Jangluji Bagde Vs. Bhaiyya S/O Govindrao Karale & Ors  INSC 289 (18 September 1990)
V. (J) Ii Ramaswami, V. (J) Ii Punchhi, M.M.
1991 AIR 76 1990 SCR Supl. (1) 521 1991 SCC Supl. (1) 367 JT 1990 (4) 515 1990
Services: Maharashtra Ground Water Service Class I
(Recruitment) Rules, 1976: Rule 3(1)--Senior Geologists--Promotion as Deputy
Director--Stipulated experi- ence--Posterior to acquiring necessary educational
qualifi- cation--Validity of.
appellant joined the Agricultural Department in 1963 with B.Sc. (Geology).
Later, in 1979 he was promoted as Senior Geologist. In 1982 he passed his M.Sc.
(Geology) and stood first in the University. Sometime in 1982 he was also
holding additional charge as Deputy Director.
1983, the State Public Service Commission called for applications for direct
recruitment of Deputy Director in the Ground Water Survey and Development
Agency. The appel- lant applied in response to the said advertisement, but was
not called for interview, on the ground that he did not possess the necessary
qualification of 10 years practical experience after acquiring the
post-graduate degree. Ag- grieved, the appellant filed a Writ Petition before
the High Court contending that educational qualification and experi- ence are
two independent requirements and have to be read disjunctively and the
experience required need not be after possessing basic educational
qualification. However, the High Court did not agree with the contention and
dismissed the Writ Petition.
the said dismissal, the appellant preferred an appeal by special leave which
was granted, by this Court in 1984, with an observation that the petitioner
should not be reverted. However, he was reverted to the post of Senior
Geologist but subsequently promoted as Deputy Director in a new post created.
The appellant's promotion was challenged by one of his colleagues by way of a
Writ Petition contend- ing that even for promotion, 10 years experience posterior
to acquisition of post-graduate degree was essential. The High Court quashed
the promotion of the appellant. The appellant appealed against the said order
after obtaining special leave of this Court in 1987.
During the pendency of these two appeals the State Government amended Rule 3(1)(a)
whereby the requirement of 10 years experience mentioned in sub-clause (iii)
was delet- ed in respect of appointment by promotion. According to the State
Government since the said requirement was redundant, it was deleted.
the 1987 appeal, and dismissing the 1984 ap- peal, this Court,
On the interpretation of Rule 3 of Maharash- tra Ground Water Service, Class I
(Recruitment) Rules, 1976 prior to its amendment, the view taken by the High
Court on the Writ Petition filed by the appellant, does not call for any
interference. Normally when one talks of experience, unless the context
otherwise demands, it should be taken as experience after acquiring the minimum
qualifications re- quired and, therefore, necessarily will have to posterior to
the acquisition of the qualification. However, in the case of promotion the
same interpretation may not be just or warranted. It would depend on the
relevant provisions as also the particular type of experience which is
The requirement of experience has been omitted by an amendment made on 16th February, 1988 and published in the Gazette on
24.3.1988. Though the Rule does not say anything about its retrospective
operation there could be no doubt that it is retroactive. This amendment shall
be deemed to apply to the present case as well especially when the matter is
pending in this Court and the appointment in question is by promotion. It is
true that at the time when the appellant was promoted, the Rule had not been
the appellant is the senior most among the Senior Geologists and even if he is
to be considered again under the amended rules he shall have to be appointed
and nothing is stated in these proceedings which would disqualify him even now.
APPELLATE JURISDICTION: Civil Appeal Nos. 2 166/87 & 2 146/84.
the Judgment and Order dated 26.6. 1987 & 16.11. 1983 of the Bombay High Court in W.P. Nos. 2161/86 and
500 of 1983.
R.N. Keshwani, A.G. Ratnaparkhi and S.D. Mudaliar for the Appellant.
S.B. Bhasme, Dr. N.M. Ghatate, S.V. Deshpande and A.S. Bhasme for the
Judgment of the Court was delivered by V. RAMASWAMI, J. The interpretation
of-Rule 3 of the Maharashtra Ground Water Service, Class I (Recruitment) Rules.
