Amma Vs. Kadavoor Sivadasan & Anr  Insc 554 (6 November 2003)
CIVIL APPEAL NO.8648 OF 2003 (Arising out of S.L.P.(C) No. 15350/2003) S.B.
granted in S.L.P. (C) No. 15350/2003.
appeal under Section 116-A of the Representation of People Act, 1951, arises
out of a Judgment and order dated 29th October, 2002 passed by the High Court
of Kerala at Ernakulam in Election Petition No. 7 of 2001 whereby and whereunder
the election petition filed by the appellant herein was dismissed.
parties herein contested the election from 123 Kundara Legislative Assembly
Constituency. The respondent got 50,875 votes, whereas the appellant obtained
46,408 votes. The respondent was declared to be elected by the returning
officer of the said Constituency on 13th May, 2001. The appellant in his Election
Petition inter-alia contended that the respondent had taken recourse to
"corrupt practices" within the meaning of Section 123 of the
Representation of People Act, 1951 insofar as a pamphlet was brought out with
an intent to promote feelings of enmity and hatred amongst the voters belonging
to Ezhava caste and communal feelings, which was raised thereby, became a major
factor resulting in the split of votes of the people of the said community. The
appellant contended that had such pamphlet being not printed and published, the
votes of these aforementioned community would have gone mainly in his favour.
The said publication, the appellant urged, was made by Sh. K.C. Marydasan, an
agent of the first respondent amounting to a corrupt practice within the
meaning of Section 123(3A) of the Act, particularly having regard to the fact
that the contents thereof are false and made with the full knowledge that they
were untrue. It was further alleged that the photographs of the petitioner was
published in a bi-weekly publication by name 'Palco Crime Magazine' wherein an
article was published making allegation that the appellant might be responsible
for the murder of one Thankama ,a cashew factory worker and the said Thankama
had been upbringing a child aged 11 years as its fostered mother, who was very
likely the illegitimate child of the appellant. It was alleged that the said
publication was also made at the instance of the first respondent herein with a
view to defame the appellant and the same was distributed by Shri Vellimon Vijayanandan,
UDF Convenor, Perinad Mandalam in Kundara Constituency, segment of the
constituency in question.
light of the pleadings of the parties, the High Court inter alia framed the
Whether K.C. Marydasan and Vellimon Vijayanandan referred to in paras 3 & 5
of the E.P. were acting as agents of the Ist respondent when they acted as
alleged in the said paras?
Whether the publication of Annexures II and IV were made by K.C. Marydasan with
the full knowledge and consent of the Ist respondent?
Whether the publication of Annexures II & IV amounts to corrupt practice
for the purpose of Sections 123(3A) and 123(4) read with Section 100(1)(d)(ii)
of the R.P. Act?
Whether the publication of Annexures II and IV were made by the agent and
workers of the first respondent with the knowledge and belief of themselves and
of the first respondent that the contents thereof were false and untrue and
with intent to prejudice the prospects of the petitioner's election?"
High Court in its judgment held that printing and publication of the
aforementioned pamphlet and article amounted to a corrupt practice within the
meaning of Section 123(3A) of the Act. It was further held that assuming that
the publication of Ex.P-2 was made at the instance of or the consent or
knowledge of the first respondent, there was nothing to show that the contents
thereof came within the purview of the corrupt practices justifying setting
aside of the election on the basis that it promoted feelings of enmity or
hatred on the part of the voters of Ezhava community against the CPM and its
the said ingredients which are required to be proved for the purpose of Section
123(4) of the Act, the High Court came to the conclusion that the appellant has
not been able to prove that the said publication was made by Shri Marydasana
and Vellimon Vijayanandan as agents of the first respondent. The appellant
having not been able to prove consent of the first respondent as regards the
publication of the said pamphlet by Marydasana and Vellimon Vijayanandan, the
same did not meet the requirements of law as no sufficient evidence has been brought
on records to show that any of them was authorised to act on behalf of the
first respondent. The High Court, however, without issuing any notice to Marydasan
held that the proved circumstances, fully justify the conclusion beyond
reasonable doubt, that Ex. P-2 was brought out by none other than Marydasan.
trial an application was filed by the first respondent for examining the said Shri
K.C. Marydasan as a court witness. By an order dated 2.8.2002 the said
application was disposed of by the High Court observing that it would be open
to the first respondent to examine him but no step was taken to summon the said
High Court despite the same held:
proved circumstances also fully justify a conclusion, beyond reasonable doubt,
that it was brought out by none other than Marydasan.
