of Bihar & Ors Vs. Bihar State +2 Lecturers Associations & Ors  Insc 588
(15 May 2007)
C.K. Thakker & Tarun Chatterjee
CIVIL APPEAL NO. 2519 OF 2007 (Arising out of SLP (Civil) No. 1397 of 2005)
C.K. THAKKER, J.
1. Leave granted.
2. This appeal by special leave arises from the judgment and order dated March 22, 2004 passed by the Division Bench of the High Court of Judicature at Patna in
Letters Patent Appeal No. 323 of 2004. By the said order, the Division Bench
allowed the appeal filed by the Association of Untrained Lecturers and set
aside the order dated January 28, 2004 passed by a single Judge of that Court
in Civil Writ Jurisdiction Case No. 7224 of 1999.
3. To appreciate the controversy raised in the present appeal, few relevant
facts may be noted:
4. Advertisement No. 1 of 1987 was issued by the appellants, inviting
applications for appointment of +2 Lecturers in Secondary Schools in the pay
scales of Rs.940-1660 in Government Schools as well as in Nationalized Schools.
The qualification prescribed in the Advertisement for the post was
Post-Graduate Degree in II Class. There was no requirement of having training
for appointment to the said post. In 1989, Members of the
Respondent-Association who had Post-Graduate Degree in II Class but who were
untrained, were selected and appointed as Lecturers in Nationalized Schools in
the pay scales of Rs.940-1660. After Vth Pay Commission, pay scales of
Rs.940-1660 were revised to Rs.1640-2900 with effect from January 1, 1996. It appears that initially, there was difference in pay scales of +2 Lecturers
serving in Government Schools and serving in Nationalized Schools other than
Government Schools. After a decision of the High Court in Civil Writ
Jurisdiction Case No. 2445 of 1994, all +2 Lecturers were granted uniform pay
scales irrespective of their posting. The controversy raised in the present
matter relates to difference of pay scales between lecturers who are trained
and lecturers who are untrained. A Fitment Committee was appointed by the Government
to consider the pay scales of trained and untrained lecturers. The Fitment
Committee considered the question and recommended different pay scales for
trained and untrained lecturers. The State Government accepted the
recommendation of the Fitment Committee and fixed pay scales of Rs.5000-8000
for untrained lecturers and Rs.6500-10500 for trained lecturers.
Government Resolution was passed on February 8, 1999 and a notification was
issued on June 10, 1999.
5. There was resentment amongst the employees against fixation of two
different pay scales of +2 Lecturers on the basis of training. A writ petition
was, therefore, filed by the Association challenging classification made on the
basis of training. A Fitment Appellate Committee was, therefore, constituted by
the State Government presided over by a sitting Judge of the High Court by an
order dated January 15, 2000 to go into the anomalies in pay scales of trained
lecturers and untrained lecturers.
The Fitment Appellate Committee submitted its report, recommending payment
of uniform pay scales to trained as well as untrained lecturers observing that
different pay scales to trained and untrained lecturers would be arbitrary and
unreasonable. The State Government, however, maintained that there is difference
between trained lecturers and untrained lecturers and difference in pay scales
would not violate Article 14 of the Constitution.
6. The learned single Judge who heard the writ petition upheld the
contention of the State Government and dismissed the petition filed by the
Association holding that in making distinction between trained lecturers and
untrained lecturers and in fixing different pay scales, State Government had
not violated any provision of the Constitution and the petition was liable to be
dismissed. The Division Bench, however, as observed earlier, allowed the
appeal, set aside the order passed by the single Judge and directed the State
Authorities to grant uniform pay scales to trained and untrained lecturers. The
order passed by the Division Bench is challenged by the State Authorities in
the present Appeal by Special Leave.
7. On January 6, 2005, notice was issued by this Court and the
party-respondents were directed to file affidavit-in-reply. Counter-affidavit
as also affidavit-in- rejoinder were thereafter filed. The Court directed the
Registry to place the matter for final disposal and that is how the matter is
before us. We have heard learned counsel for the parties.
8. The learned counsel for the State contended that the Division Bench of
the High Court was wholly wrong in holding that there can be no difference
between trained lecturers and untrained lecturers and that difference in pay
scales would be arbitrary, unreasonable and violative of Article 14 of the
Constitution. It was submitted that trained and untrained lecturers form
different class and such classification is rational and reasonable. Fixation of
different pay scales, therefore, cannot be said to be arbitrary or irrational.
