K. V. Narayanaswami Iyer Vs. K. V.
Ramakrishna Iyer & Ors  INSC 97 (26 March 1964)
26/03/1964 GUPTA, K.C. DAS GUPTA, K.C. DAS
CITATION: 1965 AIR 289 1964 SCR (7) 490
Hindu Law-Property acquired in the name of a
member of joint family-Joint family having sufficient nucleus on that datePresumption
that property is acquired from joint family funds-If rebuttable-Past
transactions-Manager when accountable.
There were three brothers who continued as
members of a joint family with the eldest of them, the first respondent as the
karta. Certain properties were acquired thereafter for the joint family.
Certain properties were also acquired in the name of the first respondent's son
his wife and grandson. The two other brothers of respondent no. 1 acquired
properties for themselves out of their own earnings. Relations became strained
between the brothers and the second brother the present appellant filed suit
for partition claiming not only the original properties of the joint family and
the properties acquired for the joint family by the Karta, the present
respondent but also the properties acquired by the respondent no. 1 in the name
of his wife, son and grandson as joint family properties. He also called on the
first respondent to account for the past years. The third brother was impleaded
as second defendant.
Respondent no. 1's contention was that the
last mentioned properties were bought by him from his own savings and therefore
were not part of the join, family property and consequently not liable to
partition. The learned trial Judge held that those properties were joint family
property and were liable to be partitioned. Respondent No. 1 thereupon appealed
to the High Court and the High Court allowed the appeal regarding substantial
part of the schedule properties. Thereupon the appellant filed the present
Held: (i) Where properties were acquired in
the name of a joint family member, if at the date of such acquisition the joint
family had sufficient nucleus for acquiring it, the property should be presumed
to have been acquired from out of family funds and so to form part of the joint
family property, unless the contrary is shown. In the present case on a
consideration of the evidence it is found that the joint family had at the date
of the acquisition Of the properties in question sufficient nucleus from which
these properties could be acquired.
Amritlal Sen & Ors. v. Surath Lal Sen,
A.I.R. 1942 Cal. 553 and Appalaswami v. Suryanarayanamurthy, I.L.R.  Mad.
(P.C.) 440, referred to.
(ii) In the absence of any evidence of fraud
or misrepresentation the Karta of a joint family cannot be called upon to
account for the past transactions, but this does net mean that the parties were
bound to accept the statement of the Karta as to what the property consisted of
and an enquiry should be directed by the court in a manner usually adopted to
discover that in fact the property consisted of at the date of the partition.
In what manner this principle can be applied depends on the facts and
circumstances of each case. Where as in the present case the evidence ,on
record shows prima facie that the Karta could not reasonably 491 be expected to
have in his hands at the date of the suit any accumulates found no evidence to
have been acquired by the family, there can be no justification for calling the
Karta to account for his past dealing with the joint family property and its
Parameshwar Dube v. Govind Dube, I.L.R., 53
Cal. 459, explained.
CIVIL APPELLATE JURISDICTION: Civil Appeal
No. 589 of 1960.
Appeal by special leave from the judgment and
decree dated April 28, 1953, of the Madras High Court in A.S. No. 695 of 1949.
K.N. Rajagopal Sastri, K. Jayram and R.
Ganapthy Iyer. for the appellant.
A. V. Viswanatha Sastri and T.V.R. Tatachari,
for respondent nos. 1, 3, 4 and 6 to 8.
B. Kalyana Sundaram, M. Rajagopalan, K.
Rajendr Choudhry, M. R. Krishna Pillai for K. R. Chaudhuri, for respondent no.
