Mercantile Company Vs. Commnr. of Central Excise, Calcutta  Insc 1044 (11 October 2007)
Bhan & V.S. Sirpurkar Bhan, J.
has filed these appeals under section 35L(b) of the Central Excise Act, 1944
(hereinafter called the Act) against the final order
no.1419-1420/Cal/2000 dated 31st August 2000 in appeal no. E/R-156-157/99
passed by the Customs, Excise & Gold (Control) Appellate Tribunal, Eastern
Bench, Calcutta (hereinafter called the Tribunal) whereby the Tribunal has dismissed
the appeal filed by the appellant herein.
Acting on the basis of intelligence, a team of officers from CPO of Calcutta I
Central Excise Commissionerate, Headquarters visited the factory-cum-office of
the appellant on 5th
September, 1997 and conducted
a search operation. Search resulted in seizure of 3 files, 9700 pieces of
Philips Ultra cleaner, 500 pieces of degreasing & cleansing fluid, 700
pieces of Switch cleaning oil all bearing brand name of Philips. These were
detained and later seized on 9th February, 1998. Also, some 13 files belonging to M/s. T. Paul & Sons were tendered
by the partner of the appellant firm. Certain other documents were also handed
over to/seized by the raiding party.
the basis of the statements made by Shri Arun Kanti Paul partner of the
appellant and other records recovered from the said premises on the day of
search, it was found that the orders were being received from M/s. Philips
India Ltd., by M/s. T. Paul & Sons and the same were executed by the
appellant on the basis of arrangement with M/s. T. Paul & Sons to the
effect that the appellant gets a job charge of paise 0.20 per 50 ml. bottle of
the said product. The price at which M/s. T. Paul & Sons raised bills to
M/s. Philips India Ltd. is controlled by M/s. Philips India Ltd. and it appears
from the cost sheet given in the statement of Shri Arun Kanti Paul that M/s.
Philips India Ltd., had allowed a profit of 10%. The raw materials and packing
materials supplied by M/s. T. Paul & Sons was being received directly at
the factory premises of the appellant and the dispatch of the said products was
directly from 298, Rabindra Sarani, Calcutta 700 073 to the consignment agent
of M/s. Philips India Ltd. The goods received were filtered and put into 50 ml.
plastic container by the appellant both manually and mechanically at its
factory premises. After sealing, bottles were pasted with Philips Labels &
holograms. Multi-colour holograms were received directly from M/s. Philips
Samples of seized goods were got tested from Departmental Chemical Laboratory
at Customs House, Calcutta. The report of the Chemical
Examiner was that Audio Tape Head Cleaner is in the form of colour less liquid
and has the characteristics of methanol. Similarly, for Degreasing Cleansing
Fluid, the report was that it is in the form of colour less transparent liquid
and has characteristics of iso-prophyle alcohol. The sample of Switch Cleaning
is in the form of colour less transparent liquid containing mixture of liquid
5. On 18th February, 1998, a show cause notice was issued to
the appellant alleging therein that the activities carried on by the appellant
amounted to manufacture and the products being filtered and repacked were
classifiable under entry 3402.90. The larger period of limitation was also
invoked under the proviso to Section 11A on the ground that the appellant was
guilty of fraud, concealment, etc. with a view to evade the payment of excise
filed detailed reply to the show cause notice explaining that the activities
carried on by the appellant did not amount to manufacture and that the
classification proposed by the department was incorrect. Various other
contentions on limitations as well as on merits were raised. According to the
appellant, during the said period, the appellant worked as a job worker
undertaking filtering, repacking and labeling the materials supplied to it and
the same would not amount to manufacture.
Commissioner of Central Excise Calcutta 1 in its order in original dated 27th January, 1999, confirmed the demand of duty. It
was held that sub-heading 3402.90 covers surface-active preparations, washing
preparations and cleansing preparations, whether or not containing soap.