It was also submitted that though the Fitment Appellate Committee recommended
payment of uniform pay scales to trained and untrained lecturers, the said
decision was not in consonance with law. It was submitted that the learned
single Judge was right in dismissing the writ petition and the Division Bench
ought to have confirmed that order.
Regarding advertisement issued by the Authorities for making appointment of
+2 Lecturers and non-mention about training, it was submitted that it related
to eligibility for appointment and had nothing to do with pay scales. The
Appellate Committee was, therefore, wrong in relying on the said fact and in
recommending uniform pay scales to all lecturers. It was, therefore, submitted
that the order passed by the Division Bench may be set aside by restoring the
order of the single Judge.
9. The learned counsel for the Association, on the other hand, supported the
order passed by the Division Bench. He submitted that classification sought to
be made on the basis of training is totally artificial, irrational and arbitrary.
Untrained lecturers cannot be deprived of legitimate pay scales to which their
counterparts (trained lecturers) were held entitled. It was because of the
legitimate grievance by untrained lecturers that a Fitment Appellate Committee
presided over by a sitting Judge of the High Court was constituted by the State
Government. In terms of reference, it was expressly stated that the State
Government will accept the recommendation of the Committee and when the said
Committee recommended to grant uniform pay scales to trained and untrained
lecturers, it was not open to the State Government not to accept and implement
the said recommendation. The learned single Judge was not right in dismissing
the petition filed by the Association of untrained lecturers. It was further
submitted that untrained lecturers were performing similar functions and
discharging similar duties. Moreover, after the report of the Appellate
Committee, the State Government withdrew the order sending untrained lecturers
for taking training on the ground that no such training was necessary in view
of the report submitted and recommendation made by the Committee and payment of
uniform pay scales to trained and untrained lecturers. It was, therefore,
submitted that even State Authorities have also proceeded on the footing that
there is no distinction between trained and untrained lecturers so far as pay
scales are concerned. The Division Bench was, therefore, right in allowing the
appeal and no grievance can be made against the directions issued by the Court.
10. Having considered the rival contentions of the parties, in our opinion,
the Division Bench was not right in holding that distinction between trained
lecturers and untrained lecturers is arbitrary, irrational or otherwise
11. Now, it is well settled and cannot be disputed that Article 14 of the
Constitution guarantees equality before the law and confers equal protection of
laws. It prohibits the State from denying persons or class of persons equal
treatment; provided they are equals and are similarly situated. It, however,
does not forbid classification. In other words, what Article 14 prohibits is
discrimination and not classification if otherwise such classification is
legal, valid and reasonable.
12. Before more than half a century, a Constitution Bench of this Court was
called upon to consider ambit and scope of Article 14 of the Constitution in a
celebrated decision in State of West Bengal v. Anwar Ali Sarkar, 1952 SCR 284.
There, constitutional validity of certain provisions of the West Bengal Special
Courts Act, 1950 was challenged on the ground that they were discriminatory and
violative of Article 14 of the Constitution.
13. Dealing with the contention, S.R. Das, J. (as his Lordship then was)
made the following instructive observations which were cited with approval in
several subsequent cases;
"It is now well established that while Article 14 is designed to
prevent a person or class of persons from being singled out from others
similarly situated for the purpose of being specially subjected to
discriminating and hostile legislation, it does not insist on an `abstract
symmetry' in the sense that every piece of legislation must have universal
application. All persons are not, by nature, attainment or circumstances, equal
and the varying needs of different classes of persons often require separate
treatment and, therefore, the protecting clause has been construed as a
guarantee against discrimination amongst equals only and not as taking away
from the State the power to classify persons for the purpose of legislation.
This classification may be on different bases.
It may be geographical or according to objects or occupations or the like.