March 26, 1964. The Judgment of the Court was
delivered by DAs GUPTA, J.-Three brothers, Ramakrishna, Narayanaswamy and
Mahadeva., who are eighty-three, seventy nine and sixty nine years of age
respectively, are the main figures in this litigation. After their father's
death in 1908 the three brothers continued as members of a joint family. The
eldest brother, Ramakrishna became under the law the Karta of the family. When
the father died the family was possessed of about 10 acres of land. But he had
left some debts and one of the first acts which Ramakrishna had to do as the
Manager was the repayment of those debts. Ramakrishna had become the Karnam in
Narasingampettai in 1902 and even during his father's life time started
acquiring property. Property to the extent of about 25 acres was acquired for
the joint family between the years 1911 to 1931. In 1927 Ramakrishna had been
transferred to the bigger village of Vepatthur and continued to be there till
1930. On his retirement in that year his son Venkatarama succeeded him as the
Karnam of Vepatthur. Between 1931 to 1946 properties in Vepatthur and other
villages were acquired in the name of Ramakrishna's son Vankatarama, his wife
Mangalathammal, his grandson (Venkatarama's son) Mahalingam. Some property was
acquired also in the name of Mangalathammal's brother Raja Ayyar. Monies were
also invested in loans in the names of Ramakrishna's wife. Mangalathammal, his
son Venkatarama and his grandson, Mahalingam.
492 The second brother Narayanaswami became a
Vakil's clerk in Kumbakonam in 1910. The third brother Mahadeva who was a boy a
of thirteen at the time of his father's death was put into the medical school
and qualified as a doctor. He was in service as a Sub-Assistant Surgeon at the
time when the present suit was instituted by Narayanaswamy. Both of them earned
well and have admittedly acquired properties for themselves out of their own
As early as the thirties feelings became
strained between Ramakrishna, the eldest brother and Narayanaswami the second
brother. Mahadeva who had to remain away at different places in connection with
his service demanded partition of the joint family properties and in this
Narayanaswami also seems to have joined him. The extreme action of going to
courts was however not taken so long as mother was alive.
She died early in 1945 at the age of 90
years. In December, (12th December) 1946 Narayanaswami sent a lawyer's notice
to Ramakrishna in which he claimed that not only the 25 acres acquired between
1911 and 1931 but also the properties acquired in the name of Ramakrishna's
wife, his son and brother-in-law had been acquired with the income of the
family and formed part of the joint family properties. He claimed also in this
notice that family funds of about Rs.
25.000/was in the hands of Ramakrishna in the
shape of cash and Benami investments. He demanded a partition of all these
properties and of the cattle and other movable properties owned by the family.
He also called upon Ramakrishana to account for the income derived from the
family properties "for the last three years at least". In all these
he claimed a one-third share.
To this Ramakrishna replied on December 1,
1946. He stated that the joint family properties consisted only of 10 acres
left by their father and about 25 acres acquired later on and denied that the
other properties belonged to the family.
Soon after this, on the 1st February 1947.
Narayanaswami brought this suit for partition and accounts in the court of the
Subordinate Judge, Kumbakonam. The eldest brother Ramakrishna was impleaded as
the first defendant; Mahadeva the third brother, was the second defendant,
Ramakrishna's son Venkatarama. his wife Mangalathammal and his brother-inlaw
Raja lyer were in-pleaded as the third, fourth and the fifth defendants
respectively. Mahalingam was impleaded as the sixth defendant. Two other minor
sons of Venkatarama were also impleaded. They are the seventh and the eighth
defendants in the case.
The plaintiff's case was short and simple. He
claimed that Ramakrishna as the Karta of the joint family managed the family
properties and acquired properties with the family funds from 1911 to 1946. He
thus claimed that not only the 34 493 acres and 58 cents of land in the village
Kumarakshi (mentioned in the A Schedule) which the first defendant Ramakrishna's
wife or son or grandson or brother-in-law were joint ties mentioned in the
Schedules B, Bl and B2, and C, C1 and C2 and D for which the sale deeds stood
in the name of Ramakrishna's wife or son or grandson or brother-in-law were
joint family properties. He claimed also that between 1931 and 1946
Ramakrishna. the Karta. had invested family funds in the name of his wife. his
son and his grandson and these were also joint family properties. The movable
properties claimed to be joint family properties were mentioned in Schedule A2,
while the house in Thiagarajapuram. also claimed to be joint family property
was mentioned in AI Schedule. The plaintiff prayed for allotment to him of one
third share of these properties by division in metes and bounds into three equal
shares. He further prayed for a direction on the first defendant to account for
the management of the family properties for three years and for payment to the
plaintiff of his share in the amount that may be found due.
