Devi & Ors Vs. Sumitri Devi & Ors  INSC 768 (14 October 1997)
ANAND, S. RAJENDRA BABU
O R D
E R This appeal by special leave calls in question an order passed by a single
judge (G.D. Sharma, J.) of the High Court of Jammu & Kashmir on 6.3.1997 in
exercise of the review jurisdiction under order 47 Rule 1 CPC. The learned
Judge 'upset' the findings recorded on April 25, 1989 in Civil Revision No. 87 of 1987 by
another single judge (K.K. Gupta, J.) of that Court.
of details, brief facts necessary for disposal for this appeal are that on
November 28, 1977 a suit, filed by the appellants, was decreed and an
injunction was issued to the defendant-respondents to close down the passage
carved out by opening a door from the wall and further the defendants were
restrained from using that passage. On August 7, 1986 an application for execution of the
decree was filed in the Executing
Court on the ground
that the injunction were being violated. The judgement debtor filed objections
to the Execution Application and raised a preliminary objection to the effect
that the Execution Application was barred by time. The Executing Court vide order dated May 6, 1987 upheld the preliminary objection and held the
Execution Application to the barred by time. The matter was taken up in
revision to the High Court. On 25.4 .1989, the Civil Revision Petition against
the order of Execution
Court was allowed.
Gupta, J. allowing the civil revision petition held that the case was covered
by Article 181 of the Jammu & Kashmir Limitation Act and the opinion of the
Executing Court that it was covered by Article 182
of the J & K Limitation Act was by time. It was held that the petition was
not barred Executing
Court for decision on
merits. A review petition came to for decision on merits. A review petition
came to be filed by the judgment debtors and on 6.3.1997 the review petition
was allowed by sharma. J.
the order dated 25.4.1989 was set at naught and that of the Executing Court dated 6.5.1987 restored.
Kumar, learned counsel appearing for the appellant submitted that the impugned
order is vitiated as it transgresses the powers of review available to the
Court under Order 47 Rule 1 CPC. He submitted that the review petition had been
treated as if it was an appeal. He also referred to the grounds of the review
application and urged that on none of those grounds was the review of the order
dated 25.4.1989 justified.
M.L. Bhat, learned senior counsel appearing for the respondents, on the other
hand submitted that the Review
Court had only set
right the mistake committed by Gupta, J.
correct interpretation of the decree and the Act to the facts of the case and
that exercise could not rightly with.
asserted that sharma, J. had rightly set aside the order of Gupta, J. dated
25.4.1989 and upheld the order of the Executing Court dated 6.5.1987.
have given our thoughtful consideration to the respective submissions raised at
perusal of the application filed by the judgment debtors seeking review of the
order dated 25.4.1989 shows that none of the grounds stated therein can
strictly speaking be said to fall within the ambit and scope of Order 47 Rule 1
CPC. The review petition in effect challenged the correctness of the order of Gupta,
J. on the question of limitation without pointing out any "error apparent
on the face of the record" which could have been reviewed. Sharma, J.
appears to have ignored the limits of the exercise of jurisdiction under Order
47 Rule 1 CPC while passing the impugned order and reversing the order of
Gupta, J. on merits.
well settled that review proceedings have to be strictly confined to the ambit
and scope of Order 47 Rule 1 Andhra Pradesh (1965 (5) SCR 174 at 186) this
however, we are not concerned with is whether the statement in the order of
September 1959 that the case did not involve any substantial question of law is
an "error apparent on the face of the record". The fact that on the
earlier occation that Court held on an identical state of facts that a
substantial question of law arose would not per se be conclusive, for the
earlier order itself might be erroneous. Similarly, even if the statement was
wrong, it would not follow that it was an "error apparent on the face of the
record", for there is a distinct which is real, though it might not always
be capable of exposition between a mere erroneous decision and a decision which
could be characterised as vitiated by "error apparent." A review is
by no means an appeal in disguise whereby an errneous decision is reheard
corrected. but lies only for patent error." (Emphasis ours) Choudhury
(1995 (1) SCC 170) while quoting with approval a Sharma & Ors. (1979 (4)
SCC 389), this Court once again held that review proceedings are not by way of
an appeal and have to strictly confined to the scope and ambit of Order 47 Rule
Order 47 Rule 1 CPC a judgment may be open to review inter alia if there is a
mistake or an error apparent on the face of the record. An error which is not
self evident and has to be detected by a process of reasoning, can hardly be
said to be an error apparent on the face of the record justifying the court to
exercise its power review under Order 47 Rule 1 CPC. In exercise of the
jurisdiction under Order 47 Rule 1 CPC it is not permissible for an erroneous
decision to be "reheard and corrected". A review petition, it must be
remembered has limited purpose and cannot be allowed to be "an appeal in
disguise." Considered in the light of this settled position we fine that
Sharma, J. clearly over-stepped the jurisdiction vested in the court under
Order 47 Rule 1 CPC. The observation of Sharma, J. that
"accordingly", the order in question is reviewed and it is held that
the decree in question is reviewed and it is held that the decree in question
was of composite nature wherein both mandatory and prohibitory injunction were
provided" and as such the case was covered by Article the scope of Order
47 Rule 1 CPC.
is a clear distinction between an erroneous decision and an error apparent on
the face of the record. While the first can be corrected by the higher forum,
the later only can be corrected by exercise of the review jurisdiction.
passing the impugned order, Sharma, J. found the order in Civil Revision dated
25.4.1989 as an erroneous decision, though without saying so in so many words.
Indeed, while passing the impugned order Sharma, J. did record that there was a
mistake or an error apparent on the face of the record which not of such a
nature, "Which had to be detected by a long drawn process of reasons"
and proceeded to set at naught the order of Gupta, J. However, mechanical use
of statutorily sanctified phrases cannot detract from the real import of the
order passed in exercise of the review jurisdiction. Recourse to review
petition in the facts and circumstances of the case was not permissible. The
aggrieved judgment debtors could have approached the higher forum through
appropriate proceedings, to assail the order of Gupta, J. and get it set aside
but it was not open to them to seek a "review of the order of petition. In
this view of the matter, we are of the opinion that the impugned order of
Sharma, J. cannot be sustained and accordingly accept this appeal and set aside
the impugned order dated 6.3.1997.
consequence of the setting aside of the impugned order, the remand order made
by Gupta, J. would automatically stand revived but that in our opinion also
does not solve the problem.
find that neither the executing court nor Gupta, J.
deciding the Civil Revision petition have recorded any finding as to the data
or the time when the decree was allegedly breached. That was an essential fact
to be determined before it could be considered whether Article 181 or Article
182 of the Limitation Act would apply to the facts and circumstances of the
case. Therefore, with a view to do complete justice between the parties, it
appears appropriate to us to direct that the Executing Court shall, while
deciding the Executing Application on merits also consider this aspect and
return a finding as to when the cause of action accrued to the decree holder
and the consider the question as to which Article of the Limitation Act applies
to the facts of the case, uninfluenced by any observation made by Gupta, J. or
Sharma, J. in their orders.
question would be considered, not as a preliminary objection, but alongwith all
other issues on merits. The Executing Court
shall dispose of the execution application on merits in accordance with law
expeditiously. The appeal is accordingly allowed but with no order as to costs.