Krishna Ballabh Sahay & Ors Vs.
Commission of Enquiry & Ors  INSC 157 (18 July 1968)
18/07/1968 HIDAYATULLAH, M.
(CJ) HIDAYATULLAH, M. (CJ) SHAH, J.C.
BHARGAVA, VISHISHTHA VAIDYIALINGAM, C.A.
CITATION: 1969 AIR 258 1969 SCR (1) 387
E&R 1978 SC 68 (137,227) R 1987 SC 877
(17) RF 1992 SC 604 (140,142)
Constitution of India, Arts. 153, 156(3),
160-GovernorContinuance after term over-Validity.
Commission of Inquiry Act (60 of
1952)-Enquiry by succeeding Ministry into conduct of outgoing Ministers-Powers
Persons in opposition when the Congress Party
was in power in the Bihar State formed the Government on the voting out of
office of the Congress Ministry. As soon as the succeeding ministry took over,
the Governor announced institution of an inquiry into the conduct of the
appellants who were ministers in the Congress Ministry, and a notification
ordering the enquiry was issued. The notification was issued by the Governor,
after 5 years of his entering upon the office. The appellants unsuccessfully
filed a writ petition in the High Court. In appeal to this Court, the
appellants contended that (i) the Governor's term having come to an end under
the Constitution, he was functus officio and could not order the inquiry: (ii)
power could not be exercised by the succeeding Ministry to institute inquiry
into the conduct of the Ministry that goes out and (iii) the inquiry was the
result of malice and political vendetta and the grounds were false and
HELD : The appeal must fail.
(i) The proviso to Art. 156(3) contemplates
that the Governor is to continue to hold office 'notwithstanding the expiration
of his term'. The effect of these words is to exclude all questions of the
legality of the holding of office by a Governor after the expiry of his term.
There must always be a Governor under Art. 153 and the interregnums is avoided
by the proviso. There will immediately be an interregnums, if after the term is
over, the Governor designate declines the office. No doubt the provisions of
Art. 160 may be resort-ad to but even that may not be sufficient to prevent an
interregnums. Therefore, a person once appointed a Governor continues to hold
that office till his successor enters upon his office. The successor may be
appointed under Art. 155 or an order may be made under Art. 160. There may be
cases in which neglect to appoint a Governor soon may lead to an inference of
failure to act under the Constitution and it may require further examination as
to the remedy in such cases. [392 D-H] (ii)When a Ministry goes out of office,
its successor may consider any glaring charges and may, if justified, order an
inquiry. Otherwise, each Ministry will become a law into itself and the corrupt
conduct of its Ministers will remain beyond scrutiny. [393 C] Shri P. V.
Jagannath Rao v. State of Orissa,  3 S.C.R.
(iii)Without saying anything as to their
merits. the charges were specific, and details and particulars of -each charge
had been stated. The charges were such that an enquiry could be ordered.
Whether they are true or false is another matter which ought to be gone into by
Public life of persons in authority must
never admit of such 388 charges being even framed against them. If they can he
made then an enquiry whether to establish them or to clear the name of the
person charged is called for. [393 H-394 C], Whether the action was malafide or
not could only be decided if it could be held that the allegations were false.
The Court was not enquiring into the charges. [394 E]
CIVIL APPELLATE JURISDICTION : Civil Appeal
No. 150 of 1968.
Appeal by special leave from the judgment and
order dated November 4, 1968 of the Patna High Court in C.W.J.C. No. 702 of
A. K. Sen, K. K. Jain, Bishambar Lal, H. K.
Puri, C. B. Belwariar, Basudev Prasad, Bat Bhadra Prasad Singh, for the
M. K. Nambiar, R. K. Garg, S. C. Agarwal,
Bandnath Prasad and Anil Kumar, for respondent No. 2.
J. P. Goyal and Sobhag Mal Jain, for
respondents Nos. 3 to 6.
D. N. Mukherjee, for respondents Nos. 7 and
R. K. Garg, S. C. Agarwal, Anil Kumar Gupta
and B. S.
Khoji for respondent No. 9.