The second defendant Mahadeva generally
supported the plaintiff though as regards the years, 1940, 1941, 1942 and 1943
his case in the written statement was that it was the plaintiff Narayanaswamy
and not the first defendant who collected the income from the join family
properties. For these four years, he pleaded that the plaintiff was liable to
render an account while for the remaining period the first defendant was said
to be liable. In a Schedule to his written statement he mentioned several other
items of properties which he claimed belonged to the joint family though one of
the sale deeds stood in the name of the sixth defendant Mahalingam and the
other in the name of the fifth defendant Raja Ayyar. The other defendants
contested the suit.
The first defendant's case was that though on
his father's death he became in law the Karta of the joint Hindu family the
actual management was carried on by the mother till 1940 and from 1940 till the
mother's death in 1945 by the plaintiff Narayanaswami. It was only after the
mother's death that he has taken up the management of the properties.
He pleaded that of the properties mentioned
in the plaint only 34.58 acres mentioned in the A Schedule formed the joint
family property. (In addition to some of the movable properties mentioned in A2
Schedule). He further pleaded that a house in Kumbakonam town which was
acquired by the plaintiff in his own name as also some lands in Manalur village
in Kumbakonam and Rs. 8,000/in cash which the plaintiff had obtained on sale of
certain lands also formed part of the joint family property.
His wife Mangalathammal, the fourth defendant
also pleaded that the properties and the investments standing in her 494 name
were made by her on her own account with the monies which her husband
Ramakrishna gave to her from his own earnings. These therefore were not part of
the joint family property and consequently not liable to partition.
The third defendant (Venkatarama's) case was
that the purchases of land and investments of money standing in his name were
all with his own earnings since he became Qarnam and did not form part of the
joint family property. As regards what stood in the name of his son Mahalingam
the third defendant pleaded that these were with his own earnings. The fifth
defendant also pleaded that whatever stood in his name was acquired by him with
his own money and did not form part of the joint family of the plaintiff and
The learned Subordinate Judge held on a
consideration of the evidence that the plaintiff's case 'that the oldest
brother Ramakrishna managed the family property as the Karta from and after
their father's death in 1908 till the date of the suit had been established. He
also came to the conclusion that in about 1931 Ramakrishna had with him an
accumulated income of about Rs. 14,000/belonging to the family and but very
little money of his own,, From these findings it was an easy step to hold, as
the learned Judge did. that the immovable properties mentioned in Schedules A,
Al, B, B1., C. Cl, C2 and D as also Item 5 in Schedule B2 were all properties
belonging to the joint family. Out of these he found that the properties in
Schedule Al, that is, a house in Thiagarajapuram had been, given away to the
sister Rukmaniammal and was no longer a joint family property and therefore not
liable to division. The rest of the properties, he held, was liable to be
divided among the three brothers, the plaintiff and the defendants 1 and 2.
The Court also held that the mortgages and
promissory notes on which money had been lent in the names of defendants 3 to 5
belonged to the joint family with the exception of a few standing in the name
of the third defendant (Venkatarama) which was held to be the third defendant's
personal property. A preliminary decree was made by the Court in accordance with
these findings with a direction that an account be taken with reference to
income of the properties in Schedules A, A1, B, B1, C, C1 and D and Item 5 in
Sch. B2 and the house at Kumbakonam mentioned in the Schedule to the first
defendant's written statement, for three years prior to the date of the suit
and from the date of the suit till the passing of the final decree. As regards
the properties in Schedule A it was, directed that the accounting will cease
from the date on which the parties took possession of their share in accordance
with the interim decree.
Against this decision the first defendant
appealed to the High Court of Judicature at Madras. The plaintiff also filed495
an appeal challenging the decision of the Subordinate Judge that the house in
Kumbakonam was a joint family property.
'The High Court allowed the plaintiff's
appeal holding that the Kumbakonam house was a separate self Acquisition of the
plaintiff. Against this decision of the High Court no appeal has been preferred
and we are no longer concerned with the question whether this house was
plaintiff's property or not.
In the appeal preferred by the first
defendant the High Court came to the conclusion, disagreeing with the Trial
court, that the first defendant Ramakrishna had saved enough from his separate
earnings from which it was quite possible for him to make all the acquisitions
and investments in the name of his son, wife and grandson subsequent to 1930.
