Chandra Etc. Etc Vs. State of Jharkhand & Ors  Insc 1188 (28 November 2007)
Agrawal & Tarun Chatterjee & V.S. Sirpurkar
APPEAL NOS 5460-5465 OF 2007 [Arising out of SLP (C) Nos. 18379-18384 of 2005]
appellants along with several others were appointed as constables in the year
1990 pursuant to vacancies notified through notice displayed on the notice
board in the Office of Zonal Inspector General, Ranchi. Subsequently, when it transpired that the vacancies were
neither advertised through the employment exchange nor in the newspapers, the
Director General cum Inspector General of Police directed that all such
persons, including the appellants, be dismissed from service and consequentially
they were dismissed. Some of the constables filed writ petitions challenging
the orders of their dismissal which were quashed by a learned Single Judge of
the High Court on the ground that the orders were passed without giving
opportunity of hearing against which the State of Jharkhand filed letters patent appeals in the
High Court. In the meantime, the appellants also challenged their orders of
dismissal by filing separate writ petitions and their writ petitions and the
letters patent appeals were heard together by a Division Bench and by the
impugned order High Court allowed the letters patent appeals, set aside orders
of the learned Single Judge and dismissed the writ petitions filed on behalf of
the appellants with this modification only that orders of dismissal from
service should be treated as orders of termination. Hence these appeals by
Learned counsel appearing on behalf of the appellants submitted that though the
vacancies were neither advertised through the employment exchange nor in any
newspaper, as required under Rule 663(d) of the Bihar Police Manual, but as the
same were displayed on the notice board, it cannot be said that there was
infraction of the said Rule; as such the services of the appellants should not
have been terminated, more so when they have continued in service for a period
of fourteen years. On the other hand, learned counsel appearing on behalf of
the State of Jharkhand submitted that as the appointments,
being in infraction of Rule 663(d), were illegal, the competent authority was
quite justified in terminating services of the appellants.
the case of Secretary, State of Karnataka & Ors., vs. Umadevi (3) &
Ors., (2006) 4 SCC 1, a Constitution Bench of this Court laid down that any
appointment made in violation of recruitment rules would be violative of
Articles 14 and 16 of the Constitution of India [hereinafter referred to as
'the Constitution'] rendering the same nullity, as such even if the appointee
has continued in service for a long period, he cannot be further allowed to
continue in service but if, however, it was found that the appointment was not
illegal but irregular, in that eventuality he could be permitted to continue in
service and the same could be regularized in case he had worked for ten years
or more on duly sanctioned post.
Thus, the question that falls for our consideration is as to whether the
appointments of the appellants being in infraction of Rule 663(d) of the Bihar
Police Manual were irregular or illegal.
Rule 663 of the Bihar Police Manual runs thus:- "Selection of recruits.-
(a) Strong, healthy, young men between the ages of 19 and 27 years and who have
passed secondary (i.e., Matriculation) examination shall be selected as
recruits, as far as possible. The standard of physical tests shall be same as
given in Appendix 38, clause 9 for Sub-Inspectors. For scheduled castes and
tribes, the upper age-limit is up to 32 years and educational qualification can
be reduced to middle pass if matriculates are not available.
of height and chest measurements are given below. These are the minima and
Superintendents should endeavour to get men of higher standard:-
general height 163 centimetres and chest 80 centimetres.
scheduled caste and tribe height 158 centimetres and chest 78 centimetres.
Note.-In measuring the chest, the
measuring tape must be applied evenly but not tightly, its upper edge touching
the lower border of the shoulder blades, and its lower edge passing just above
the nipples, the arms hanging by the sides. The standard is the minimum
measurement, with the chest fully deflated. Just before the measurement is
taken the candidate shall be made to count up to thirty, without taking breath
and without hurrying.
There is no physical standard for Gurkhas, who are residents of India and men of the best physique
obtainable and at least literate shall be enlisted.
Nepalese subjects cannot be enlisted.
Recruits shall be measured by the reserve inspector in the Superintendent's
presence at the time of enlistment.
