4 to
this Chapter otherwise requires, the headings of this Chapter cover only
products which are in the crude state or which have been washed even with
chemical substances eliminating the impurities without changing the structure
of the product), crushed, ground, powdered, levigated, sifted, screened,
concentrated by flotation, magnetic separation or other mechanical or physical
processes (except crystallization), but not products that have been roasted,
calcined, obtained by mixing or subjected to processing beyond that mentioned
in each heading."
12. Entry 2503 speaks of Sulphur of all kinds, other than sublimed sulphur,
precipitated sulphur and colloidal sulphur.
Entry 2503 00 10 read as under :
"Sulphur recovered as by-product in refining of crude oil".
13. Heading 3808 deals with insecticides, rodenticides, fungicides,
herbicides, antisprouting products and plant-growth regulators, disinfectants
and similar products, put up in forms or packings for retail sale or as
preparations or articles (for example, sulphur - treated bands, wicks and
candles and fly-papers). 3808 10 speaks of insecticides;
3808 20 fungicides ; 3808 30 herbicides, anti-sprouting products and
plant-growth regulators and while 3808 90 speaks of other in the Schedule as
stated by the Tribunal. There is no entry 3808 19.
14. The principal question which arises for our consideration is as to
whether on the face of the said entries Chapter Note 1 of Chapter 25 would be
15. Entry 2503 speaks of Sulphur of all kinds other than those which are
specifically mentioned therein. It is, therefore, evident that the said entry
is of broad nature. Indisputably the product does not come within the purview
of the excluded category.
16. It is well settled what is not excluded would be held to be included.
Within the category of Sulphur, Sulphur recovered as by- product in the process
of refinement of crude oil also finds place.
17. Chapter Note 1 of Chapter 25 starts with the words "except where
their context or Note 4 to this Chapter otherwise requires".
It is, therefore, difficult to hold that the headings of the Chapter would
cover only the products which are in the crude state or comes within the
purview of other activities contained therein.
Interpretation of the said Note will depend upon the context in which the
entries have been worded. If an entry is clearly worded and is broad in
character, the same would lead to the conclusion that the context otherwise
18. An entry is to be given its ordinary meaning. If any goods fit in within
one entry, the same for any purpose would not be held to be included in the other
and in particular the residuary.
19. "Salt and Sulphur" are dealt with in Chapter 25. Sulphur may
be used for different purposes including agricultural purposes. Brimstone 90 is
used for agricultural purposes as would appear from the descriptions referred
20. We may at this stage also notice that Sulphur does not find place in
Chapter 38 which deals with agricultural operation. In all probabilities as
Sulphur is dealt with in Chapter 25, it was not found necessary to be dealt
21. Appellant had filed certain documents by way of compilation before the
Tribunal. We may notice some of them.
In Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry relating to Sulfur para
9.2.3 deals with formed Sulfur. It refers to the Sandvik Test.
It is a granulating process undertaken for the purpose of transportation of
Sulfur and better used in the agricultural processes. How this process is
employed in the agricultural operation would appear from the "Journal
Fertilizer Focus, April 1977" issue in the following terms :-
"Brimstone 90 The Technology The Brimstone 90 plant that entered service
in Saudi Arabia for NEAIS is based on Sandvik process system well known
Rotoform system. According to Sandvik by consistent incorporation 8-10 % of
bentonite in the Sulphur, the release qualities of the Sulphur in the soil are
improved. In addition, this process, produces consistently sized granules with
low flexibility and low dust content that are free flowing and easy to handle
in storage and application"
22. Manufacturing process of Brimstone 90 would appear from Physical and
Chemical Analysis report dated 11th August, 2003 issued by the National Est.
for Agricultural and Industrial Sulphur, Dammam in the following terms :-
" Manufacturing Process of Brimstone 90 We are submitted herewith the
brief manufacturing process of Brimstone 90 received from our principals
National Establishment for Agricultural and Industrial Sulphur. They receive
molten sulphur from the refinery. It is pumped to a mixing vessel, which
contains specially designed unit. Powdered bentonite along with other agent is
fed into the liquid sulphur & a homogenous mixture is obtained by intense
stiring. The mixture is then pumped through a uniquely designed filtration
system into the roto form system, which consist of a roto form filtered unit
sandvik steel belt puller. The product from the steel belt puller is
discharged into the bags which are then palletized for shipping."
23. Palletization means "the transportation and storing of loads by
means of putting them onto a wooden frame or pallet" and "using
pallets to carry a number of individual's packages for shipment. How that is
done, as indicated hereinabove, is contained in the Sandvik Process System.