In the opinion of the High Court the view of the Subordinate Judge that by 1930
the first defendant had in his hands a sum of Rs. 14,000/accumulated from the
income of the joint family lands was "surprising and untenable". It
did not disturb the Trial Court's findings that Schedule D land acquired in the
name of the 3rd defendant was joint family property, apparently because no
appeal had been filed as regards this property. Taking these 14 acres to be
acquisitions for the family the High Court recorded its conclusion thus:"When
we consider that the joint family nucleus has been more than quadrupled, it is
difficult to see what grievance the younger coparceners really have,
particularly the second defendant, who after keeping for himself his earnings
as a Doctor in Government Service finds himself entitled to a share in a greatly
increased ancestral patrimony." Finally the High Court concluded
"that the plaintiff has not shown that any of the acquisitions or
investments in the names of defendants 3, 4 and 6 were made from joint family
funds." Accordingly, it allowed also the appeal preferred by the first
defendant, holding that the only items liable for partition as joint property
assets were those in Schedules A and D. It also ordered that the first
defendant would account for the income from 12th December 1946, the date on which
notice demanding partition was sent to him by the plaintiff. The present appeal
has been preferred by the plaintiff against this decision of the High Court.
Two main arguments were advanced before us by
Mr. Rajagopala Sastri in support of the appeal. The first is as regards the
properties purchased in the name of the first defendant's wife, his son, and
his grandson. Learned Counsel submitted that the High Court did not record any
clear conclusion that at the date of the acquisition of these properties the
joint family had not a sufficient nucleus for acquiring these.
He argued that the acquisitions in the name
of the first defendant's wife was admittedly with funds advanced by the first
defendant himself; and if at the date of the acquisition in her name the joint
family had sufficient nucleus for acquiring them, the presumption would be that
they were acquired with joint family funds notwithstanding the fact that the
first defendant may have sufficient funds of his own for the same purpose. It
was rightly argued that in such a case the property should be held to be joint
family property unless the presumption of the acquired property also being
joint family property was rebutted by the first defendant. It was also argued
that acquisitions in the name of the third defendant and the sixth defendant
should also be held to have been made with funds advanced by the first
defendant himself and so these also should be presumed to have been acquired
with joint family funds if it is shown that the joint family had sufficient
nucleus for acquiring these at the date of the acquisitions and the first
defendant does not show positively that the funds with which they were acquired
did not belong to the joint family.
The legal position is well settled that if in
fact at the date of acquisition of a particular property the joint family had
sufficient nucleus for acquiring it, the property In the name of any member of
the joint family should be presumed to be acquired from out of family funds and
so to form part of the joint family property, unless the contrary is shown.
(Vide Amritlal Sen & ors., v. Surath Lal Sen & others(1) Appalaswami v.
Suryanarayanamurthy & others(2).
In the case before us, it is not disputed
that the acquisitions in the name of the first defendant's wife were made with
funds advanced by him. As regards the acquisitions in the name of the third
defendant and his minor son the sixth defendant also we find it reasonable to
hold from the evidence, as regards the earnings of the third defendant and
other circumstances, that for these acquisitions also money was paid by the
first defendant. The question whether the joint family had at the time of each
of these acquisitions sufficient nucleus from which the acquisitions could have
been made is therefore of great importance.
On a consideration of the evidence, as
discussed below, we have come to the conclusion that it does not appear that
the joint family had at the date of the acquisitions made in the names of the
first defendant's wife. his son, and his grandson sufficient nucleus from which
these properties could be acquired. In coming to this conclusion we have taken
into consideration the fact that family funds were spent in purchasing 14 acres
of land mentioned in the name of the 5th defendant.
(1) A.I.R. 1942 Cal. 553.
(2) I.L.R.  Mad. (P.C.) 440.
497 The period during which acquisitions
admittedly for the joint family were made came to an end in about 1931. At that
time the first defendant had, according to his own evidence, about Rs. 15,0001in
his hand. His case is that this entire K. amount was what he had accumulated
out of his own earnings. The Subordinate Judge held that a little more than Rs.