Mere classification, however, is not enough to get over the inhibition of the
article. The classification must not be arbitrary but must be rational, that is
to say, it must not only be based on some qualities or characteristics which
are to be found in all the persons grouped together and not in others who are
left out but those qualities or characteristics must have a reasonable relation
to the object of the legislation. In order to pass the test, two conditions
must be fulfilled, namely, (1) that the classification must be founded on an
intelligible differentia which distinguishes those that are grouped together
from others, and (2 that that differentia must have a rational relation to the
object sought to be achieved by the Act. The differentia which is the basis of
the classification and the object of the Act are distinct things and what is
necessary is that there must be a nexus between them. In short, while the
article forbids class legislation in the sense of making improper
discrimination by conferring privileges or imposing liabilities upon persons
arbitrarily selected out of a large number of other persons similarly situated
in relation to the privileges sought to be conferred or the liability proposed
to be imposed, it does not forbid classification for the purpose of
legislation, provided such classification is not arbitrary in the sense I have
(emphasis supplied) 14. Recently, in Confederation of Ex-Servicemen &
Ors. v. Union of India & Ors., (2006) 8 SCC 399, it was contended by the
petitioners that the classification between in-service and retired employees was
invalid, illegal and unreasonable. Likewise, differentiation between defence
personnel and civil personnel was arbitrary and irrational. The contention was,
however, rejected by this Court holding that they form different class and
Article 14 of the Constitution could not be said to have been violated.
15. Again, in Arun Kumar & Ors. v. Union of India & Ors., (2007) 1
SCC 732, it was argued that classification between Government employees and
employees of Companies, Corporations and other Public Sector Undertakings which
can be said to be `State' within the meaning of Article 12 of the Constitution
would be arbitrary, fanciful and capricious. But argument was negatived by this
Court observing that distinction between employees of Central Government and State
Governments (Civil Servants) on the one hand and other employees i.e. employees
of Companies, Corporations or other Public Sector Undertakings on the other
hand, is well founded and well defined.
16. In Confederation of Ex-Servicemen, after considering leading cases on
equal protection clause enshrined in Article 14 of the Constitution, speaking
for a five-Judge Bench, one of us (C.K. Thakker, J.) stated:
"In our judgment, therefore, it is clear that every classification to
be legal, valid and permissible, must fulfil the twin test, namely, (i) the
classification must be founded on an intelligible differentia which must
distinguish persons or things that are grouped together from others leaving out
or left out; and (ii) such a differentia must have rational nexus to the object
sought to be achieved by the statute or legislation in question."
17. A legal and valid classification may be based on educational
18. In State of Mysore & Anr. v. P. Narsinga Rao, (1968) 1 SCR 407 : AIR
1968 SC 349, different pay scales were prescribed for tracers; one for
matriculate tracers which was higher than the other for non-matriculate tracers
which was lower. The action was held legal, lawful and not violative of Article
14 or 16 of the Constitution.
19. The Constitution Bench of this Court stated:- "It is well settled
that though Article 14 forbids class legislation, it does not forbid reasonable
classification for the purposes of legislation. When any impugned rule or
statutory provision is assailed on the ground that it contravenes Article 14,
its validity can be sustained if two tests are satisfied. The first test is
that the classification on which it is founded must be based on an intelligible
differentia which distinguishes persons or things grouped together from others
left out of the group, and the second test is that the differentia in question
must have a reasonable relation to the object sought to be achieved by the rule
or statutory provision in question. In other words, there must be some rational
nexus between the basis of classification and the object intended to be
achieved by the statute or the rule."
20. In State of Jammu & Kashimir v. Triloki Nath Khosla & Ors.,
(1974) 1 SCC 19, this Court upheld the classification for promotion on the
basis of academic and technical qualifications. It was contended on behalf of
the diploma-holders that classification sought to be made by the State between
`degree-holders' and `diploma- holders', was illegal and artificial and denial
of promotion to diploma-holders while granting such benefit to degree- holders
had violated Article 14 of the Constitution. But the argument was negatived.
21. Chandrachud, J. (as His Lordship then was) stated:
"On the facts of the case, classification on the basis of educational
qualifications made with a view to achieving administrative efficiency cannot
be said to rest on any fortuitous circumstance and one has always to bear in
mind the facts and circumstances of the case in order to judge the validity of
a classification. The provision in the 1939 Rules restricting direct
recruitment of Assistant Engineers to Engineering graduates, the dearth of
graduates in times past and their copious flow in times present are all matters
which can legitimately enter the judgment of the rule-making authority.
In the light of these facts, that judgment cannot be assailed as capricious
Efficiency which comes in the trail of higher mental equipment can
reasonably be attempted to be achieved by restricting promotional opportunities
to these possessing higher educational qualifications.