Explanatory notes of HSN were referred to and relied upon wherein it has been
provided that washing preparation act on the surfaces by bringing the soil on
the surface into a state of solution or dispersion. With reference to the
degreasing preparation, it was stated that these preparations are used with a
basis inter alia of solvents and emulsifiers. That the goods covered under the
heading 34.02 are selected basically on the properties/characteristics of the
products than on the basis of the constituents from which the goods were
Chapter note 6 of Chapter 34 which reads as follows:
In relation to products of sub-heading No.3402.90, packing or repacking into
smaller packs, including packing or repacking of bulk packs to retail packs or
adoption of any other treatment to render the product marketable to the
consumer shall amount to manufacture. was relied upon to hold
that the activity of repacking, re-labeling amounted to manufacture. Chapter
note 6 was introduced to Chapter 34 with effect from 1st March, 1994.
the question of limitation, it was held that the letter dated 8th March, 1994 relied upon by the appellant did
not disclose the entire facts and did not reflect the situation in its proper
perspective. The Department was not informed about the actual activity undertaken
by the appellant. It was not disclosed as to whether a new name has been given
and the applicability and functions of the products were not clearly stated.
That new and distinctive product came into existence which was sold and known
in the commercial world under a separate name having different and distinct
qualities. Commissioner of Central Excise, Calcutta 1, confirmed the demand of duty Rs.42,62,862/- proposed in the show
cause notice and also levied a penalty of Rs.10 lakhs on the appellant under
Section 11AC and the interest under Section 11AB. A redemption fine of Rs.20,000/-
was also imposed.
Aggrieved against the order passed by the Commissioner of Central Excise
Calcutta 1, appellant filed the appeals before the Tribunal.
upheld the order of the Commissioner. It was held that the adjudicating
authority had rightly held that the various products are classifiable under
heading 3402.90. The findings recorded on the question of limitation were also
confirmed. Demand of duty, interest and penalty were also upheld. As regards
personal penalty imposed under the provisions of Section 11AC, it was noted
that these provisions came into existence on 28th September, 1996. Since the provisions of Section 11AC were not
retrospective in nature, the penalty under the said provision could not be
imposed for the period prior to 28th September, 1996. For the period prior to the said date, penalty could be
imposed under Rule 173Q only. As no segregation of quantum of duty confirmed
for the period prior to the said date and for the period after the said date
was there, the case was remanded to the adjudicating authority for imposing
penalty for the period prior to 28th September, 1996 in terms of the provisions
of Rule 173Q and for period subsequent to 28th September, 1996 in terms of the
provisions of Section 11AC, depending upon the quantum of duties confirmed for
both the periods.
Demand of duty has been confirmed on the following products by treating the
same as classifiable under sub-heading no.3402.90: -
DCF-847-Degreasing and Cleansing Fluid.
SCO-846-Switch Cleaning Oil-cleans and lubricates switch controls.
S.K. Bagaria, learned Counsel appearing for the appellant contended that the
activities undertaken by the appellant of filtering, packing and labeling
resulting in emergence of the said product cannot be a manufacturing activity.
That filtering and re-packing thinner, liquid paraffin and Isoprophile Alcohol,
which fell under tariff heading 3814.00, 2710.90 and 2905.90, respectively of
the Central Excise Tariff Act, from bulk to small containers would not amount
to manufacture. He submits that raw materials are not classifiable under
Chapter 34 and their nature and identity do not get changed after filtration
and re-packing into smaller packs. The said note was applicable to the products
of Chapter 34 only. It is further submitted that with effect from 1st March, 1997, a note similar to Chapter note 6
of Chapter 34 was inserted in Chapters 29 and 38, and, if at all the activity
undertaken by the appellant amounts to manufacture, then the same shall be with
effect from 1st March,
1997 only. That
re-packing, re-labeling and re-naming of a product would not amount to
manufacture and the resultant goods shall not be liable to duty. Marketing of
the product in smaller containers under a different name shall also not amount
to manufacture unless the nature and identity of the product is changed. Since
in the present case, the identity of the product did not change, the activity
undertaken by the appellant cannot be held to be manufacture of a new product.
the point of limitation, it was submitted by him that the demand has been
confirmed from 1st
March, 1994 to 5th September, 1997 whereas the show cause notice was
issued on 18th
February, 1998, well
beyond the period of limitation. It was admitted by him that no classification
list was filed by the appellant. He has drawn our attention to a letter dated 8th March, 1994 written by the appellant to the
Assistant Collector of Central Excise, Calcutta disclosing the activity undertaken by the appellant and requesting the
Revenue to let the appellant know about the Central Excise formalities required
to be observed. That the writing of the letter well in advance shows the bona
fides of the appellant and that there was no suppression, misstatement, etc.,
on the part of the appellant with an intent to evade payment of duty and the
authorities below erred in holding to the contrary.
