Basant Singh Vs. Janki Singh & Ors
 INSC 129 (2 August 1966)
02/08/1966 BACHAWAT, R.S.
CITATION: 1967 AIR 341 1967 SCR (1) 1
Indian Evidence Act, 1872 (1 of 1872), s.
17-Admission made in pleading-Relevancy in another suit.
The plaintiff tendered in evidence a plaint
in an earlier suit and relied on an admission made by the defendants with
regard to a fact in issue in the later suit. The High Court ruled that the
plaint was not admissible in evidence on two grounds, viz., (i) the plaintiff
could not rely on a state- ment in the plaint as an admission, as she was not
prepared to accept the correctness of the other statements in the plaint and
(ii) an admission in a pleading could be used only for the purposes of the suit
in which the pleading was filed. On appeal to this Court.
HELD : (1) All the statements in the plaint
are admissible in evidence. The plaintiff can rely upon a statement in the
plaint with regard to a matter in issue as an admission, though she is not
prepared to accept the correctness of the other statements in the plaint. Nor
is the Court bound to accept all the statements as correct. The court may
accept some of the statements as correct and reject the rest. [3 F] (2) Section
17 of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 makes no distinction between a admission
made by a party in a pleading and other admissions. An admission made by a
party in a plaint signed and verified by him may be used as evidence against
him in other suits. In other suits, this admission cannot be regarded as
conclusive and it is open to the party to show that it is not true. [4 D] D. S.
Mohite, v. S. I. Mohite, A.I.R. 1960 Bom. 153, Marianski v. Cairns, 1 Macq. 212
(H.L.) and Ramabai Shriniwas v. Bombay Government,A.I.R. 1941 Bom. 144,
CIVIL APPELLATE JURISDICTION: Civil Appeals
Nos. 19 & 20 of 1963.
Appeals from the judgment and decree dated
July 31, 1959 of the Patna High Court in Appeals from Original Decree Nos. 30
and 40 of 1953 respectively.
S. T. Desai and R. C. Prasad for appellant.
Sarjoo Prasad and D. Goburdhan, for the
respondents Nos.1 to 4 [In C. A. No. 19 of 1963].
Sarjoo Prasad and K. K. Sinha, for
respondents Nos. 5-7 and 9 [In C. A. No. 19 of 1963] and 1-3 and 5 [In C. A.
No. 20 of 1963].
2 The Judgment of the Court was delivered by
Bachawat, J. One Ramyad Singh was a member of a joint family and has eight
annas interest in the joint family properties.
He was a Hindu governed by the Mitakshara
school of Hindu law. He died issueless, leaving his widow, Mst. Bhagwano
Kunwar. The date of his death is in dispute. After his death, Bhagwano Kunwar
filed the present suit for partition of the joint family properties claiming
eight annas share therein. She contended that Ramyad Singh died in 1939 after
the passing of the Hindu Women's Rights to Property Act, 1937, and she was
entitled to maintain the suit for partition. The defendants contended that
Ramyad Singh died ill 1936 before the passing of the Act and she was entitled
to maintenance only. The trial Court accepted the plaintiff's contention aid
decreed the suit. The defendants filed two separate appeals to the High Court.
On December 15, 1958, Bhagwano Kunwar died. The High Court passed orders
substituting one Ram Gulam Singh in her place.
Later, the High Court recalled these orders,
as it was conceded that Ram Gulam Singh was not her legal representative. By a
deed dated March 14, 1958, Bhagwano Kunwar had sold lands measuring 1 bigha 5
kathas to the appellant. The High Court allowed the appellant's application for
substitution under 0.22 r. 10 of the Code of Civil Procedure and proceeded to
hear the appeals. The High Court accepted the defendants' contention, reversed
the decree passed by the Subordinate Judge, and dismissed the suit. The
appellant has now filed these appeals under certificates granted by the High
The main point in controversy is, did Ramyad
Singh die in 1936 or did he die in 1939? If he died in 1936, Bhagwano Kunwar
was not entitled to maintain the suit for partition and the suit was liable to
be dismissed. But if he died in 1939, she was entitled to eight annas share in
the joint estate and was entitled to maintain the suit for partition under the
Hindu Women's Rights to Property Act, 1937 read with the Bihar Hindu Women's
Rights to Property ,(Extension to Agricultural Land) Act, 1942. Moreover, it is
,conceded by counsel for the respondents that in that event after 1956 -she
held her eight annas share in the joint estate as full owner by virtue of s. 14
of the Hindu Succession Act, 1956, and on the strength ,of the sale deed dated
March 14, 1958 executed by Mst. Bhagwano Kunwar the appellant was entitled to
continue the suit for partition .after her death.
