George Vs. Indian Rare Earths Ltd. Si ANR  INSC 131 (8 April 1999)
Babu., S. N. Phukan. S.N. PHUKAN, J
appeal is directed against the common judgment and order dated 25.05.1987
passed in M.F.A. No. 161 of 1986 and 781 of 1986 by the High Court of Kerala.
the purpose of appreciating the points urged in this appeal we may briefly
state the facts.
appellant herein, who is a mining contractor entered into an agreement with
respondent No. I namely Indian Rare Earths Ltd. for mining, collection and
supply of raw-sand during the period from 1.6.1979 to 31.5.1980.
agreed between the parties that appellant would supply 2,02,000 tonnes of
raw-sand at the average rate of 920 tonnes per day. The appellant failed to
supply entire quantity and supplied only 1,72,489.24 tonnes. The disputes
between the parties were referred to the arbitrator, who has been made a party
in the present appeal namely respondent No. 2.
the arbitrator the appellant claimed Rs.24,02,272/under
10 heads along with interest. A counter claim was also filed by respondent No. I
paise alongwith interest . The arbitrator framed as many as 51 issues and after
recording his findings a sum of Rs. 5,40,191.10 paise with interest @ 15% per
annum from 11.11.82 upto the date of decree was awarded in favour of the
appellant. The award was made a rule of the Court on a petition filed by the
appellant under Section 17 of the Arbitration Act, 1940 (for short the Act). The
respondent No. I also filed a petition under Section 30 of the Act which was
appeals were filed before the High Court and the High Court by the common
impugned judgment and order held that there was legal misconduct on the part of
the arbitrator and accordingly set aside the award except the finding that the
present appellant was entitled to refund of the earnest money deposited. Hence
the present appeal.
have heard Mr. T.L. Vishwanatha Iyer, Sr.learned
counsel for the appellant and Mr. G.B. Pai, Sr.learned
counsel for the respondents.
we enter into the contentions raised in the case in hand, we may refer to the
decisions of this Court.
case in hand it has to be stated that we are concerned with Clause(a) of
Section 30 of the Arbitration Act which empowers the Court to set aside an
award on the ground that an arbitrator or umpire has misconducted himself or
1988 (4) SCC 153 this Court inter alia held that an award may be set aside on
the ground of error on the face of the it but an award is not invalid merely
because by a process of inference and argument it may be demonstrated that the
arbitrator has committed some mistake in arriving at his conclusion and it is
also not open to the Court to speculate, where no reasons are given by the
arbitrator, as to what impelled him to arrive at his conclusions.
and others 1990(1) SCC 433 it was held that in matter of challenging the award
there are often two distinct and different grounds - one is an error apparent
on the face of the record and the other is that the arbitrator has exceeded his
jurisdiction. In the latter case the Court can look into the arbitration
agreement but under the former it cannot.
Pradesh and Another 1991(4) SCC 93 it was held that the arbitrator cannot act
arbitrarily, irrationally, capriciously or independently of the contract and
his sole function is to arbitrate in terms of the contract as his authority is
derived from the contract. It was also held that if he has remained inside the
parameters of the contract and has construed the provisions of the contract,
his award cannot be interfered with unless he has given reasons for the award
disclosing an error apparent on the face of it.
law is well settled that if the award is non-speaking, the Court can look into
the question as to whether arbitrator has travelled beyond the scope of the
contract as he derives his jurisdiction from the contract and if the arbitrator
exceeds his jurisdiction the award can be set aside. An award can also be set
aside in case of misconduct apparent on the face of the award. It can also be
interfered with if the arbitrator has given reasons for the award disclosing an
error apparent on the face of it.
to the present appeal we find that in the impugned award the arbitrator has
stated the case of the parties, issues framed by him, his findings on each
issue and the amount awarded. We may also state here that in the counter
affidavit dated 23rd
May, 1983 filed by the
present appellant before the learned sub-Judge it had been clearly stated that
the contract is evidenced by three integrated documents namely: (i) Tender
dated 3.5.79 (ii) Work order dated 15.5.79 and (iii) Agreement dated 24.3.79.