1976 (hereinafter called 'the rule') arises for consideration in these appeals.
That Rule related to the appointment to the post of a Deputy Director in Maharashtra
Ground Water Service, Class I and the relevant portions of it as is stood in
1983 read as follows:
Appointment to the post of a Deputy Director in the Maharashtra Ground Water
service Class 1 shall be made either-- (a) by promotion from amongst Senior
Geologists in the Ground Water Surveys and Development Agency of Government,
possessing the qualifications mentioned in sub-clauses (ii) and (iii) of Clause
(c) of this sub rule;
transfer of a suitable officer from the Department of Geology and Mining of
nomination from amongst the candidates who-- (i) unless already in the service
of Government are not more than 45 years of age on the first day of the month
in which the post is advertised, and (ii) Possess a post graduate degree in
Geology or Applied Geology of a recognised University or Diploma in Applied
Geology of the Indian School of Mine, Dhanbad, or any quali- fications recognised
by Government to be equivalent thereto, and (iii) have practical experience in
the field of (a) carrying out systematic hydro geological surveys in ingeneous sedi-
mentary and metamorphic terrains (b) ground-water explora- tion and assessment
by drilling and testing and (c) process- ing, interpretation of field date and
in preparing and editing technical reports for a total period of ten years out
of which three years. experience shall be in organising.
and guiding field units." We are now concerned with the case of promotion
from amongst the Senior Geologists under Sub-Clause (a) of Rule 3(1) of the
The appellant herein joined in the Agricultural Depart- ment of the State some
time in the year 1963 and at that time he possessed the qualification of B.Sc.
with Geology as a principal subject. He was promoted as Senior Geologist on
25.6. 1979. He passed his M.Sc. (Geology) in 1982 with first class and he was
also first in the Nagpur University in the subject of pure Geology. He is also the senior most
in the seniority list of senior Geologists. He was also holding the additional
charge as Deputy Director from 16.6. 1982 for quite some time. The Maharashtra
Public Service Commission by the notification dated 21st May. 1983 called
applications for direct recruitment to the post of Deputy Director in the
Ground Water Survey and Development Agency. which is gov- erned by Rule 3(1)(c)
of the Rules. In regard to the quali- fication for appointment the
Candidates must possess:
post-graduate degree in Geology or Applied Geology of a recognised University
or Diploma in Applied Geology of the Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad or any
qualification recog- nised by Govt., to be equivalent thereto;
10 years practical experience in the field of (a) Carrying out systematic
hydrological surveys in ingene- ous sedimentary and metamorphic terrains.
Ground water exploration and assessment by drilling and testing and-- (c)
Processing, interpretation of field data and in prepar- ing and editing
technical reports, of which three years' experience shall be in organising
supervising and guiding field units.