There is conflicting oral evidence with
regard to the date of death of Ramyad Singh. The appellant relied strongly upon
an admission made by the main contesting defendants, Janki Singh and
Kailashpati Singh, in a plaint signed and verified by them and filed in Title
Suit No. 3 of 1948. In that plaint, Janki Singh and Kailashpati Singh claimed
partition of the joint family properties, implead- 3 ing Bhagwano Kunwar as defendant
No. 8 and other members of the joint family as defendants Nos. 1 to 7. In this
plaint, Janki Singh and Kailashpati Singh stated:
"2. That the properties described in
Schedule 1 to 2 in the plaint belong to the joint family. As the said Babu
Ramyad Singh died in 1939 the defendant No. 8 also became entitled to life
interest in the properties of the joint family. The defendant No. 8 surrendered
her life estate to the plaintiffs and the defendants Nos. 1 to 7 and she gave
up her possession of the joint family properties.
The plaintiffs and the defendants Nos. 1 to 7
have been coming in joint possession of the properties under partition.
6. That the defendant No. 8 is also made a
defendant in this suit as she is entitled to maintenance," The plaint contained
a clear admission that Ramyad Singh died in 1939. The High Court ruled that
Bhagwano Kunwar could not rely on this admission. The High Court said that she
could not rely upon the statement that Ramyad Singh died in 1939, as she was
not prepared to admit the correctness of the statement that she had surrendered
her estate and was entitled to maintenance only. We are unable to accept this
line of reasoning. It is true that Bhagwano Kunwar relied only upon the
statement that Ramyad Singh died in 1939 and was not prepared to accept the
statement that she had surrendered her share to the other members and was
entitled to maintenance only. But she tendered the entire plaint, and she did
not object to the admissibility or proof of any of the statements made therein.
All the statements in the plaint are,. therefore, admissible as evidence. The
Court is, however, not bound to accept all the statements as correct. The Court
may accept some of the statements and reject the rest. In the presented suit,
it is common case that Bhagwano Kunwar did not surrender her share in the
estate. We must, therefore, reject the statement with regard to the alleged
surrender and the consequential allegation that she was entitled to maintenance
only. The statement in the plaint as to the date of death of Ramyad Singh must
be read as an admission in favour of Bhagwano Kunwar.
The High Court also observed that an
admission in a pleading can be used only for the purpose of the suit in which
the pleading was filed. The observations of Beaumont, C.J. in Ramabai Shriniwas
v. Bombay Government(l) lend some countenance to this view. But those
observations were commented upon and explained by the Bombay High Court in D. S.
Mohite v. S. I Mohite(2). An admission by a party in a plaint signed and
verified by him in a prior suit is an admission within the meaning of s. 17 of
the Indian (1) A.I.R. 196O Bom. 153.
(2) A.I.R. 1941 Bom. 144.
4 Evidence Act, 1872, and may be proved
against him in other litigations. The High Court also relied on the English law
of evidence. In Phipson on Evidence, 10th Edn, Art. 741, the English law is
"Pleadings, although admissible in other
actions, to show the institution of the suit and the nature of the case put
forward, are regarded merely as the suggestion of counsel, and are not
receivable against a party as admissions, unless sworn, signed, or otherwise
adopted by the party himself." Thus, even under the English law, a
statement in a pleading sworn, signed or otherwise adopted by a party is
admissible against him in other actions. In Marianski v. Cairns(1), the House
of Lords decided that an admission in a pleading signed by a party was evidence
against him in another suit not only with regard to a different subject-matter
but also against a different opponent. Moreover, we are not concerned with the
technicalities of the English law.
Section 17 of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872
makes no dis- tinction between an admission made by a party in a pleading and
other admissions. Under the Indian law, an admission made by a party in a
plaint signed and verified by him may be used as evidence against him in other
suits. In other suits, this admission cannot be regarded as conclusive, and it
is open to the party to show that it is not true.
The explanation of Janki Singh and
Kailashpati Singh that the plaint was drafted by their lawyer Ramanand Singh at
the instance of the panchas including- one Ramanand and they signed and
verified the plaint without understanding its contents cannot be accepted.