14,000 / out of this amount was the savings from the family funds. We agree
with the High Court that this conclusion is not justified by the evidence on
As rightly pointed out by the High Court
properties worth about Rs. 20,000/had been purchased out of the family income
during this period. During part of this period at least monies had to be spent
for other requirements of the family including the expenses on the education of
the third brother Mahadeva. The several documents produced in the case show
that at the time of more than one purchase the first defendant had to borrow money
on promissory notes to pay the consideration mentioned in the documents. It is
worth mentioning that even the plaintiff was not prepared to say that the
family income was sufficient to pay for these purchases. In cross-examination a
question was put to him in these words:"Q. From 1911 out of the family
20,000/worth of lands had been purchased? Can
there have been more income from the family lands?" The answer is
significant. It was in these words: -"A. From the family income, the joint
income of myself and Defendant 1 certainly exceeded Rs. 20,000/-. The income of
myself and Defendant 1 which went in the purchase of lands may have come to Rs.
In other words, the plaintiff himself seem to
concede that only Rs. 10,000/of the family income was available during this
period for purchase of lands. The claim made here that he also contributed to
the purchase is clearly inconsistent with his own written statement and with
other parts of his evidence and cannot be accepted.
The learned Subordinate Judge, appears to
have been convinced that Ramakrishna's personal earnings were very little. He
thought also that what little Ramakrishna earned was required for the expenses
of his own branch of the family. The learned Judge concluded that he could not
have saved out of these earnings. This view appears to have been mainly
responsible for this conclusion that almost the whole of Rs. 15,0001which the
defendant No. 1 admitted to have with him in about 1931 came out of the family
funds. In our opinion, the materials on the record do not justify the Trial
Court's view that Ramakrishna could not have accumulated a sum of 498 Rs.
15,000/out of his own income. The mamools which he received as Karnam of
Narasingampettai and later on of the bigger village Vepatthur amounted to a
considerable quantity of paddy and must have fetched him a goodly income.
There was apart from this, his income from
the banana plantations which he had at Narasingampettai. One of the lease deeds
shows a receipt of Rs. 450/for one season. Taking good years with bad, it would
not be unreasonable to think that this also brought him a few thousands of
rupees. We are convinced also on a consideration of his evidence, taken with
the entries in the account book of Appaswamy Iyer (Ex. B IO 1) that he received
a sum of Rs. 2,500/as reward for successfully maintaining the litigation on
Appalaswamy's behalf. There can be little doubt that he received good sum also
as fees for writing documents. One of his witnesses, Narayanaswami Reddiar, DW
7, has given evidence that he paid the defendant Rs. 1,000/as fees for the
documents written for him. Even if this be considered an exaggeration, it s
quite clear from, the evidence of this witness that Ramakrishha who, it may be
noted, was a man of some education, did a flourishing side business as a writer
of documents, saved two or three thousand rupees, earned by him by this work
during the entire period he served as a Karnam.
It is more than probable that he had other
sources of income which he did not think it prudent to mention in the witness
On a consideration of the circumstances we
are convinced that this story that he had Rs. 15,O0O/in his hands in about 1931
as accumulated out of his own earnings is substantially true.
Mr. Rajagopala Sastri has however rightly
pointed out that a finding that in 1931 very little remained out of the family
income would not be sufficient to show that there was no sufficient nucleus for
the acquisition of the different properties in the name of the defendant's
wife, his son and his grandson after 1931 For a proper decision of this
question it is necessary to consider roughly the income and expenditure out of
the admittedly family properties during this period.