circumstances it is safe to conclude that Exhibit P2 is a Convenor pamphlet
printed and published by Marydasan himself...I, therefore, find that the
petitioner had succeeded in establishing that publication of material that can
constitute corrupt practice under section 123(4), (Subject to proof of consent)
was done by the person Marydasan in respect of Exhibit P2. Though it is not
proved that any corrupt practice was committed by him within the meaning of
Section 123(3A) of the Act." As regard, Issue No. 5 the High Court
of Annexure 2. (Exhibit.P2) by K.C. Marydasan, UDF Convenor stands established,
but that does not amount to corrupt practice within the meaning of Section 100
of the Act."
Prakash, learned counsel appearing on behalf of the appellant would submit that
the High Court committed a manifest error in arriving at the conclusion that
the appellant was not able to prove the corrupt practice on the part of the
first respondent having regard to the fact that he had pleaded and proved that
the aforementioned Marydasan and Vellimon Vijayanandan were agents of the first
respondent herein. The learned counsel would contend that for the purpose of
arriving at a conclusion as to whether the elected candidate had taken recourse
to corrupt practices or not, it is not necessary to prove that the publication
in question was made by an election agent or polling agent or counting agent as
it is sufficient to show that the same was made by a person who was otherwise
an agent of the returned candidate.
(AIR 1969 SC 1201). In any event the learned counsel would submit that as the
materials brought on records clearly show that the publications in question
were sent to the Election Commissioner for the purpose of showing that the
election expenses incurred by the first respondent that had been proved by
PW-18 (G. Kumaran); the consent of first respondent in relation to the said
publication must be held to have been proved.
Reddy, learned Senior counsel appearing on behalf of the respondent, on the
other hand, would submit that the appellant had not been able to establish any
nexus between the material published and the Ex. P-10, which is said to be the
list containing details of pamphlets, posters and notices printed during the
last general election by both the rival candidates. The learned counsel had
also drawn our attention to the statements made by PW-17 (Prasad Nanappan) in
this behalf. The learned counsel would urge that the said witness being the
manager of Karthika Press, having denied that the pamphlet in question, was
printed in the said Press, the appellant cannot be said to have proved the
material fact that the said Exhibit was printed at the instance of the first
relevant statutory provisions of the Representation of the People Act, 1951
read as under:
Other orders to be made by the High Court.
At the time of making an order under section 98 the High Court shall also make
where any charge is made in the petition of any corrupt practice having been
committed at the election, recording-- (ii) the names of all persons, if any,
who have been proved at the trial to have been guilty of any corrupt practice
and the nature of that practice; and Provided that a person who is not a party
to the petition shall not be named in the order under sub-clause (ii) of clause
(a) unless (a) he has been given notice to appear before the High Court and to
show cause why he should not be so named; and
he appears in pursuance of the notice, he has been given an opportunity of
cross- examining any witness who has already been examined by [the High Court]
and has given evidence against him, of calling evidence in his defence and of
this section and in section 100, the expression "agent" has the same
meaning as in section 123.
Corrupt practices. The following shall be deemed to be corrupt practices for
the purposes of this Act:-- (3A) The promotion of, or attempt to promote,
feelings of enmity or hatred between different classes of the citizens of India
on grounds of religion, race, caste, community, or language, by a candidate or
his agent or any other person with the consent of a candidate or his election
agent for the furtherance of the prospects of the election of that candidate or
for prejudicially affecting the election of any candidate.]
The publication by a candidate or his agent or by any other person with the
consent of a candidate or his election agent, of any statement of fact which is
false, and which he either believes to be false or does not believe to be true,
in relation to the personal character or conduct of any candidate or in
relation to the candidature, or withdrawal, of any candidate, being a statement
reasonably calculated to prejudice the prospects of that candidate's election.
Booth capturing by a candidate or his agent or other person.
this section the expression "agent" includes an election agent, a
polling agent and any person who is held to have acted as an agent in
connection with the election with the consent of the candidate."