against this, learned Counsel for the Revenue, Shri M.M. Paikadey, supported
the Commissioners findings recorded in the order- in-original. It was
submitted by him that the process undertaken by the appellant was not as simple
as has been projected by him. That the items in question have been given
specific names and the same were used for specific purpose for which the raw
material cannot be used. The impugned goods were specially packed in the
cardboard packages and are known differently in the commercial as well as
common circles. That the appellants products are cleansing products and
deserved to be classified under Chapter 34 and the adjudicating authority has
rightly classified them under heading 3402.90.
regards limitation, it was submitted on behalf of the Revenue that the letter
dated 8th March, 1994 written by the appellant did not
state the entire facts. The same was vague and lacking in particulars.
letter, it was not disclosed by the appellant that the products were being marketed
as cleanser and gave the impression as if they are only re-packing
the raw material into smaller packs. It was not disclosed that a new name has
been given to the products. That the appellant did not disclose the
applicability and functions of the products. The correspondence between T. Paul
& Sons and M/s. Philips India Ltd. clearly indicates that there was a doubt
as to whether the products would invite the Central Excise duty. To overcome
this, they obtained the opinion of an Advocate and the Advocate advised them
that instead of solvent, the word thinner should be printed on the
carton to avoid the Central Excise Rules.
Counsels for the parties have been heard at length.
would be necessary to refer to the relevant entries to Chapters 34, 27, 29 and
38 to appreciate the controversy involved in the case.
Chapter 34 deals with soap and organic surface-active agents, etc.
No. 34.02 reads as under: -
Sub-Heading Description of goods Rate of No. No. duty (1) (2) (3) (4) 34.02
Organic surface-active agents (other than soap); surface-active preparations,
washing prepara- tions (including auxiliary washing preparations) and cleaning prepar-
ations, whether or not containing soap. 3402.10 - Sulphonated caster oil, fish
oil or sperm oil NIL 3402.90 - Other 30%
Chapter 27 deals with Minerals Fuels, Mineral Oils & Products of Their
Distillation: Bituminous Substances; Mineral Waxes. Sub-heading 27.10 reads as
Heading Sub-Heading Description of goods Rate of No. No. duty (1) (2) (3) (4)
27.10 Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, other than
crude; preparations not elsewhere specified or included, containing by weight
70% or more of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous minerals,
these oils being the basic constituents of the preparations.
- XXX 2710.12 - XXX 2710.13 - XXX 2710.14 - XXX 2710.90 - Other 10%
Chapter 29 deals with Organic Chemicals. Sub-heading 29.05 reads as under:
Heading Sub-Heading Description of goods Rate of No. No. duty (1) (2) (3) (4)
II. ALCOHOLS AND THEIR HALOGENATED, SULPHONATED, NITRATED OR NITRO- SATED
Acyclic alcohols and their halogenated, sulphonated, nitrated or nitrosated
Methanol 20% 2905.90 Other 20%
Chapter 38 deals with Miscellaneous Chemicals Products. Sub- heading 38.14
reads as under:
Heading Sub-Heading Description of goods Rate of No. No. duty (1) (2) (3) (4)
38.14 3814.00 Organic composite solvents and thinners, not elsewhere specified
or included; prepa- red paint or varnish removers. 20%
Chart (as per appellant) showing the material supplied and the relevant
headings under which the said material would fall, activity undertaken and the
description on the labels put on the bottles reads as under: - S.No.
supplied to the Appellant Activities undertaken by the Appellant Description on
Thinners falling under SH 3814.00 Filtering, packing in small plastic
containers or bottles and pasting of labels and holograms of Phillips India
Audio Tape Head cleaner (Special thinner for cleaning all kinds of recording
head, pinch rollers and capstans of audio tape- recorders).
Liquid Paraffin falling under SH 2710.90 -do- SCO- 845 Switch cleaning oil cleans
and lubricates switch controls
Isopropyl Alcohol falling under SH 2905.90 -do- DCF 847 de-greasing and
cleaning fluid (specially packed for servicing audio/video industry).
is not in dispute that the raw materials out of which the impugned goods have
been manufactured by way of filtering, repacking, etc. were classifiable under
a separate heading prior to the activities undertaken by the appellant.
The goods covered under heading 34.02 are selected basically on the
properties/characteristics of the products than on the basis of constituents
from which the goods are manufactured.