And we are concerned with the reasonableness of the classification, not with
the precise accuracy of the decision to classify nor with the question whether
the classification is scientific. Such tests have long since been discarded. In
fact, American decisions have gone as far as saying that classification would
offend against the 14th Amendment of the American Constitution only if it is
"purely arbitrary, oppressive or capricious" and the inequality
produced in order to encounter the challenge of the Constitution must be
"actually and palpably unreasonably and arbitrary". We need not go
that far as the differences between the two classes graduates and
diploma-holders furnish a reasonable basis for separate treatment and bear a
just relation to the purpose of the impugned provision."
22. In Shyam Babu Verma & Ors. v. Union of India & Ors., (1994) 2
SCC 521, different pay scales were prescribed for Pharmacists on the
consideration of qualifications and experience. Whereas higher pay scales were
fixed for qualified Pharmacists, unqualified Pharmacists were paid lower pay
scales. It was ruled that it was open to the Government to prescribe different
pay scales for different categories of Pharmacists on the basis of
qualifications and experience. The Court held that doctrine of `equal pay for
equal work' should not be applied in a mechanical or casual manner.
23. In U.P. State Sugar Corporation & Anr. v. Sant Raj Singh, (2006) 9
SCC 82, this Court held that educational qualification can be a criterion for
differentiation in pay scales. Possession of higher qualification can be
treated a valid base for classification of two categories of employees, even if
no such requirement is prescribed at the time of recruitment. If such a
distinction is drawn, no complaint can be made that it would violate Article 14
of the Constitution or would be contrary to Article 39(d) of the Constitution.
24. It is true that `equal pay for equal work' is a doctrine well
established in service jurisprudence and is also a concomitant of Article 14 of
the Constitution. But as observed by this Court in State of Orissa & Ors.
Balram Sahoo, (2000) 3 SCC 250, equal pay would depend upon not only on the
nature or volume of work but also on quality of work as regards reliability and
responsibility as well and different pay scales may be prescribed on the basis
of such reliability and responsibility.
25. It was contended on behalf of untrained lecturers Association before the
High Court as well as before us that trained lecturers and untrained lecturers
were performing similar functions and discharging similar duties. It was,
therefore, not open to the State Authorities to pay different pay scales to
them. The learned single Judge negatived the contention observing and, in our
opinion, rightly, that training was one of the most important factors for
determining pay scales. A distinction between trained and untrained lecturers
for the purpose of prescribing pay scales is, therefore, valid and reasonable.
Importance of training, in our judgment, cannot be ignored or under-estimated.
Unfortunately, the Division Bench set aside the order passed by the learned
single Judge upholding the argument of untrained lecturers Association and by
granting them pay scales prescribed for trained lecturers.
26. Now, let us consider few decisions of this Court on the need and
necessity of training.
27. In Andhra Kesari Educational Society v.
Director of School Education & Ors., (1989) 1 SCC 392, this Court
emphasized the need and importance of trained teachers in schools. Speaking for
the Court, Jagannatha Shetty, J., made the following illuminating observations:
"Before parting with the case, we should like to add a word more.
Though teaching is the last choice in the job market, the role of teachers is
central to all processes of formal education.
The teacher alone could bring out the skills and intellectual capabilities
of students. He is the `engine' of the educational system. He is a principal
instrument in awakening the child to cultural values. He needs to be endowed
and energized with needed potential to deliver enlightened service expected of
him. His quality should be such as would inspire and motivate into action the
benefiter. He must keep himself abreast of everchanging conditions. He is not
to perform in a wooden and unimaginative way. He must eliminate fissiparous
tendencies and attitudes and infuse nobler and national ideas in younger minds.
His involvement in national integration is more important, indeed
indispensable. It is, therefore, needless to state that teachers should be
subjected to rigorous training with rigid scrutiny of efficiency. It has
greater relevance to the needs of the day. The ill-trained or sub- standard
teachers would be detrimental to our educational system; if not a punishment on
our children. The government and the University must, therefore, take care to
see that inadequacy in the training of teachers is not compounded by any
(Emphasis supplied) 28. In Ram Sukh & Ors. v. State of Rajasthan &
Ors., (1989) Supp (2) SCC 189, untrained teachers were removed from service
on the availability of trained teachers. The action was challenged on the ground
that the petitioners were also teachers and their services could not be
terminated only on the ground that trained teachers were available. It was also
urged that even if such training is necessary, untrained teachers should be
given an opportunity to undergo such training. This Court, however, rejected
the contention, observing that a Court of Law cannot direct the Government to
continue untrained teachers in service till they are trained.