PRACTICES - WHETHER PROVED:
the burden of proof to prove commission of corrupt practices by the first
respondent was on the appellant.
proving corrupt practices within the meaning of Section 123(4) of the Act, he
was required to prove the following:
Ext.P2 was published by the first respondent or by his 'agent' or other person,
but with his consent.
statement are false and the first respondent believed them to be true.
allegations touch upon the personal conduct of the petitioner.
statement are reasonably calculated to prejudice the prospects of the
appellant in paragraph 3 of the Election Petition alleged:
K.C. Marydasan, general Convener, U.D.F. Election Committee, Kundara, published
Annexure A2 (Ex.P2) notice containing defamatory statements about the petitioner,
which are false on the face of it, and believing the same to be not true.
This was done with the full knowledge and consent of the first
respondent." In the written statement the first respondent traversed the
said allegations stating :
is quite incorrect to contend that but for the publication and distribution of Annexures
A2 and A4 the petitioner would have secured more number of votes. The first
respondent has not resorted to any corrupt practice." The first
respondent, however, categorically stated that no defamatory statement was made
or published with his knowledge. He further denied and disputed the allegation
that Marydasan was his election agent or a polling agent or agent for any
purpose. He further denied and disputed that Ex.P-2 was published with his
further be noticed that no allegation was made in the election petition that
the first respondent had incurred the expenditure as regard the printing and
publishing of the said exhibit.
submission of the learned counsel is that apart from election agent, polling
agent or counting agent, another types of agents are also contemplated within
the meaning of Section 123 of the Act. The learned counsel may be correct, but
as would appear from the discussions made hereinafter the same would not make
any material difference in law.
terms of sub-section (4) of Section 123 the corrupt practices may be committed
by (a) the candidate; (b) his agent, that is to say (i) an election agent,
(ii) a polling agent, (iii) any person who is held to have acted as an agent in
connection with the election with the consent of the candidate; (c) by any
other person with the consent of the candidate or his election agent.
categories of agents enumerated in (i) and (ii) of clause (b) are to be
notified by the candidate, before the statutory authorities.
agents, thus, are not only known to the appropriate authorities but also to his
opponents and other persons concerned. However, so far as category (iii) is
concerned, the name of such agent is not required to be notified. He must have
an express or implied authority to act on behalf of the candidate. For the
purpose of proving corrupt practices on the part of such agent, there would not
be any material difference between the third category of "agent" or
"any other person" inasmuch as in both the cases consent of the
candidate being the material factor, would be required to be pleaded and
proved. Thus, the appellant was required to prove that alleged corrupt practices
were committed by the aforementioned Marydasan and Vellimon Vijayanandan with
the consent and knowledge of the elected candidate. The first respondent, as
noticed hereinbefore, herein in his written statement denied or disputed that a
pamphlet has been published defaming the appellant herein at his instance or
with his knowledge or consent. The appellant sought to prove such consent on
the part of the first respondent vis-`-vis Marydasan on the ground that not
only the same was printed in Karthika Press but the expenditure incurred by
Respondent No.1 on the printing and publishing thereof was intimated to the
Election Commission in his election expenditure account.
terms of Section 127A of the Representation of People Act, the printers are
required to produce four copies of each printed material that they printed and
provided during the election period to the candidates or their representatives.
The authorities of the Karthika Press responded to a notice issued by the said
witness. A data was also collected on such disclosures and further materials
were collected by the officers of the department on the basis whereof the list
was prepared. It is, however, accepted that the posters and pamphlets produced
by the printers were not exhibited in the notice board of the Collectorate.
upon undertaking a purported comparison of Ex. P2(b) with the entries made in
Ex. X10, sought to correlate the both on the ground that a sum of Rs. 4,350/-
was paid by the first respondent herein to the printer. However, in
cross-examination he stated that it was not easy to correlate those items of
printing with entries in Ex. X10; the reason being that payments towards
printing charges may not be made in one lump. He categorically stated:
now see a bill dt. 19.05.2001 issued to the Secretary of the L.D.F., Election
Committee, Kundara from the Kollam District Co-operative Printing Society (the
bill is marked Ext.XII(a). A verification of Ext. X10 is not a statement
prepared based on bills produced by the candidate and their agent. Actually we
collected data from the field which is verified by the staff after going to the
election offices of the candidates as also the various printing presses. Later
on when the candidate submitted their bills, I cross checked the details with
those in Ext. X10.
see Bill dt. 30.04.2001 issued from the Don Bosco Industries. Offset Printers
to the Secretary, the LDF Election Committee, Kundara on 30.04.2001 for the sum
of Rs. 4,250/- These are in respect of printing two matters. First of these was
1000 posters for which the printing charge was Rs. 3000/-. This is shown as
serial No. 7 of Ext. X10. The other item mentioned in the bill dt. 30.04.2001
is shown as item 6 of Ext. X10 (the bill is marked Ext. X1(b)." It is,
therefore, clear that the evidence of the said witness is not conclusive on the
question that offending material was printed and published by Karthika Press or
the expenditure therefor was borne by the respondent No. 1.