We shall first consider the period, 1931 to
1939, as it is clear from the evidence that during this period the defendant
No. 1 carried on the actual management of the joint family properties. It is
common case of both the parties that the paddy yield in 1931 was 856 kalams; during
1932 1,000 kalams and during 1933 1,118 kalams. For the next five years paddy
yield was, according to the respondent's counsel, 1,058, 1,058, 958, 958, and
958 kalams. The appellant's counsel puts his estimates and 1,160 kalams
respectively. These differences in the estimates for these years at the higher
figures of 1,360, 1,360, 1,160, 1,160 seem to be mainly due to the fact that
while, 499 according to the respondent, the family was in possession of only
six acres of mortgaged land in addition to the 35 acres, the appellant's case
was that an additional area of six acres of mortgaged land was also in the
family's possession during these years. Mr. Rajagopala Sastri was not however
able to point out anything on the record in support of this claim. We think it
reasonable therefore to accept as substantially correct the estimate of paddy
yield as mentioned before us on behalf of the respondent for these years. For
the year 1939 the yield may be taken as 1,153 kalams roughly as in that year
the D Schedule lands now found to be the property of the joint family had also
On an examination of the evidence on the
record we accept the price for each kalam of paddy to be Rs. 2.50 nP for each
of the years 1931 and 1932 and 1.19, 1.25, 1.37, 1.40, 1.50, 1.56 and 1.62 for
the years 1933 to 1939 respectively, as contended before us on behalf of the
respondent. The total income received from paddy in these nine years thus
appears to be about Rs. 14,976/-. To this has to be added the receipts from the
dry crops like black grams and green -rams grown on some of the lands. We
accept the evidence given by the defendant that dry crops were not grown in
every year and also not on all the lands. The sale proceeds of black grams and
green grams amounted to Rs. 72/for the year 1935 according to the account book
Ex. A 98. Taking this to be the average receipt per year from the dry crops the
receipts from these crops during the nine years under consideration amounted to
about Rs. 648/-. The total income from the crops grown on the joint family
lands during the years 1931 to 1939 thus works out approximately to be about
Rs. 15,624/-. Adding to this the sum of Rs. 1,100/received on repayment of the
mortgage loan on Ex. 187 the joint family earnings during these nine years
appears to have amounted to about Rs. 16,724/-.
It is now necessary to have some idea of the
expenditure incurred during these years. The claim of expenditure of Rs. 5,172/during
these years made before us on behalf of the respondent is not disputed by the
appellant. We think also that the respondent's claim that Rs. 1,100/advanced on
the mortgage bond (Ex. 187) was paid from family funds should be accepted. We
have next to add the sum of Rs.
6,500/that was paid for the purchase of the D
Schedule lands, Rs. 4,030/paid as kists and Rs. 2.000 / as cultivation expenses
including Kariasthan's pay. The total expenditure during the nine years-1931 to
1939-amounted thus to more than Rs. 18,000 / -.
Proceeding therefore on the basis on which there
is no longer any dispute, that the D Schedule lands were acquired out of the
family funds, it appears clear that the joint family did not possess sufficient
nucleus for making any of the other purchases.
made during this period, viz., the properties
mentioned in Schedules B and BI purchased by the document Ex. 125, the
properties mentioned in Schedule Cl purchased by the document Ex. B 124, the
properties mentioned in Schedule C purchased by Ex. 129, the properties
mentioned in the Schedule to the written statement of the second defendant
purchased by documents Exhibits B 134 and B 135. The High Court's conclusion as
regards these properties that they did not form part of the joint family
properties and are not liable to partition in the present suit is therefore
The properties mentioned in Schedule C2 were
purchased on the 24th April 1941 by Ex. 136 in the name of the 4-th defendant
while properties mentioned in Item 1 of B2 Schedule were purchased on the 19th
August 1942 by Ex. 126 in the name of the sixth defendant. Though it was the
first defendant's case that he had nothing to do with these purchases we are
convinced on a consideration of the evidence that the monies for these
purchases were also advanced by him. To decide whether these properties or the
properties mentioned in Item 5 of Schedule B2, a house in Vepatthur, of which
mortgage was taken in the name of the first defendant himself by Ex. B 1929 on
the 10th May 1942, formed part of the joint family property, it is necessary to
examine what funds, if any, belonging to the joint family were with the first
defendant during these years. The first defendant's case, as already indicated,
is that from 1940 till the mother's death in 1945 the plaintiff and not he
managed the joint family properties so that he did not receive any portion of
the joint family earnings during the period. The plaintiff has strenuously
denied the truth of this statement. There are several circumstances however
which make us think that the first defendant's version is true. The most important
of these is the fact that the youngest brother Mahadeva, who is clearly siding
with the plaintiff in this family quarrel, made a definite assertion in his
written statement in these words: "Similarly the plaintiff has been
collecting the income from the joint family properties during the years 1940,
1941, 1942 and 1943." He also stated there that the plaintiff had assured
him that he would maintain proper accounts for the collection and expenditure
of the income joint family for his period of management and made the definite
claim that the plaintiff was liable to render an account for the period of his
management. It is true that at the trial Mahadeva tried to explain away this
assertion in the written statement by saying that this was based on information
given to him by the defendant No. 1. In the very next sentence, however, he
again said that this view that the plaintiff was exclusively managing for
certain years was his coiiclusion.