claims under 10 heads the arbitrator awarded amount under claims nos. 3 & 9
of the appellant. Out of 51 issues framed by the arbitrator, issues nos. 15 to
18 were in respect of claim no. 3 and issues nos. 31 to 37 were in respect of
claim no. 9. We quote below issues nos. 15 to 18 in respect of claim no. 3:
- Whether six acres alone out of the mining area covered by the tender from
were available for mining on account of obstruction of kudikidappukars,
ex-workers of Associated Minerals Co. Ltd. and local public as alleged by
claimant in paragraph 14 of State of of claim? 16 - Whether it was respondent's
duty to see that the entire extent of mining area detailed in the tender form
was available for mining and that the mining could be carried out without
hindrance and respondent failed to discharge its duty? Or Whether it was
claimant's responsibility to settle all problems and objections which arose in
the course of mining work? 17 - Whether claimant suffered loss as mentioned in
paragraph 14 of the State of Claim? 18 -
Whether respondent is liable to make good the loss mentioned in issue No. 17
and if so, to what extent?" In respect of the above issues the arbitrator
has given his findings which are as follows:- "15- The allegation that six
acres of land alone out of the mining area covered by the tender form was available
for mining is not correct. In 243 acres of land covered by the tender form out
of which 92 acres belonged to respondent, more than necessary area sufficient
to mine and supply the contract quantity of 2,00,000 to 2,20,000 MT of raw sand
was actually available for mining, but, on some days in April and except on one
day, during the whole month of May 1980, mining of raw sand even in the
available area and supply of raw sand from there were not possible, on some
days partially and on other days wholly, on account of obstruction by kudikidappukars
and local public.
Claimant's right under the contract was purely personal, it did not amount to
an interest in the 243 acres of land covered by the contract and he could not
sue trangers in his own name in respect of that land, it was his responsibility
to settle all problems and objections which arose in the course of the mining
work between him and his mining workers, but not with strangers like kudikidappukars
and local public who claimed either rights in the land or rights and privileges
against the respondent, and it was respondent's duty to see that the entire
extent of mining area detailed in the tender form was available for mining and
mining operations could be carried on there quety and without hindrance, and
whenever complaint regarding obstruction was received respondent tried to
discharge that duty by appealing to public authorities for help, but without
- Claimant sufferred loss to the extent of Rs.2,81,461.26 and respondent is
liable to make good that loss." The learned counsel for the respondent has
brought to our notice Clause (c) of the tender notice which forms part of the
contract between the parties. Clause(c) of the tender notice is stated as
- The beach and inland deposits mentioned in Block Nos.2,4 and 6 may or may not
be situated in Company's lands and hence it shall be the responsibility of the
Contractor to obtain the consent of the owners in whose registered holdings the
beach or inland deposits appear, before the Contractor begins to collect the
sea washings or inland deposits as the case may be. As Indian Rare Earths
Limited will not be responsible for the payment of any compensation to any
individual on account of any claims resulting from such scrapping of sea
washings or removal of inland deposits, it shall again be the responsibility of
the Contractor to enter into agreements with the owners of registered holdings
whose lands the Contractor may be required to utilise for the purpose of his
successful execution of this contract, and the Company will not in any manner
be responsible or liable for all or any of the claims for compensation by the
said land owners." It has been urged on behalf of the appellant that as
the award is non-speaking one the High Court erred in law in going into the
facts of the case. On the other hand it has been urged on behalf of the
respondents that the present award cannot be said to be a non-speaking one as
the findings of the arbitrator on each issue form part of the award.
stated above the award contains not only the sum awarded but also the case of
the parties, issues framed, findings on each issue, therefore, we hold that the
findings of the arbitrator on the issues are the part of the award and the
court can look into the findings.
arbitrator has come to the findings that the entire mining area covered with
tender was made available to the appellant but according to the arbitrator
mining was not possible in some days in the month of April ,1980 and whole
month of May, 1980 on account of obstructions by kudikidappukars And local
public. The above finding of the arbitrator is in respect of the issue No. 15
which forms part of the award. While awarding the amount the arbitrator did not
take note of the above Clause (c) of the tender notice which is a part of the
agreement and under which the respondent would not be liable for such
we hold that the amount awarded under Claim No. 3 is beyond the scope of the
agreement entered into between the parties and, therefore, the awarded amount
in respect of Claim No. 3 cannot be sustained.
No. 9 is in respect of escalation. It is not disputed at bar that in the
agreement entered into between the parties there was no escalation clause. The
arbitrator has come to the clear finding that the present appellant was not pressurised
by respondent No. I to agree 10% hike in the wages of the mining workers as
recorded in the findings in respect of issue No. 34. In issue No .35 the
arbitrator has recorded that the present appellant acceded to for raise in the
wages of mining workers.
amount awarded under Claim No. 9 is not only beyond the scope of the agreement
but also contrary to the findings recorded by the arbitrator.
we hold that the arbitrator has mis-conducted himself in the proceedings and,
therefore, the award is liable to be set aside on the ground of legal
misconduct on the part of the arbitrator under Section 30 of the Act. The above
being the position the present appeal has no merits and accordingly dismissed. Considering
the facts and circumstances of the case parties to bear their own costs.