Khuman Singh & Ors Vs.
State of M.P  Insc 715 (24
B.P.Singh & Arun Kumar
There are seven appellants in this Appeal who have impugned the judgement
and order of the High Court of Madhya Pradesh at Jabalpur dated 2nd September, 1998 in Criminal Appeal No.1035 of 1989. The High Court by its impugned
judgement and order dismissed the appeal preferred by them and upheld the
judgement and order of the First Additional Sessions Judge, Sehore in Sessions
Trial No. 74 of 1988 finding them guilty of the offence punishable under
Section 302 read with Section 149 IPC and ...2/- -2- sentencing them to
imprisonment for life. The appellants were also found guilty of the offences
under Sections 147 and 323 read with Section 149 IPC and sentenced to undergo
one year, and six months, rigorous imprisonment respectively for those
The facts of the case are that in connection with the Flag Ceremony
performed near the Hanuman Temple, the villagers had assembled from different
villages. They danced the whole night in celebration. The party of the
complainant was dancing to the beating of drums of one Nanla (PW 5) while the
appellants and others were dancing in a separate group. It appears that
inadvertently the stick of Khuman Singh, Appellant No.2 hit PW5 on his face.
There was protest from Nanla, and it appears that an altercation followed the
protest. However, the groups dispersed thereafter. Rayla (since deceased) had
intervened to pacify the parties.
...3/- -3- Thereafter the villagers took 'prasad' and started to proceed
towards their respective villages. According to the prosecution, the
complainant party was chased by the appellants who caught hold of Nanla (PW 5).
There was protest from deceased Rayla and others. It appears that appellant
No.1 gave a lathi blow to Bair Singh (PW 1). The chase continued and ultimately
in the field of Samadh Miyan, Rayla, the deceased was over-powered and was
assaulted with lathi and stones. It is the case of the prosecution that some of
the accused trampled on his body as a result of which he died on the spot.
The First Information Report was lodged by PW1 and after investigation the
appellants were put on trial. There is considerable evidence on record to prove
the participation of the appellants. The evidence also establishes the genesis
and manner of occurrence as stated by the prosecution.
...4/- -4- Learned Counsel for the appellants submitted that even if the
prosecution case is accepted to be true, the nature of injuries caused, the
weapons used, the genesis of the occurrence and the trivial dispute which gave
rise to the occurrence, belie the case of the prosecution that the appellants
intended to cause the death of the deceased. She submits that none of the
injuries caused was by itself sufficient in the ordinary course of nature to
cause death, and at best death resulted on account of the unintended injury to
the liver caused by fracture of a rib bone which punctured the liver.
According to her, injury to the liver, which appears to be the cause of the
death, was not intended by the appellants. According to her, the offence made
out may be one under Section 326 or Section 324 IPC.
On the other hand, Counsel for the State submitted that a large number of
injuries were inflicted on the deceased by the appellants. The ...5/- -6-
appellants must have known that such large number of injuries caused by them
would result in the death of the victim in the ordinary course of nature.
He, therefore, submitted that the case clearly comes under Section 302 IPC.
To be more precise he submits that the case would fall under Section 300
We have gone through the evidence on record and have noticed the features of
the case. Firstly, the occurrence has its genesis in a trivial matter namely the
unintended hitting of Nanla (PW5) by the stick of appellant No.2 when they were
dancing at the festival. There was some protest giving rise to exchange of
abuses and altercation but the matter rested there. Thereafter, the parties
took 'prasad' and proceeded to their respective villages. It is thus apparent
that what happened was not premeditated and the appellants had not come
particularly prepared for the incident. Secondly, ...6/- -6- while returning to
their respective villages the appellants caught hold of Nanla (PW5) but there
was intervention by the deceased Rayla. This is what made Rayla the target of
the appellants. The injuries inflicted were by lathis carried by the appellants
and some of them picked up stones which they found lying nearby. Thirdly, the
medical evidence discloses that the following injuries were caused :-
1. Swelling of the size of 3 cm. x 3 cm. on the outer margin of the eye and
right side of the face.
2. Swelling of the dia of 4 cm. on the head bone of left parietal bone.
3. A spreading swelling over the left of the nostril and on the Mazalary
bone of the left face.
4. Spreading swelling in the region of the left collar bone.
5. In the half upper portion of the left arm spreading swelling.
6. Contusion spread around the niple of left side of the chest.
7. Swelling in the region of the ribs Nos.10, 11, 12 of the back bone and
right side of the back.
The internal examination disclosed that though there was clotting of blood
under the upper skin on the left parietal bone there was no underlying
fracture. The 11th and 12th ribs which had been fractured had entered the
liver. The deceased had suffered several fracture of bones but none of them
appear to be such as would have caused his death in the ordinary course of
The doctor who had conducted the postmortem examination was examined as PW10
but in the course of his deposition he did not state that he had found any
injury which was sufficient in the ordinary course of nature to cause death.
His opinion appears ...8/- -8- to be that "death has been caused due to
the injuries caused on his person and following the damage of the liver and
profuse bleeding". In the absence of any clear medical opinion we have
examined the nature of injuries inflicted on the deceased as disclosed by the
evidence on record. From the external and internal injuries found, we have come
to the conclusion that it was the injury caused to the liver resulting in
profuse bleeding which caused the death. If the liver had not been damaged, perhaps
death would not have resulted. We say so because there is no clear medical
opinion on this aspect. The question then is whether in this state of the
evidence on record, the case is covered by Section 300 "thirdly" IPC,
that is to say, whether the appellants committed the act with the intention of
causing bodily injury to the deceased and the bodily injury intended to be
inflicted was sufficient in the ordinary course of nature to cause death. In
Virsa Singh Versus State of Punjab, AIR ...9/- -9- 1958 SC 465, this Court
considered the facts and held that the prosecution must prove the following
facts before it could bring the case under Section 300 "thirdly".