(1) The academic qualifications and experience ac- quired upto the last date
prescribed for receipt of applica- tions alone will be taken into account in
determining the eligibility of candidates for the posts and for selecting them for
Academic qualification shall be deemed to have been acquired on the date on
which the result of the relevant examination is declared by the competent
Experience acquired after obtaining the prescribed 525 academic qualifications
only will be taken into account." The appellant applied to the Service
Commission but he was not called for an interview on the ground that he
acquired the post-graduate degree in Geology only in the year 1982 and he does
not possess the necessary qualification of 10 years practical experience after
obtaining the post-graduate degree. The appellant filed Writ Petition No. 500
of 1983 before the High Court of Judicature of Bombay at Aurangabad contending
that rule 3(1)(c) of the Maharashtra rules does require the practical
experience after obtaining the quali- fication of a post-graduate degree in
Geology and the in- sistence on such experience after obtaining the prescribed
academic qualification was illegal. In this connection he contended that
sub-clauses (ii) and (iii) of clause (c) of Rule 3(1) of the rules are two
independent requirements, that they have to be read disjunctively and the
experience required under subclause (iii) need not be after possessing the
basic educational qualification of a post-graduate degree in Geology. This
contention was not accepted by a Division Bench of that Court and by order
dated 16. 11. 1983 Writ Petition No. 500 of 1983 was dismissed. Against that
judgment the appellant has preferred Civil Appeal No. 2146 of 1984. While
granting special leave this Court in its order dated 16.4. 1984 observed
"The Government will decide itself as to whether the petitioner should or
should not be reverted". However it appears the petitioner was reverted on
4.7. 1985 to the position of Senior Geologist. Subsequently the Government
created a new post of Deputy Director Ground Water Survey at Aurangabad. This
post was sought to be filled by promotion under Rule 3(1)(a) of the rules by
the Selection Committee. The appellant was selected and appoint- ed as Deputy
Director on 14.12. 1986. This appointment was challenged under Writ Petition
No. 2161 of 1986 on the file of Nagpur Bench of the Bombay High Court by one Bhaiyya
s/o Govindrao Karale on the ground that even for promotion from amongst the
Senior Geologists the candidate should possess not only a post-graduate degree
in Geology but also IO years experience posterior to such acquisition of
post-graduate degree and that since the appellant does not have the neces- sary
experience he is not qualified to be promoted under clause (a) of Rule 3(1) of
the rules. This Division Bench also took similar view as in the earlier case
and by an order dated 26th June, 1987 the writ petition was allowed and the
selection and promotion of the appellant as Deputy Director under Rule 3(1)(a)
of the rules was also quashed.
this judgment Civil Appeal 2 166 of 1987 has been filed. When this appeal was
pending the Government of Maha- rashtra amended Rule 3(1)(a) by 526
substituting for the words "sub-clauses (ii) and (iii) of clause
(c)", the words "sub-clause (ii) of clause (c)". Thus the
requirement of 10 years experience mentioned in sub- clause (iii) of clause (c)
was deleted in respect of ap- pointment by promotion. In the counter affidavit
filed by the State Government it is stated that this was done because in the
case of a promotion the requirement of 10 years experience subsequent to the
acquisition of post-graduate degree in Geology was redundant and, therefore. should
not be insisted upon and it is in that view the rule was amend- ed. However, in
direct recruitment the 10 years experience after acquiring the post-graduate
qualification was re- tained. On the interpretation of the rule prior to its
amendment which was relevant for considering Civil Appeal No. 2 146 of 1984 we
are of the view that the view taken by the Aurangabad bench does not call for
when we talk of an experience, unless the context otherwise demands, it should
be taken as experience after acquiring the minimum qualifications required and.
there- fore. necessarily will have to be posterior to the acquisi- tion of the
qualification. However, in the case of a promo- tion the same interpretation
may not be just or warranted.
would depend on the relevant provisions as also the particular type of
experience which is required. However.
need not detain us because as we have already stated the Government have now
omitted the requirement of experi- ence by the said Amendment. The Amendment
was made on 16th February. 1988 and published in the Gazette on 24.3. 1988.
the Rule does not say anything about its retrospec- tive operation there could
be no doubt that it is retroac- tive. This amendment shall be deemed to apply
to the present case as well especially when the matter is pending in this Court
and this appointment is with reference to a case of promotion and appointment, It
is true that at the time when the appellant was promoted the Rule had not been
it may also be mentioned that the appellant is the senior most among the Senior
Geologists and even if he is to be considered again trader the amended rules he
shall have to be appointed and nothing is stated in these proceedings which
would disqualify him even now. In the circumstances we are of the view that the
appeal against the decision in Writ Petition No. 2161 of 1986 will have to be
allowed though Civil Appeal No. 2146 of 1984 will have to be dismissed.
we allow Civil Appeal No. 2166 of 1987 set aside the judgment of the Division
Bench in Writ Petition No. 2161 of 1986. Civil Appeal No. 2146 of 1984 is
however dismissed. There will be no order as to costs.
CA No. 2166/87 allowed. and CA No. 2146/85 dismissed.