Prem Dulari Vs. Raj Kumari  INSC
73 (23 March 1967)
23/03/1967 SHELAT, J.M.
RAO, K. SUBBA (CJ) HIDAYATULLAH, M.
CITATION: 1967 AIR 1578 1967 SCR (3) 273
The Right of Prior Purchase Act (J. & K.
Act 11 of 1993), s. 15 (fourthly)-Scope of-Clause if violates Art. 19(1)(f) of
The second respondent sold her house to the
appellant. The first respondent filed a suit for possession of the house on the
ground that she had a right of prior purchase under s.
15 (fourthly) of the Right of Prior Purchase
Act 1993, because, her house and the house in question had a common outer
entrance within the meaning of that clause The suit was decreed. In appeal to
this Court it was contended that:
(1) On a proper construct-ion of the clause
such an entrance would not give rise to a right of pre-emption unless the owner
claiming the right and the owner of the house in question jointly owned the
common outer entrance, and, (2) the clause as interpreted by the Courts below
19(1)(f) of the Constitution and was
therefore ultra vires.
HELD: (1) The clause provides that where the
We is of property having a common outer entrance with other properties, the
Tight of prior purchase shall vest in the owners of such properties. There is
nothing in the section to warrant the construction that such a right would vest
only if the common outer entrance is jointly owned by the owners of such
houses. [275H] (2) In the case of properties having a common entrance, the
owners of the buildings would stand more or less in the position of co-sharers
and the right of pre-emption is sustainable as a reasonable restriction. [278E]
Bhau Ram v. Baijnath,  Supp. 3 S.C.R. 724, followed.
Bishan Singh v. Khazan Singh,  S.C.R.
878, referred to.
CIVIL APPELLATE JURISDICTION: Civil Appeal
No. 524 of 1966.
Appeal by special leave from the judgment and
order dated December 2, 1964 of the Jammu and Kashmir High Court in Civil First
Appeal No. 7 of 1964.
B. C. Misra, S. K. Mehta and K. L. Mehta, for
M. C. Setalvad and Mohan Behari Lal, for
respondent No. 1.
The Judgment of the Court was delivered by
Shelat J. Respondent No. 1 Mod a suit in the Court of Addi- tional District
Judge, Jammu for possession of the house in dispute, owned by the second
respondent and sold by her to the appellant. The cause of action pleaded was
that respondent No. 1 had a right of prior purchase under section 15 (fourthly)
of the 274 Right of Prior Purchase Act, II of 1993 as her house and the house
in question had a common outer entrance within the meaning of that clause. The
trial court and the High Court on evidence held that the two houses had a
common outer entrance and decreed the suit on respondent No. 1 paying the sale
price of Rs. 13,000/-. Hence this appeal by special leave.
On behalf of the appellant, the vendee, Mr.
Misra raised two questions (1) that on a proper construction of S. 15
(fourthly) this was not a case of the two houses having a common outer entrance
as that clause requires that such an entrance must be owned jointly by the
owners of such two houses, and (2) that section 15 (fourthly) is ultra vires as
it offends Art. 19(1)(f) and constitutes an Unreasonable restriction on the
appellant's right to property.
The evidence shows that the entire property
consisting of these two, together with other houses in the vicinity were owned
at one time by witness Mohinder Nath and one Uttam Chand. Subsequently they
sold some of them. To give to these houses access to the public road, called
the Secretariat Road, they retained to themselves the ownership of the lane but
granted a right of way thereon to the said vendees. The lane ends as a blind
alley where the two houses are situate. The plan produced during the trial
shows that there is first a common outer entrance through which one enters into
this lane from the Secretariat Road and at a distance of about IO yards there
is another such entrance marked 'common entrance' in the plan through which one
enters into the alley and on which the doors of these and certain other houses
open. During the course of the trial, the trial Judge made local inspection and
recorded his inspection note which was admitted by the parties as correct. The
inspection note is as follows :- "On spot I find that there is a common
outer entrance from the street to number of houses and then again about 1 0
yards from the common outer entrance there is another common outer entrance of
six houses and there is a street which ends at the houses of the plaintiff and
the suit house. At the end of the street the outer door of the plaintiff and
the suit house abut".