24. The Fertilizer Research on Elemental Sulfur fertilizers and their use on
crops and pastures published by Kluwer Academic Publishers show as under :-
"Key words : Bentonite, cube root model, elemental sulphur fertilizers,
rate of oxidation, sulphur coated urea.
Introduction Elemental sulfur (S) is an ideal slow release sulfur (S)
fertilizer. It is 100 % nutrient and this restricts the amount of fertilizer
required. It is insoluble in water and therefore stable in damp or humid
Although S is unavailable for plant uptake, it is oxidized to the
plant-available sulfate-S form by soil micro-organisms. The key to its success
as a fertilizer is the rate of oxidation from S to sulfate. Factors which
affect the rate of oxidation in soils have been reviewed [51.139]. A cubic
model of the oxidation process has been developed [65.142] and is discussed by
Warkinson and Blair  in this journal."
25. Appellant contends, which has not been denied or disputed that Brimstone
90 is used for agricultural purposes.
26. What meaning should be assigned to Brimstone 90 may be noticed from
Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology Fourth Edition at page 255, which states :-
"Brimstone - see crude sulfur.
"crude sulfur - commercial nomenclature for 12 elemental sulfur; may be
bright or dark but is free of arsenic, selenium, and tellurium."
27. The dictionary meaning of Brimstone is `crude sulfur'.
28. The description in the tariff entry not only covers refined but also
unrefined Sulphur. Sub-notes to the tariff entry on the HSN prescribe the scope
of the goods falling thereunder, the relevant part whereof is reproduced hereto
below:- "(4). Unrefined sulphurs recovered as by-products in the
purification of coal gas by the scrubbing of sulphurous furnace gases, from
sour, natural gas and from the refining of sour crude miner oils, etc. These
recovered sulphurs, sometimes referred to as "purified sulphur" or
precipitated sulphur", must not be confused with the precipitated sulphur
desired in the Explanatory Notes to heading 28.02"
29. Keeping in view the aforementioned background, we may have an analytical
look at tariff entry No. 2808.
It principally deals with insecticides, fungicides, herbicides etc.
The same is to be put up in forms or packings for retail sale or as
preparations of articles. What has been stated by way of example is sulphur
treated bands, wicks, candles and fly-papers and not Sulphur 13 itself. Sulphur
treated bands etc. would be different from crude Sulphur or Brimstone 90.
30. The question which, therefore, should have been posed by the Tribunal
while differing with the correctness of its earlier decision was as to whether
the product is such which can be said to be insecticides, fungicides and
herbicides etc. It is also of some significance that the Revenue was of the
opinion that the product would come within the Entry 3808 30 40 being
plant-growth regulators. The reference was in regard to the applicability of
Entry 2503 and/or 3808 30 40. The Tribunal, however, made a new case by opining
that it would come within Entry No. 3808 90, which is impermissible in law.
[See - Saci Allied Products Ltd., U.P. vs. Commissioner of Central Excise,
2005 (183) ELT 225(SC)].
31. The words `for example' must be given its ordinary meaning. The
principle of ejusdem generis noscitur a socis in a case of this nature would be
32. Sulphur which finds place in the said entry must be used for the purpose
of insecticides, fungicides, herbicides etc. It is nobody's case that crude
Suphur is used for the said purpose. Only some bands, candles, fly-papers etc.,
which are only Sulphur treated, are used.
33. The Tribunal itself in its referral order opined :- "The Sulphur in
this case is packed in 25 kgs. Pack and there is no material for us to conclude
that this packaging is for retail sale and, therefore, classfication under
heading 3808 cannot be approved.
The order of lower authorities also did not bring out very clearly how this
packaging is considered by them to be fit for retail sale:"
34. The Tribunal also noticed that the heading 25.03 includes :- "25.03
Sulfur of all kinds, other than sublimed Sulfur, precipitated Sulfur and
The heading include :
(1) crude mineral sulfur occurring in the free state, whether or note
concentrated by mechanical processes to remove part of the rocky matter.
(2) Unrefined sulfur extracted from mineral sulfur by melting.
This process may be carried out in sulfur kilns (calcaroni) furnaces (Gill
furnaces), etc., or may be effected in the deposit itself by forgoing
superheated steam through pipes sunk in a bore hole (Frasch process).
(3) Unrefined sulfur obtained by the roasting pyrites or by the treatment of
other sulfur minerals.
(4) Unrefined sulfurs recovered as by products in the purification of coal
gas, by the scrubbing of sulfurous furnace gases, from sour natural gas and
from the refining of sour crude mineral oils, etc. These recovered sulfurs,
sometimes referred to as "purified sulfur" or "precipitated
sulfur". Must not be confused with the precipitated sulfur dined in the
Explanatory Note to heading 28.02 15 The unrefined sulfurs in the last three
paragraphs are sometimes fairly pure. This is especially true of the sulfur
produced by the Frasch process which contains such small proportions of
impurities that it is practically never refined; it is usually presented in
rough lumps or as dust.