Manager of the aforementioned Karthika Press was examined by the appellant as
PW17. He categorically stated that Ex. P2(b) was not printed in the his Press.
furthermore denied the suggestion that the matter printed in his Press was Ex. P2(b).
A question was asked to whom as to which pamphlet pertaining to the printing
shown in Ext. X7(d) and in answer thereto he stated:
No. 3 of Ext. X7(d) covers printing charges of Ext. P3(a). Item 2 shown as Convenor
Pamphlet in Ext. X7(c) was a matter printed in four pages. I deny the
suggestion that it relates to Ext. P2(b) actually has six pages."
Allegations of corrupt practices are quasi-criminal charges and the proof that
would be required in the support thereof would be as in a criminal charge. The
charges of corrupt practices are to be equated with the criminal charges and proof
thereof would not be not preponderance of probabilities as in civil action but
proof beyond Hardial Singh and Ors. (1985) 1 SCR 1059) From the materials on
record, therefore, in our opinion, it has not been proved that the offending
article was printed and published with the consent and knowledge of the first
OF SECTION 99:
Shri Marydasan was not issued any notice. He was not given any opportunity to
cross-examine the witnesses examined on behalf of the appellant or adduce
evidence on his own behalf.
99 of the Act empowers the High Court to record the names of all persons, who
have been proved at the trial to have been guilty of any corrupt practice and
the nature of that practice. The proviso appended to Clause (a) of sub-section
1 of Section 99 mandates that before a person is so named, he has to be given
notice to appear before the High Court and to show cause why he should not be
so named and upon his appearance, if any, pursuant to such notice he must be given
an opportunity to cross-examine the witnesses who have already been examined by
the High Court and gave evidence against him and further giving him an
opportunity of calling evidence in his defence and of being heard.
requirement to apply the provisions of Section 99 is in respect of a person who
is not a party to the proceeding. The statute mandates that before a person is
named as having indulged in corrupt practices he must be given the same
opportunity which is given to a party to the petition. By reason of such a
notice and giving an opportunity to the noticee to cross-examine the witnesses
examined on behalf of the parties to the said petition and examining witnesses
on behalf of his defence, he is placed on same position as that of a party Kashinath
Kunte and Others (1996) 1 SCC 130).
of a person as having indulged in corrupt practices has serious consequences. A
person indulged in corrupt practices whether party to the petition in terms of
Section 82 or subsequently receives a notice in terms of Section 99 would stand
on the same footing having regard to the provisions contained in Section 8A of
the Act. Such a person may not be a necessary party within the meaning of
Section 82 of the Act but it is beyond any cavil that no finding could be
recorded by naming such a person unless the mandatory provisions of Section 99
are Deshmukh and Others (2001) 3 SCC 594).
if Marydasan was agent of the first respondent within the meaning of Section
123 of the Act, the High Court was required to comply with the aforementioned
statutory mandate. It has not been disputed that the provisions of Section 99
are mandatory. Marydasan, thus, could not have been named as having indulged
himself in corrupt practices without complying with the mandatory provisions of
Section 99 of the Act.
High Court, thus, committed a manifest illegality in coming to the conclusion
that the offending article Ex. P2(b) was published at the instance of Marydasan.
therefore, are of the opinion that the appellant has not been able to prove:
That the said Shri K.C. Marydasan was his agent;
that the offending material was published with the knowledge and consent of the
have, therefore, no hesitation in coming to the conclusion that the High Court
was right in its finding to the said effect. In view of our finding, it is not
necessary to go into the cross-appeal filed by the first respondent.
the reasons aforementioned, we do not find any merit in this appeal, which is
as the Appeal filed by Shri K.C. Marydasan is concerned, we are of the opinion,
that having regard to the fact that he had not been given a notice nor was
allowed to cross-examine the witnesses examined on behalf of the parties on the
said issues, the High Court was not correct in making any observation against
him. The said observations against Shri K.C. Marydasan shall stand expunged.
Civil Appeal No. 4 of 2003 is dismissed and the appeal arising out of Special
Leave Petition (C) No.15350 of 2003 filed by K.C. Marydasan is allowed.