"First, it must establish, quite objectively that a bodily injury is
Secondly, the nature of the injury must be proved; These are purely
Thirdly, it must be proved that there was an intention to inflict that
particular bodily injury, that is to say, that it was not accidental or
unintentional, or that some other kind of injury was intended.
Once these three elements are proved to be present, the enquiry proceeds
further and, Fourthly, it must be proved that the injury of the type just
described made up of the three elements set out above is sufficient to cause
death in the ordinary course of nature. This part of the enquiry is purely
objective and inferential and has nothing to do with the intention of the
offender." ...10/- -10- In Anda Versus State of Rajasthan (AIR 1966 SC 151
the same principle has been reiterated in the following words :- "The
third clause views the matter from a general stand point. It speaks of an
intention to cause bodily injury which is sufficient in the ordinary course of
nature to cause death. The sufficiency is the high probability of death in the
ordinary way of nature and when this exists and death ensues and the causing of
such injury is intended the offence is murder.
Sometimes the nature of the weapon used, sometimes the part of the body on
which the injury is caused, and sometimes both are relevant. The determinant
factor is the intentional injury which must be sufficient to cause death in the
ordinary course of nature. If the intended injury cannot be said to be
sufficient in the ordinary course of nature to cause death, that is to say, the
probability of death is not so high, the offence does not fall within murder
but within ...11/- -11- culpable homicide not amounting to murder or something
less." In the same judgement this Court cautioned that no case can be an
authority on facts. This is always a question of fact as to whether accused
shared a particular knowledge or intent. One must look for a common intention,
that is to say, some prior concert and what that common intention is. One must
look for the requisite ingredient that the injuries which were intended to be
caused were sufficient to cause death in the ordinary course of nature, and
whether the accused possessed the knowledge that the injuries they were
intending to cause were sufficient in the ordinary course of nature to cause
Keeping these principles in mind and applying them to the facts of this case
we find that the occurrence took place suddenly. There was no ...12/- -12-
premeditation on the part of the appellants and quarrel really arose from a
trivial issue. The parties had danced all night and nothing untoward had
happened except this small incident. Thereafter they proceeded towards their
respective villages. It is not the case of the prosecution that the appellants
were armed with deadly weapons. Some of them were carrying lathis, as are
usually carried by the tribals in that part of the State, and had not made any
special preparation for the assault. Some others had just picked up stones when
the deceased was overpowered, and assaulted him. It is, no doubt, true that
they assaulted the deceased in such a manner that the deceased suffered several
fractures, but the injury which caused the death of the deceased was the one
suffered by him on account of the rib bone puncturing the liver. We are convinced
that this injury was not intended by the appellants, and the injury suffered by
the deceased on his liver was at best accidental. We therefore, hold that
...13/- -13- Section 300 "thirdly" IPC is not attracted, and it
cannot be said that the appellants intended to cause any injury to the liver
which perhaps proved fatal. There is no evidence to suggest that any of the
other injuries suffered by him was sufficient to cause death in ordinary course
The question then is under which provision of the IPC the appellants should
be punished. Counsel for the State submits that even if the case does not fall
under Section 300 "thirdly" IPC it would certainly fall under Section
304 Part II IPC. Even if we say that the appellants had no intention to cause death
they certainly knew that such bodily injury was likely to cause death.
He, therefore, submits that even if the appellants may not be found guilty
of culpable homicide amounting to murder, they are certainly guilty of culpable
homicide not amounting to murder punishable under Section 304 Part II IPC.
...14/- -14- Having considered all the relevant facts we are satisfied that
the appellants are guilty of the offence punishable under Section 304 Part II
We, therefore, set aside their conviction under Section 302 IPC and instead
convict them under Section 304 Part II IPC and sentence them to 5 years
rigorous imprisonment. Learned Counsel for the appellant submitted that the
offence will fall under Section 326 IPC and not under Section 304 Part II IPC
because the injury caused by the appellants resulted in fracture of the bones.
It is true that in such border line cases it is possible to hold either way.
However, in the facts and circumstances of this case the conviction should
appropriately be one under Section 304 Part II IPC. In any event, it would make
no difference to the sentence, having regard to the facts of the case.
In the circumstances, this appeal is partly allowed and the conviction of
the appellants under Section 302 IPC is set aside and they are convicted
...15/- -15- under Section 304 Part II IPC and sentenced to five years rigorous
imprisonment each. We are informed that the appellant No.1, Khuman Singh, s/o
Nahar Singh, appellant No.2 Khuman Singh, s/o Bair Singh, Appellant No.4 Bhai
Singh, s/o Phool Singh and Appellant No.6 Dhanna, s/o Par Singh have remained
in custody through out and have served out about 11 years of the sentence,
while the remaining appellants were granted bail by the High Court after
sometime. In this appeal this Court granted bail to all the appellants. Their
bail bonds are cancelled and the authorities are directed to take them into
custody if they have not served out the sentence of five years awarded by this
Court, to serve out the remainder of the sentence.