The Judgment of the Court was delivered by
Hidayatullah, C.J. This appeal is brought against an order of the High Court at
Patna, November 4, 1967, dismissing a petition under Arts. 226 and 227 of the
Constitution. By that petition the appellants sought a declaration that a
notification of the Governor of Bihar appointing a Commission of Inquiry under
the Commission of Inquiry Act, 1952, was ultra vires, illegal and inoperative'
and for restraining the Commission from proceeding with the inquiry.
The High Court dismissed the petition without
issuing a rule but gave detailed reasons in its orders. The appellants now
appeal by special leave granted by this Court. After the hearing of the appeal
concluded, we ordered the dismissal of the appeal but reserved the reasons
which we now proceed to give.
As is common knowledge there was for a time
no stable Government in Bihar. The Congress Ministry continued in office for
some time first under Mr. Binodanand Jha and then under the first appellant,
Mr. K. B. Sahay. When the Congress Ministry was voted out of office, a ministry
was formed by the United Front Party headed by Mr. Mahamaya Prasad Sinha.
The United Front Ministry also resigned on
25th January, 1968 and another Ministry was formed by the Shoshit Dal headed by
Mr. B. P. Mandal. This Ministry also went out of office on March 389 22, 1968
to be succeeded by another headed by Mr. Bhola Paswan Shastri. During the
continuance of the Congress Minis-try Mr. Mahamaya Prasad Sinha helped by Mr.
Narain Singh and his 'brother Mr. Basant
Narain Singh and others were in opposition. When the United Front Ministry emerged
these opponents became ministers. The Ministry began to function from March 5,
1967. On March 17, 1967, the Governor announced in his speech that an inquiry
would be made against the conduct of some of the Ministers who had gone out of
office including the present appellants. It appears that the Council of
Ministers then constituted a Cabinet Sub-Committee on July 22, 1967 to make a
preliminary examination of the allegations and the materials relating to them.
The upshot was a notification issued by the Governor of Bihar under s. 3 of the
Commission of Inquiry Act on October 1, 1967 by which inquiry was ordered
against the appellants and two others (Mr. Baghavendra Narain Singh and Mr.
Ambika Saran Singh). The Commission was directed to inquire into and report on
the following matters, namely :
"(a) What was the extent of the assets
and pecuniary resources owned and possessed by each of the persons above-named,
his family, relatives and other persons in whom he was interested, (i) at the
beginning and (ii) at the end of the tenure of office or each of the offices
held by him as aforesaid;
(b) Whether each of the persons above named,
during the tenure of office or offices held by him, obtained any assets,
pecuniary resources or advantages or other benefits by abusing and exploiting
his official position or positions and whether during the said period or
periods his family, relatives and other persons in whom he was interested
obtained, with his knowledge, consent or connivance, any assets, pecuniary resources,
advantages or other benefits;
(c) Whether, and if so to what extent, each
of the persons above named otherwise indulged in corruption, favoritism, abuse
of power and other malpractice; and (d) Whether, besides the persons above named,
any other person or persons holding official position either as a member of the
Council of Ministers or otherwise, during the aforesaid period, made illegal
gains or indulged in corruption 390 favoritism, abuse of power or other
malpractice in like manner as aforesaid." Later the Government of Bihar
decided on October 31, 1967 that clause (d) should be deleted and it was so
deleted. The notification went on to state further:
"Without prejudice to the scope of the
inquiry, Commission shall, in particular, inquire into and report on the mala
fide and corrupt conduct of the persons above named in relation to the
following matters, viz.(a) Contracts for works;
(b) Grant of mineral concessions and issue
and renewal of leases, licenses, and permits, particularly with respect to
mines, minerals, forests, forest-products, nonferrous metals, mills, generation
and distribution of electricity, ferries, transport, etc.
(e) Purchase and supplies of stores and
(d) Appointments, transfers, promotions, etc.
(e) Institution and withdrawal of cases;
(f) Protection to criminals and corrupt
(g) Remissions of Government dues, loans and
(h) misuse of Government money and property;
(i) Acquisition, reacquisition, settlement
and lease of lands;
(j) Collection of money through check-posts;
and (k) any other matter which may be brought
to the notice of the Commission in course of the inquiry.
The inquiry was entrusted to Mr. T. L.
Venkatarama Aiyar, a retired Judge of this Court. The Commission was to enter
upon its duties from November 6, 1967. On October 31, 1967 a petition was filed
in the High Court at Patna. The High Court summarily dismissed the petition on
November 4, 1967.