29. Referring to Andhra Kesari Educational Society, the Court stated:
"These observations are equally relevant to primary school teachers
with whom we are concerned. The primary school teachers are of utmost
importance in developing a child's personality in the formative years. It is
not just enough to teach the child alphabets and figures, but must more is
required to understand child psychology and aptitudes.
They need a different approach altogether.
Only trained teachers could lead them properly. The untrained teachers can
never be proper substitute to trained teachers. We are, therefore, unable to
give any relief to the petitioners."
(emphasis supplied) 30. In L. Muthukumar & Anr. v. State of T.N. &
Ors., (2000) 7 SCC 618, this Court stated that mere passing of a public
examination is not enough. It must be coupled with proper training in a
recognized educational institution.
31. Quoting with approval observations from earlier cases, this Court said;
".We are of the considered opinion that before teachers are allowed to
teach innocent children, they must receive appropriate and adequate training in
a recognized training institute satisfying the prescribed norms, otherwise the
standard of education and careers of children will be jeopardised. In most
civilized and advanced countries, the job of a teacher in a primary school is
considered an important and crucial one because moulding of young minds begins
in primary schools. Allowing ill-trained teachers coming out of derecognized or
unrecognized institutes or licensing them to teach children of an impressionable
age, contrary to the norms prescribed, will be detrimental to the interest of
the nation itself in the sense that in the process of building a great nation,
teachers and educational institutions also play a vital role. In cases like
these, interest of individuals cannot be placed above or preferred to the
larger public interest."
32. In our judgment, the law appears to be well settled. There is a clear
distinction between a trained teacher (lecturer) and an untrained teacher (lecturer).
Such a distinction is legal, valid, rational and reasonable.
Trained lecturers and untrained lecturers, therefore, can neither be said to
be similarly circumstanced nor they form one and the same class. The
classification is reasonable and is based on intelligible differentia which
distinguishes one class (trained) included therein from the other class
(untrained) which is left out. Such classification or differentia has a
rational nexus or reasonable relation to the object intended to be achieved,
viz., imparting education to students. It, therefore, cannot be successfully
contended that different pay scales cannot be fixed for trained lecturers on
one hand and untrained lecturers on the other hand. Prescribing different pay
scales, under the circumstances, cannot be held illegal, improper or
unreasonable infringing Article 14 of the Constitution.
33. It was also argued both before the single Judge and also before the
Division Bench of the High Court that the Appellate Fitment Committee
recommended uniform pay scales to trained and untrained lecturers. The
submission was based on the ground that when advertisement for appointment of
+2 Lecturers was issued, only requirement insisted upon was that a candidate
must have Post-Graduate Degree in Class II.
There was no reference as to training by the candidates.
The learned single Judge held that the requirement mentioned in the
advertisement related to `eligibility' and it had no relevance to pay scales.
The Division Bench, however, was of the opinion that in absence of anything
regarding training by candidates, no different pay scales could be provided by
the Authorities. To us, learned single Judge was wholly right in holding that
the educational qualification specified in the advertisement was limited to
eligibility of candidates to be appointed and it had nothing to do with fixing
of pay scales.
34. It was also urged before the High Court that an Expert Committee was
appointed by the State Government which had taken a decision and normally such
a decision is not interfered with either by the Executive or by the Judiciary.
35. So far as the principle is concerned, there can be no two opinions about
it. In the instant case, however, the Division Bench was wrong in invoking the
said doctrine for granting uniform pay scales to trained and untrained
lecturers. We have already noted that a Fitment Committee was appointed by the
State Government which was an `Expert Committee'. That Committee made clear
distinction between trained lecturers and untrained lecturers.
36. The Fitment Committee, in its report stated;
"We recommend that for Trained Graduate Teachers the system that is
available in the Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan or in the National Capital
Territory of Delhi Administration should be followed. The system of giving
promotions based on higher educational qualification has to be stopped and the
pattern in the Centre whereby direct recruitment is done both at the level of
Trained Graduate and Post Graduate Trained Teachers will have to be adopted. The
Bihar Taken over Elementary School Teachers Promotion Rules, 1993 which has
come in force from 1.1.1986 requires to be amended and brought in line with
what is prevailing in the Centre. In the Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan according
to an order dated 29.4.97 promotion quota from PRT to TGT and TGT to PGT has
been increased from 33.3% to 50%. This system or the pattern in the Delhi
Administration has to be adopted in Bihar if Central scales are to become
37. The Fitment Appellate Committee agreed with the above observations and
"This Committee agrees with the views of the Fitment Committee. There
is enough deterioration in education standards in this State. No further
downslide in be tolerated."