The Selection Board is not precluded from selecting men over 27 years of age
or, for special reasons, men beneath the standard of measurement, but it shall
do so only on good grounds. Before enlistment the Deputy Inspector- General can
give relaxation in height and chest by 2.5 cms. only. [See Cl. 9 of Appendix 2,
The recruitment shall be made twice a year in such a way that recruits are
ready to go to Constables Training School before the start of the session. There shall be no
necessity for training in district headquarters. The Superintendent shall
publish notice of selection of candidates in newspapers giving the exact number
of vacancies and also advertise through employment exchange. He shall endeavour
that selection is completed and results are laid before the candidates the same
day or on the following day so that they are not made to stay unnecessarily.
waiting list of candidates beyond the number advertised except for few extramen
for possible unfitness in medical test is to be kept."
bare perusal of the aforesaid Rule it would be clear that the requirement of
the Rule is to notify the vacancies in newspapers and to advertise the same
through employment exchange, which, undisputedly, has not been done in the
present case as here the vacancies have been notified through notice displayed
on the notice board.
the case of Ashwani Kumar & Ors. vs. State of Bihar & Ors. (1996) 7 SCC
577, large number of appointments were made by Dr. Mallick, Deputy Director,
Health Department, Government of Bihar, by notifying the vacancies on the
notice board. When the illegality was brought to the notice of the Government,
the appointments were cancelled which necessitated filing of writ petitions
before the High Court which were dismissed and when the matter was brought to
this Court, the cases were placed before a 2-Judge Bench consisting of K.Ramaswamy
and B.L. Hansaria, JJ. There was difference of opinion between the two learned
Judges. K.Ramaswamy, J. (as His Lordship then was), held that the vacancies
having been put up on the notice board, there was flagrant breach of Articles
14 and 16 of the Constitution. Learned Judge observed in paragraph 26 at page
594 thus:- "Admittedly, except putting up the vacancies on the notice
board of the Tuberculosis Centre at Patna, no advertisement inviting
applications from the open market was made nor were the names called from the
employment exchange...The procedure adopted by Mallick in either appointing or
directing to appoint persons who had applied for appointment pursuant to the
notification of vacancies put up on the notice board was stage-managed by him
and is in flagrant breach of Articles 14 and 16(1) of the Constitution."
dissented from the aforesaid view expressed by Ramaswamy,J., and, therefore,
the matter was placed before a 3-Judge Bench - Ashwani Kumar & Ors. vs.
State of Bihar & Ors. [(1997) 2 SCC 1] - in which order of the High Court
was upheld and directions were given, inter alia, for making appointments by
publishing notice in all the newspapers having circulation in the State of
Bihar inviting applications for filling up the vacancies.
the case of National Fertilizers Ltd. & Ors. vs. Somvir Singh, (2006) 5 SCC
493, this Court was dealing with the case of recruitment under Rule 1.5 of
Recruitment and Promotion Rules which required "direct recruitment by
advertisement". The appointments were made without advertisement by a
public sector undertaking which is State within the meaning of Article 12 of
the Constitution. Those appointed filed a writ petition before the High Court
for regularization of their services which was allowed and their services were
the said order, when the matter was brought to this Court, the orders of
regularization were quashed on the ground that the initial appointments were
nullities in view of the fact that the same were in infraction of the Rules and
violative of Articles 14 and 16 of the Constitution. The Court observed in
paragraph 13 at page 497 thus:- ".Admittedly, no advertisement was issued
in a newspaper nor was the employment exchange notified as regards existence of
vacancies. It is now trite law that "State" within the meaning of
Article 12 of the Constitution is bound to comply with the constitutional
requirements as adumbrated in Articles 14 and 16 thereof. When the Recruitment
Rules are made, the employer would be bound to comply with the same. Any
appointment in violation of such Rules would render them as nullities."
view of the foregoing discussion, we have no option but to hold that if an
appointment is made in infraction of the recruitment rules, the same would be violative
of Articles 14 and 16 of the Constitution and being nullity would be liable to
be cancelled. In the present case, as the vacancies were not advertised in the
newspapers, the appointments made were not only in infraction of Rule 663(d) of
the Bihar Police Manual but also violative of Articles 14 and 16 of the
Constitution, which rendered the appointments of the appellants as illegal; as
such the competent authority was quite justified in terminating their services
and the High Court, by the impugned order, was quite justified in upholding the
the result, the appeals fail and the same are accordingly dismissed, but in
view of the fact that the appellants have continued in service for a period of
fourteen years, we may, however, observe that their cases may be considered for
future appointment and age bar, if any, may be relaxed in relation to them.
There shall be no order as to costs.