This appeal arises from the order.
Since no rule was issued by the High Court
the allegations in the petition were not controverted or admitted by the
opposite parties. When the present appeal was filed reliance was placed upon
the affidavits filed with the petition and fresh affidavits were 391 also
filed. Opportunity was afforded to the respondents to file affidavits in reply.
An affidavit in reply was filed by Abraham, -Vigilance Commissioner, on behalf
of Government and respondent No. 5 on behalf of respondents 3-6. Separate
affidavits were also filed by appellant 1 on April 4, and May 2, 1968. We have
considered all the affidavits which find place on the record of the appeal.
The arguments of the appellants in this Court
were substantially the same as were urged in the High Court. They are really
two in number. Shortly stated, they are: firstly, that the appointment of the
Commissioner is a campaign of vilification for political gain by a party in
opposition and is based on personal animus against those who kept the members
of that party out of office. The argument thus attributes malice and mala fides
to the Govern's notification and abuse of the powers under the Commission of
Inquiry Act for an illegitimate purpose. Side by side there is the argument
that a succeeding Ministry cannot inquire into the conduct of public and
governmental affairs of the Ministry that goes out. The second argument is that
the Governor's term having come to an end under the Constitution, he was
functus officio and could not order the inquiry contemplated by the Government
then in power.
The second argument goes to the root of the
matter and may, therefore, be considered first. It was rejected by the High
Court. Mr. M. A. Ayyangar, the Governor in whose regime the notification was
issued, was sworn in as Governor of Bihar on May 6, 1962. Under Art. 156(3) he,
could hold office for a term of five years from the date on which he entered
upon the office, that is to say, till May 5, 1967. Therefore, the contention is
that his continuance in office was illegal. The respondents rely upon the proviso
156(3), which says Provided that Governor
shall, notwithstanding the expiration of his term, continue to hold office
until his successor enters upon office," and point out that there cannot
be an interregnums in view of the provision of Art.
153 that there shall be a Governor for each
State. In reply Mr. A. K. Sen refers to the provisions of Art. 160 which makes
provision for contingencies by laying down :
"160. Discharge of the functions of the
Governor in certain contingencies.
The President may make such provision as he
thinks fit for the discharge of the functions of the Governor of a State in any
contingency not provided for in this Chapter." 392 His contention is that
under the third clause of Art. 155 the Governor's term is a closed term and if
the term comes to an end without the successor being named, the provisions of
Art. 160 must be used. The proviso, according to him, covers only the time lag
before the successor enters office and not a case where no successor is
appointed before the term of the holder is over. To hold otherwise, he submits,
might enable the appointing authority to set at naught the provisions of the
main clause through the proviso. By way of analogy he refers to Arts. 56 and
62(1) in respect of the President and Arts. 67 and 68(1) about the
Vice-President which enjoin that the election to fill the vacancies has to be
completed in each case before the term ceases. He contends, that the same
result is implicit in the scheme of things in relation to the Governor because
of the distinction between 'appointment' and 'entering an office'.
We are unable to accept the contention. There
is no provision such as Art. 62(1) or 68(1) in the scheme of the Govern's
appointment. On the other hand, the proviso to Art. 156(3) contemplates that
the Governor :is to continue to hold office 'notwithstanding the expiration of
The effect of these words is to exclude all
questions of the legality of the holding of office by a Governor after the
expiry of his term. There must always be a Governor under Art. 153 and the
interregnum is avoided by the proviso. It is, of course, to be expected that a
new Governor will be nominated betimes but circumstances may come into being
which may take the holder beyond his five years' term without a successor being
named. It may not always be possible to appoint a Governor within the term of
the incumbent. Suppose, for instance, a person is designated within the five
years and he intends joining after a few days. Mr. Sen concedes that the former
Governor may continue to hold office till the new Governor assumes charge and
this may take the former Governor beyond his term of five years.
Suppose after that term is over the Governor
designate declines the office. There will immediately be an interregnums. No
doubt the provisions of Art. 160 may be resorted to but even that may not be
sufficient to prevent an interregnums. Therefore, it is legitimate to hold that
a person once appointed a Governor continue to hold that office till his
successor enters upon his office. This successor may be appointed under Art.