(5) Refined sulfur, obtained by rapidly distilling crude sulfur and
condensing it in the liquid state; sulfur thus obtained can then be moulded
into sticks or cakes, or crushed after solidification.
(6) Triturated sulfur, which is sulfur (impure or refined) in the form of a
finely divided powder obtained by grinding and then sieving, either
mechanically or by the gas suction.
These products are known as "sieved sulfur", Winnowed
sulfur", "automized sulfur", etc., according to the process
employed and the fineness of the parties.
(7) Sulfur, obtained by the sudden cooling of sulfur vapours without passing
through the liquid phase, which is insoluble, particularly in carbon disulphide
The various types of sulfur classified in this heading are used in the
chemical industry (preparation of numberous, sulfur compounds, sulfur
dyestuffs, etc.) for vulcanizing rubber, as a fungicide in viticulture, in the
manufacture of matches and sufur wicks and for the preparation of sulfur
dioxide in the bleaching industries, etc.
The heading excludes sublimed sulfur, precipitated sufur and colloidal
sulfur (heading 28.02). Sulfur put up in forms or packings for retail sale as
fungicides, etc., falls in heading 38.08."
35. Paragraph 2 of the said heading refers to `Frasch process' which
indicates pumping hot water to get slurry out. It is not a permitted 16 process
under Note 1. Only paragraph 4 refers to the product in question.
It is not the case of the Revenue that clauses 5, 6 and 7 are attracted to
the process which are used in obtaining crude Sulphur.
36. Regarding packaging of 25 kg., the Tribunal itself has noticed :-
"The present purchase order was made in 25 kg. flat woven PE/PP bags with
stickers of one ton Jumbo bags as per requirement. All bags were required to
bear flexographic printing in English language. The markings should reflect the
Sate of Mfr......
Imported and Marketed by Deepak Agro Solutions Limited. - For Agricultural
Use only' "
37. The Tribunal's finding that it was marketed by the importer in retail
bags may not be correct as an agriculturist ordinarily would not purchase a bag
containing 25 kgs. "Brimstone"
38. In H.P.L. Chemicals Ltd. vs. Commissioner of C. Excise, Chandigarh :
2006 (197) E.L.T. 324 (S.C.) whereupon strong reliance has been placed by Mr.
Doabia, this Court was concerned with classification of Salt and `denatured
salt', The Tribunal in that case also held :- 17 "...On a study of the
process of manufacture we find that certain chemicals are reacted, none of
these chemicals are classifiable under chapter 25, thus the Residue in question
cannot be a product obtained after chemical processing e.g. (electrolysis).
None is a bye-product of a treatment of certain ores. The product is obtained
after crystallisation. The product is obtained as a bye-product or Residue
while manufacturing Hydrazine. Hydrazine is admittedly a chemical. Thus the
Residue in the instant case is nothing but a residue of chemical and allied
industries. We note that there is specific heading for Residue of chemical and
allied industries under the present chapter Heading 38.24. Since there is
specific heading, we need not go to decide the issue by resorting to be Rules
for interpretation of tariff. These Rules are attracted only when the heading
is not specific or the product is a composite one."
The said finding of the Tribunal was held to be not correct by this Court
stating that "Denatured Salt" is specifically included in Chapter
Heading No. 25.01.
39. In regard to Chapter Note 1 of Chapter 25 in HSN, this Court observed :-
"Apart from this, similar chapter notes also appears in Chapter No. 1 of
Chapter 25 in HSN which clearly provides that residuary Sodium Chloride left
after chemical processing is covered by Heading No. 25.01.
Chapter note 2 does not provide anywhere that in order to be covered by
Heading No. 25.01 the product must not contain impurities. The bracketed
portion in 18 Chapter note 2 is being totally misread by the Revenue. The only
effect of the bracketed portion is that if the goods in question are washed,
such wash may be even with chemical substances eliminating the impurities
without changing the structure of the product. It is not as if Chapter note 2
provides that in order to be covered by Heading No. 25.01, all impurities must
be removed. Similarly, it is not provided either in Chapter 25 of the Central
Excise Tariff or in Chapter note 2 or in HSN that in order to be covered by
Heading No. 25.01, the starting material must be salt. Residuary Sodium
Chloride left after chemical processing is clearly covered by Heading No. 25.01
as per HSN."
40. We are, therefore, of the opinion that the Tribunal was not correct in
41 For the aforesaid reasons the impugned judgment cannot be sustained and
it is set aside accordingly. The appeal is allowed with no order as to costs.
( S.B. SINHA ) .....................