There is positive evidence on the record that the plaint was drafted at the
instance of Janki Singh and was filed under his instructions. The plaint was
signed not only by Janki Singh and Kailashpati Singh but also by their lawyer,
Ramanand Singh. Neither Ramanand Singh nor the panch Ramanand was called as a
witness. Even in this litigation, Ramanand Singh was acting as a lawyer on
behalf of some of the defendants.
Kailashpati Singh is a Homeopathic medical
practitioner and knows English. The plaint was read over to Janki Singh.
Both Janki Singh and Kailashpati Singh signed
the plaint after understanding its contents and verified all the statements
made in it as true to their knowledge. They then well knew that Ramyad Singh
had died in 1939 after the passing of the Hindu Women's Rights to Property Act.
It is not shown that the admission in the plaint as to the date of death of
Ramyad Singh is not true or that it was made under some error or misapprehension.
This admission must be regarded as a strong (1) 1 Macq. 212 (H.L.).
5 piece of evidence in this suit with regard
to the date of death of Ramyad Singh.
Bhagwano Kunwar and her witnesses, Ram Gulam
Singh, Ram Saroop Singh and Sheo Saroop Singh gave evidence in Sep- tember,
1952. They all swore that Ramyad Singh died 13 years ago. In agreement with the
trial Judge, we accept their testimony. Learned counsel commented on the
testimony of Sheo Saroop Singh, who had said that the last earthquake took
place 15 to 16 years ago and Ramyad Singh died 2 years 8 months thereafter. The
last earthquake took place on January 15, 1934, and counsel, therefore, argued
that Ramyad Singh could not have died in 1939. Clearly, there is some confusion
in the evidence of Sheo Saroop Singh. He gave evidence in September, 1952, and
his statement that the earthquake took place 15 to 16 years ago could not be
correct and his further statement that Ramyad Singh died 2 years 8 months after
the earthquake was not accurate. He swore positively that Ramyad Singh died 13
Bhagwano Kunwar said that there were receipts
to show that Ramyad Singh died 13 years ago. On her behalf rent receipts for
1339, 1341, 1342, 1343, 1345, 1348, 1356 and 1359 faslis were tendered. The
rent receipts are in respect of certain lands held by her as a tenant. The
first four rent receipts show that -Lip to 1343 fasli corresponding to 1936 the
rent used to be paid by her through Ramyad Singh. Payment of the rent for 1345
fasli was made in 1346 fasli corresponding to 1939 through Janki. The rent for
the subsequent years was paid through Janki and other persons. The High Court
thought that the rent receipts showed that Ramyad Singh died in 1936 and
because of his death, rent was subsequently paid through other persons. But the
rent receipt for 1344 fasli is not forthcoming, and it is not known who paid
the rent for 1344 fasli (1937). Moreover, assuming that Ramyad Singh did not
pay rent in 1937 and 1938, it does not follow that he must have died in 1936.
Kailashpati Singh, Janki Singh and other witnesses called on behalf of the
defendants said that Ramyad Singh had died 16 years ago. In agreement with the
trial Court, we do not accept their testimony. Janki Singh and Kailashpati
Singh gave false explanations with regard to the admission made by them in the
plaint in the previous suit. Moreover, for the purpose of defeating the title
of Bhagwano Kumar they set up a compromise decree passed in that suit. The
trial Court found that the compromise decree was obtained by them by practising
fraud on Mst. Bhagwano Kunwar, and this finding is no longer challenged.
We, therefore, hold and find that Ramyad
Singh died in 1939.
It follows that Bhagwano Kunwar was entitled
to eight annas share in the joint family estate, and was entitled to maintain
the Suit. The trial Court, therefore, rightly decreed the suit.
6 But in view of the death of Bhagwano Kunwar
during the pendency of the appeal in the High Court, the decree passed by the
trial Court must be modified. The appellant purchased from Bhagwano Kunwar 1
bigha 5 kathas of land under the deed dated March 14, 1958, and he can claim
only the rights of an alienee of a specific property from a co- owner on a
general partition of the undivided properties.
All the parties appearing before us conceded
that on such a partition the appellant is entitled to allotment and separate
possession of the lands purchased by him under the deed dated March 14, 1958.
The deed is not printed in the Paper Book. It will be the duty of the trial
Court now to ascertain full particulars of the aforesaid lands.
The appeals are allowed with costs in this
Court and in the High Court. The decree passed by the High Court is set aside.
There will be a decree in favour of the appellant allotting to him the lands
purchased by him under the deed dated March 14, 1958 and awarding to him
separate possession thereof. The trial Court will draw up a suitable decree
after ascertaining the particulars of the aforesaid lands.
Y. P. Appeals allowed.