155 or an order may be made under Art. 160. Whatever the position the former
Governor continues to hold office till the new Governor enters his office. For
these reasons we hold that Mr. M. A. Ayyangar acted validly as Governor on
October 1, 1967. We may, however, say that there may be cases in which neglect
to appoint a Governor soon may lead to an inference of failure to act under the
Constitution and it may require further examination as to the remedy in such
cases. As we do not view this case as satisfying the need for such exami393
nation we say nothing about it. No facts bearing upon the failure to designate
a successor have been pleaded here.
This brings us to the main question. As we
pointed out above, the first argument consists of two limbs. We shall examine
them separately. The contention that the power cannot be exercised by the
succeeding ministry has been answered already by this Court in two cases. The
earlier of the two has been referred to by the High Court already. The more
recent case is Shri P. V. Jagannath Rao & Ors v. State of Orissa(1). It
hardly needs any authority to state that the inquiry will be ordered not by the
Minister against himself but by someone else. When a Ministry goes out of
office, its successor may consider any glaring charges and may, if justified,
order an inquiry. Otherwise, each Ministry will become a law unto itself and
the corrupt conduct of its Ministers will remain beyond scrutiny. The High Court
has adequately dealt with this point and we see no error.
The next limb of the argument is that the
inquiry is the result of malice and political vendetta and the grounds are
false and scurrilous. In the affidavit of Abraham reference is made to the charges
which have been drawn up against the appellants and 2 others (who were also
heard by us). These charges number 74 against the ex-Chief Minister (Mr. K. B. Sahay)
and 36, 19, 42, 10 and 11 against the others. Some of the charges are
interconnected. Mr. Sahay in his affidavit of May 2, 1968 has attempted to
establish that Abraham himself had given a different version in his reports and
had found nothing wrong where he now finds fault. A few of the charges are
attempted to be' controverted also.
Request is made that the relevant files be
summoned so that the falsity of the charges may be established.
We find ourselves unable to accede to the
request for summoning the relevant files. The reason is fairly obvious.
Once we have held that the inquiry is legal,
it is manifest that the truth or otherwise of the allegations is for the
Commission's consideration. If the disproof of the allegations is so simple,
there should be no difficulty in bringing the facts to the notice of the
Commission. We have no doubt that our former colleague, who heads the, Commission,
will be able to decide the issue as we are invited to do.
We have read the charges which are to be
investigated. We do not wish to say anything about the merits of these charges
since what we say is likely to have a bearing one way or another upon their
truth. This matter is not in our hands, nor are we in possession of all the
materials on which these charges will hereafter be attempted to be proved or
disproved. We can only say that (as we see them) each charge refers in detail
to events with (1)  3 S.C.R. 789.
394 dates, names of persons concerned,
particulars of the action taken and the conduct which is to be considered. The
charges are such that we think an inquiry can be ordered.
Whether they are true or false is another
It cannot be stated sufficiently strongly
that the public life of persons in authority must never admit of such charges
being even framed against them. If they can be made then an inquiry whether to
establish them or to clear the name of the person charged is called for. If the
charges were vague or speculative suggesting a fishing expedition we would have
paused to consider whether such an inquiry should be allowed to proceed. A
perusal of the grounds assures us that the charges are specific, and that
records rather than oral testimony will be used to establish them. We agree
with the High Court that the affidavits in opposition make out a sufficient
case for inquiry.
It is contended that clause (d) was excluded
from the notification so that the inquiry might not recoil upon those who had
started it. Reference is made to the notification of March 12, has been 1968 to
show that in the notification ordering inquiry against Mr. Mahamaya Prasad
Sinha and his colleagues that clause is included. That should be a matter of
satisfaction to the present appellants. It is unlikely that the Commission will
overlook evidence which points to corruption or malpractice in others. Even if
no direct finding is given there will be ample reference to these matters in
Finally it is argued that the action is mala
fide. This can only be decided if it can be held that the allegations were
false. The Commission will first find the facts. Whether they lead to the
conclusion that the inquiry was justified or it was malicious, cannot be said
just now, when there are only allegations and recriminations but no evidence.
If the charges have been made maliciously or falsely, we are sure the
Commission will say so, where necessary. We cannot anticipate the inquiry and
hold one ourselves.
These reasons impelled us to order the
dismissal of the appeal which order we formally pronounced earlier.
Y.P. Appeal dismissed.