38. The Appellate Committee, however, strongly relied upon one and only one
circumstance that since in the advertisement nothing was mentioned about
training, different pay scales could not be prescribed by the State for trained
and untrained lecturers.
39. In paragraph 31.49, the Appellate Committee stated:- "The Fitment
Committee's mandate was to establish equivalence with Central posts and
recommend scales accordingly. In the case of post-graduate +2 Lecturers a clear
equivalence was available with the post of post graduate teachers in the
Central Schools. Therefore, this is a case where there can be very little doubt
about the exacters of the equivalence. The argument that in Delhi they also
teach IX and X standard is very tenuous. Moreover, if training is necessary for
such teachers in Delhi which by all standards has a better academic record than
their counterpart in Bihar- then it is all the more necessary for teachers in
Bihar. The Fitment Committee has gone by Central equivalence were the scale of
Rs.6500-10500 is provided to trained teachers only. The Committee, therefore,
could not have recommended this scale for untrained teachers. However, this
Committee feels that the ground that the original advertisement did not require
"training" as an essential qualification is very relevant because
imposition of such conditions on a later date is clearly discriminatory and the
present incumbents cannot be denied the higher scale of Rs.6500-10500, even if
they are untrained."
40. We are afraid the approach of the Fitment Appellate Committee was not in
consonance with law. If there is distinction between trained and untrained
lecturers and if such classification is reasonable and rational, there is
nothing wrong in prescribing different pay scales for trained lecturers and untrained
lecturers and there was no reason for the Appellate Committee to differ from
the view taken by the Fitment Committee and by the State Government. The
advertisement could be read, as ruled by a single Judge as an eligibility
criterion and nothing more than that. By reading the advertisement in that
manner, the purpose could have been achieved by appointing and by retaining
untrained lecturers in-service as also by fulfilling the object of fixing
different pay scales for trained and untrained lecturers.
Unfortunately, the Division Bench failed to reconcile the advertisement and
fixation of pay scales by properly appreciating the views expressed by the
Fitment Committee and accepted by the State Government.
41. The above discussion would normally result into the appeal being allowed
by setting aside the order passed by the Division Bench and by restoring the
order of the learned single Judge upholding the action of the State Government.
In the facts and circumstances of the case, however, we are not persuaded to
set aside the order of the Division Bench in exercise of discretionary
jurisdiction of this Court under Article 136 read with Article 142 of the
Constitution mainly because of two reasons;
42. Firstly, when the Appellate Fitment Committee was appointed by the State
Government presided over by a sitting Judge of the High Court of Patna and the
matter was referred as regards anomaly in pay scales to trained and untrained
lecturers, the reference expressly mentioned that the State Government will accept
the recommendation of the Committee and the Committee recommended payment of
uniform pay scales to trained as well as untrained teachers.
43. Secondly, it was stated in the Affidavit-in-reply filed by the untrained
lecturers Association (writ petitioners) that after the report of the Fitment
Appellate Committee, the State Government on January 22, 2001 withdrew its
earlier order dated October 19, 2000 for sending untrained lecturers
(in-service candidates) for taking training on the ground that no such training
was mandatory in view of report of the Committee and when uniform pay-scales
were to be given to trained as well as untrained lecturers.
44. For the reasons aforesaid, though we are firmly of the view that the
Division Bench of the High Court of Judicature at Patna was not right in
holding that there is no distinction between trained lecturers on the one hand
and untrained lecturers on the other hand and no different pay scales can be
prescribed for trained and untrained lecturers and such fixation of pay scales
would violate Article 14 of the Constitution, and though we hold that the
learned single Judge was right in upholding the classification between trained
and untrained lecturers as rational, reasonable and intelligible, in the facts
and circumstances of the case, we do not intend to interfere with the final
direction issued by the Division Bench in the light of two circumstances
referred to above. Appeal is accordingly disposed of. In the facts and
circumstances of the case, however, there shall be no order as to costs.