There is thus no room for dispute that the
said passage leading to the said Secretariat Road has two common entrances, one
where it opens on to the said Road and the other at a distance of about 10
yards there from. Apart from the inspection note, the parties led oral and
documentary evidence on a consideration of which the trial Judge recorded the
following finding :- "Both the parties agree with this note and they admit
that there is a common outer entrance from the Municipal Street to the
plaintiff's house and the suit house. The difference between the plaintiff's
case and the defendant's case as made out by the counsel for the defendant is
that the plaintiff's house and the defendant's house both open into the blank
alley (kucha sarbasta) and into the same alley opens some more houses. The
plaintiff has not shown that the alley was the private property of the owners of
the houses which abut on that. According to the statement of Pt.
Mohinder Nath that alley belongs to him and
Pt. Uttam Chand. The owners of the houses which abut in that alley are entitled
to right of way over it. As they are not owners of the alley so according to
the counsel for defendant No. 1 the plaintiff is not entitled to right of prior
purchase on the basis of their having a common outer entrance .... The words
-used in the sub clause are that the property sold and the property on the
basis of which the right is exercised must have a common outer entrance. It is
not essential that the street which leads from outer entrance to the houses of
the plaintiff and the defendant should be owned by them".
The High Court also came to a similar finding
and held that once it had been shown that the owners of the four houses
abutting on that alley had exclusive right of way over it, it was enough to
vest in them the right of pre-emption. The High Court also held that it was not
necessary to prove that the common outer entrance was jointly owned by the
owners of the houses. It is therefore clear that the question raised by the
appellant was not that there was no common outer entrance to the two houses but
that on a proper construction of s. 15 (fourthly), such a common outer entrance
would not give rise to a right of prior purchase unless the owner claiming such
a right and the owner of the house in question jointly own the common outer
The construction urged before the trial court
and the High Court and rejected by both of them was once again urged before us
by Mr. Misra. The language of s. 15(fourthly) is plain. The section in
unambiguous language provides that "the right of prior
purchase.................... shall vest Fourthly : Where the sale is of property
having a common outer entrance with other properties in the owners of such
The section clearly says that where the sale
is of property having a common outer entrance with other properties, the right
of prior purchase shall vest in the owners of such properties. There is nothing
in the section to warrant the construction that such a right would vest only if
the common outer entrance is jointly owned by the owners of such houses. What
the section requires is the existence of a common outer entrance which need not
be owned by the person claiming the right of pre-emption. Whether L5Sup.Cl/67-5
276 there is such a common outer entrance which would attract the provisions of
s. 15(fourthly) would, therefore, depend upon the facts proved in each case. In
the present case, both the trial court as also the High Court came to the
conclusion from the evidence led by the parties that there does exist a common
outer entrance for both the houses.
Nothing has been shown by Mr. Misra from the
evidence which would justify our disagreeing with that conclusion.
Let us now turn to the decisions relied upon
by Mr. Misra.
In Naba and others v. Piara Mal and
another(1), the High Court of Punjab held that the entrance to the alley in
question was not 'a common entrance from the street' of the pre-emptor and the
vendor within the meaning of s. 13(1)(fifthly) of the Punjab Preemption Act,
1905. The decision, however, turned on the facts and the situation of the alley
which was said to be the common entrance to the houses in question. The High
Court found that the evidence led by the plaintiff was insufficient to prove
that the said alley was the private property of the owners of the houses
opening on to it or that none except the owners thereof had free access to or
right of way over it. Nor was it shown that the houses at one time constituted
one building and were subsequently subdivided and that the privacy of those
houses was ensured by the blind alley as it ordinarily would be by the
existence of a common entrance. In Nanak Chand v.
Tek Chand and others(2), the right of
pre-emption was claimed on the ground that there was a step leading to a thara
which formed part of the plaintiff's house and the house in question. The High
Court held that the step could not be called either a 'staircase' or a common
entrance from the street within the meaning of s. 13(1)(fifthly) of the Punjab
Preemption Act, 1905. In Asa Nand v. Mahmud(3), the dispute was between two
parties claiming the right of pre- emption and the High Court rejected the
defendant's claim on the ground that he had not even the right of way over the
compound and his use of it was only permissive. In Ram Chand v. Ram Jowaya (4
), the Punjab Chief Court held that a public street leading from the main road
to two houses cannot be considered a common entrance from the street and that
to bring a case within s. 1 3 (1) (fifthly) it would not be sufficient to prove
that the street into which the house sold and the house of the person claiming
pre-emption opened was common to the two properties or that each had an
entrance from that street. There must be an entrance from the street which is
common to both properties.