The outer coverage of 3 products shown to us during the course of hearing shows
that the ULTRA CLEAN-AUDIO TAPE HEAD CLEANER is a special thinner for cleaning
all kinds of recording heads pinch rollers and capstans of audio tape
recorders. SWITCH CLEANING OIL cleans and lubricates switch controls.
DEGREASING AND CLEANING FLUID is used for servicing in the Audio/Video recorders
industry. The above shows that the products in question are different
commercial commodities than the raw materials out of which the same were
manufactured. The impugned goods became fit for commercial use by the target
consumers only after the process undertaken by the appellants. Chapter Note 6
of Chapter 34 provides that the packing or repacking of products of sub-heading
No.3402.90 into smaller packs, including packing or repacking of bulk packs to
retail packs or adoption of any other treatment to render the product
marketable to the consumer shall amount to manufacture.
The basic property of mixture is cleansing as is evident from the statement of
the partner of M/s. Thinner & Company.
Extracts of H.S.N. under Chapter 34 sub heading No. 3402.90 provides: -
Cleaning preparation whether or not containing soap, other than those
heading 34.01 and cleaning preparation serve for cleaning floors, windows, or
The clause of manufacture with reference to repacking from bulk packs
to retail packs introduced by the Finance Act from 1994 clearly points to the
fact that even if the bulk material is identifiable excisable goods, the fact
of repacking from bulk to retail pack would render the product separately
classifiable. Admittedly, the product manufactured by the appellant is used as
cleanser. It no longer remained the product which was supplied to the
appellant. It was known in the market by a different name and for a different
use. The same would not fall either under Chapter 27, 29 or 38. The same would
fall under sub-heading No. 34.02 as a cleansing product.
Contention of the counsel for the appellant that a note similar to Chapter Note
6 of Chapter 34 was introduced in Chapter 29 and 38 with effect from 1.3.1997 and
till that date the repacking or re-labeling of the goods supplied to it which
were classifiable under Chapters 27, 29 and 38 could not be covered under
Chapter 34 cannot be accepted as the goods after repacking were being supplied
and marketed as cleansing products, which is evident from the outer cover of
the 3 products shown to us by the appellant during the course of hearing.
the question of limitation, the submission made by the counsel for the
appellant that the letter dated 8th March, 1994 disclosed the entire facts to the authorities regarding the
items manufactured by the appellant cannot be accepted. The letter dated 8th March, 1994 did not disclose the entire facts.
The letter did not disclose the situation in its proper perspective. The
authorities were not informed about the actual activity undertaken by the
appellant. The authorities were also not informed that a new name has been
given to the products. The applicability and functions of the new products was
also not clearly stated. The new and distinct product which had come into
existence was sold and known in the commercial world under a separate name
having different and distinct qualities. The appellant had not produced sample
of the subject goods along with the letter. For the aforestated reasons, it
cannot be held that the authorities had full knowledge about the activities
undertaken by the appellant.
appears that duty liability under the Central Excise Act & Rules was well
known to the appellant as is evident from the correspondences made by Shri Arun
Kanti Paul (who is the common partner of M/s. T. Paul & Sons and the
appellant) on 23rd August, 1995 with M/s. Philips India Ltd. Shri Arun Kanti
Paul, in his letter has stated that they could avoid Central Excise liability by
printing thinner instead of solvent on the packs of
bottles. M/s. Philips India Ltd., by its letter No. HD/CE/ACCY dated 6th September, 1995, endorsed the same and permitted
M/s. Paul & Sons to print thinner instead of solvent on
the outer pack. The direction of M/s. Philips India Ltd. was actually executed
by the appellant by printing thinner instead of solvent on
the cartons. Shri Arun Kanti Paul during examination, when asked to throw some
light on the correspondence with M/s. Philips India Ltd., stated that he had
some doubt about the excise liability of these products and accordingly he
obtained legal opinion regarding the same and persuaded M/s. Philips India
Ltd., to allow them to print thinner against solvent on the
cartons. It clearly shows that the appellant although was conscious of the fact
that the products manufactured by them could attract the Excise Duty, made a
deliberate attempt to evade the same by printing thinner instead of
solvent on the cartons.
The Tribunal has rightly come to the conclusion that the department could under
the circumstances invoke larger period of limitation.
For the reasons stated above, we do not find any merit in these appeals and
dismiss the same with no order as to costs.