It is important to notice in this connection
that at the bottom of Ex. B 190 dated the 13th March 1941 which Mahadeva 501
received from Ramakrishna, Mahadeva made in his own hand an entry in red ink to
the following effect: "1939-Kuruvai (paddy)-sold by Nana 1939-Semba Mudal
(harvest)-by Nana, sold in 1940." It is true that there are some letters
which indicate that even during 1941 and thereafter Ramakrishna was issuing
some instructions to the Kariasthan. But, considering the facts mentioned above
along with the letters Exibits B 177 and B 72 in which detailed instructions
about the cultivation were being given by the plaintiff to the Kariasthan, we
have come to the conclusion that from about 1940 till the mother's death early
in 1945 the plaintiff displaced the first defendant from the management of the
family lands and took away all the family lands in Kumarakshi and took away all
the income from them.
The only income from joint family properties
that appears to have come into the hands of the first defendant during this
period was that from D Schedule lands. The yield from these lands may roughly
be estimated at about 300 kalams for each year. The price per kalam in 1941
appears from Ex. 100 to have been Rs. 2/6/-. The net income, after payment of
the kist and debiting the expenses of cultivation etc., may be placed
there-fore at about Rs. 500 It is undoubtedly a very rough estimate. But in the
absence of anything more specific on the record we think it proper to accept
this as a reasonable basis for ascertaining the nucleus available in the first
defendant's hands from the D Schedule property.
On this calculation the first defendant
appears to have had in his hands about Rs. 1,5001 during the years 1940 to
There was already however a deficit of more
than this amount on his management of the properties during the previous period
1931 to 1939. It is reasonable therefore to think that there was no nucleus
from the joint family properties which the first defendant could have possibly
used in making the acquisitions during 1941 and 1942. The conclusion of the
High Court that these properties did not belong to the joint family and are
therefore not liable to partition cannot therefore be disturbed.
Some of the properties mentioned in Schedule
B2 to the plaint were purchased in 1945 and 1946 by Ex. B 127 aid B.
128 in the name of the third defendant,
Venkatarama. At the time of these acquisitions the third defendant had been
karnam of Vepatthur for over 15 years. It is not unlikely he would have saved
some portion of his own earnings during this period so as to be able to pay for
these purchases out of his own earnings. It cannot therefore be said reasonably
that these purchases were made from funds advanced by the first defendant.
Apart from this, it appears that the plaintiff has not been able to show that
at the time of these acquisitions the first defendant had 502 with him
sufficient income out of the joint family properties for purchasing all these
lands. We have already found that the first defendant resumed management of the
joint family properties on his mother's death in 1945. On the question about
the income and expenses during this period there is hardly any evidence worth
the name on the record. On a consideration of all these circumstances, we are
of opinion that the High Court's conclusion as regards these properties also
that they did not form part of the joint family property is correct.
The brings us to Mr. Rajagopala Sastri's
second argument. While admitting the legal position that in the absence of any
evidence of fraud or misappropriation the Karta cannot be called upon to
account for the past transactions, learned Counsel stresses the responsibility
of the Karta to establish what are the assets available for partition. In
support of this, the learned Counsel drew our attention to the decision in
Parmeshwar Dube v. Gobind Dube(1). That case laid down the rule that in the
absence of fraud or other improper conduct the only account the Karta of a
joint family is liable for is to the existing state of the property divisible;
but that this did not mean that the parties were bound to accept the statement
of the Karta as to what the property consisted of and an enquiry should be
directed by the court in a manner usually adopted to discover what in fact the
property consisted of at the date of the partition. About the correctness of
this proposition there is no dispute. In what manner this principle can be
applied depends however on the facts and circumstances of each case. Where, as
in the present case, the evidence already adduced before the court shows prima
facie that the Karta could not reasonably be expected to have in his hands at
the date of the suit any accumulation worth the name in addition to the
immovable properties found no evidence to have been acquired for the family,
there can be no justification for calling the Karta to account for his past
dealings with the joint family property and its income.
In the circumstances of this case therefore
the order of the High Court that there was no liability on the first defendant
as managing member to render any account of any kind prior to the 12th December
1946, on which notice demanding partition was issued, does not call for any
In the result, the appeal is dismissed with
(1) I.L.R. 53 CaL 459.