None of these decisions, in our view, can
assist, for, each turned on its own facts which determined whether there was in
fact a common entrance within the meaning of the Punjab Act.
(1) 912) 44 P. R 159.
(2) A.I.R. 1927 Lah. 96.
(2) A.I.R. 192) Lah. 278.
(4)  I.C. 484.
277 In the instant case, there is the
admitted evidence that the alley, at the blind end of which the two houses are
situate, has a common entrance which opens into a passage of about 10 yards
where there is again another common entrance opening on to the public road. It
is also not in dispute that the entire passage is owned by the original owners
of the houses opening into this passage and that at the time of the sales of
some of these houses they had granted a right of way over this passage to them
so that the said houses may have access from the public road. The said passage,
therefore, is the private property of the said Mohinder Nath and Uttam Chand
and the right of way over it is enjoyed only by the owners of the houses
opening on to it. The appellant did not raise any dispute with regard to these
facts. Indeed, the only question raised by her was that in order to constitute
a common outer entrance under s. 15(fourthly) such an entrance must be owned
jointly by the owner of the house in question and the owner claiming
pre-emption. As aforesaid, both the courts negatived the suggested construction
and we think that they were right for the plain words of the section do not
justify such a construction.
The question next is whether s. 15(fourthly)
providing for the right of prior purchase amounts to an unreasonable
restriction. There can be no doubt that such a provision amounts to a
restriction in the sense that a person purchasing such a property has to give
way to the person claiming such a right. The nature of the right is expressed
in felicitous language by Mahmood J. in Govind Dayal v.
Inayatullah(1). The right of pre-emption, he
observed : "is simply a right of substitution, entitling the pre-emptor,
by means of a legal incident to which sale itself was subject, to stand in the
shoes of the vendee in respect of all the rights and obligations arising from
the sale, under which he derived his title. It is, in effect, as if in a sale
deed the vendee's name were rubbed out and preemptor's name inserted in its
place". This statement was approved by this Court in Bishan Singh v. Khazan
Singh(2), and the Court summarising the incidents of the right observed :
"That the right of pre-emption is not a
right to the thing sold but a right to the offer of a thing about to be sold.
This right is called the primary or inherent
right. The pre-emptor has a secondary right or a remedial right to follow the
thing sold. It is a right of substitution but not of re-purchase, i.e., the
pre-emptor takes the entire bargain and steps into the shoes of the original
That being the nature of the right, the next
question is whether the restriction on the vendee's right of property created
by s. 15 (fourthly) can be said to be an unreasonable restriction. A similar
(1) 1.L.R.7 All.775,809.
(2)  S.C.R. 878.
278 question in regard to a similar provision
in section 16 of the Punjab Pre-emption Act, 1913 arose in Babu Ram v.
Baijnath(1). Section 16 of that Act provided
for pre- emption on six grounds, the first, third, fourth and sixth grounds
being in favour of co-sharers, owners of common staircases, owners of common
entrance from a street and owners of contiguous property. The Court held that
the first, third and fourth grounds of pre-emption did not offend Articles
19(1)(f) and 14 and were valid. The Court observed that the law under the first
ground providing for pre-emption by co-sharers imposed reasonable restriction
in the interest of the general public on the right under Art.
19(1)(f). If an outsider was introduced as a
co-sharer in a property it would make common management extremely difficult and
destroy the benefits of ownership in common. The advantage of excluding a
stranger in the case of a residential house was all the greater as it would
avoid all kinds of disputes. The third ground which applied in a case where the
property sold had a staircase common with other properties stood practically on
the same footing as that of co-sharers. Regarding properties having a common
entrance from the street with other properties, the Court held that that ground
was similar to the first and the third grounds.
At page 741 dealing with the fourth ground,
the Court observed that the buildings were in a common compound and perhaps
were originally put up by members of one family or one group with a common
private passage from the public street. In such a case the owners of the
buildings would stand more or less in the Position of co-sharers, though
actually there might be no co-sharership in the house sold.
Such a case would approximate to cases of a
common staircase and co-sharers and, therefore, the right of preemption in such
a case was sustainable. The reasoning employed in upholding the validity of the
fourth ground in s. 16 of the Punjab Act would apply with equal force to the
provisions of s. 15(fourthly) before us. Consequently, the contention that the
impugned provision amounts to an unreasonable restriction cannot be sustained.
Both the contentions raised by Mr. Misra
fail. The appeal is dismissed with costs.
V.P.S. Appeal dismissed.